[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ketol-isomerases catalyze the reversible isomerization between aldoses and ketoses. D-Xylose isomerase carries out the first reaction in the catabolism of D-xylose, but is also able to convert D-glucose to D-fructose. The first step of the reaction is an enzyme-catalyzed ring opening of the cyclic substrate. The active-site amino-acid acid/base pair involved in ring opening has long been investigated and several models have been proposed. Here, the structure of the xylose isomerase E186Q mutant with cyclic glucose bound at the active site, refined against joint X-ray and neutron diffraction data, is reported. Detailed analysis of the hydrogen-bond networks at the active site of the enzyme suggests that His54, which is doubly protonated, is poised to protonate the glucose O5 position, while Lys289, which is neutral, promotes deprotonation of the glucose O1H hydroxyl group via an activated water molecule. The structure also reveals an extended hydrogen-bonding network that connects the conserved residues Lys289 and Lys183 through three structurally conserved water molecules and residue 186, which is a glutamic acid to glutamine mutation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Successfully forming ligand-protein complexes with specific compounds can be a significant challenge in supporting structure-based drug design for a given protein target. In this respect, an on-column ligand- and detergent-exchange method was developed to obtain ligand-protein complexes of an adamantane series of compounds with 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) after a variety of other complexation methods had failed. This report describes the on-column exchange method and an unexpected byproduct of the method in which artificial trimers were observed in the structures.
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 05/2012; 68(Pt 5):601-5. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the development of a novel series of N-aryl-benzimidazolone HSP90 inhibitors (9) targeting the N-terminal ATP-ase site. SAR development was influenced by structure-based design based around X-ray structures of ligand bound HSP90 complexes. Lead compounds exhibited high binding affinities, ATP-ase inhibition and cellular client protein degradation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Like many small molecule materials, tetragonal lysozyme crystals exhibit growth rate dispersion. To investigate this phenomenon further, the growth rate dispersion of the (110) and (101) crystal faces was determined as a function of sodium chloride concentration, temperature, and solution pH. Under the conditions investigated, the growth rate dispersion follows the constant crystal growth model, in which each individual crystal is assumed to have a unique, constant growth rate. While the growth rate dispersion of the (110) face seems independent of the solution conditions, for the (101) face it was observed to vary systematically with temperature and pH. The greater susceptibility of the (101) face to the causes of growth rate dispersion was interpreted in light of a model proposed to explain the differing growth mechanisms of each face. Overall, the magnitude of crystal growth rate dispersion observed for lysozyme is similar to that reported for some small organic molecules.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ionic liquids exhibit a variety of properties that make them attractive solvents for biomaterials. Given the potential for productive interaction between ionic liquids and biological macromolecules, we investigated the use of ionic liquids as precipitating agents and additives for protein crystallization for six model proteins (lysozyme, catalase, myoglobin, trypsin, glucose isomerase, and xylanase). The ionic liquids produced changes in crystal morphology and mediated significant increases in crystal size in some cases. Crystals grown using ionic liquids as precipitating agents or as additives provided X-ray diffraction resolution similar to or better than that obtained without ionic liquids. Based upon the experiments performed with model proteins, the ionic liquids were used as additives for the crystallization of the poorly diffracting monoclonal antibody 106.3 Fab in complex with the B-type natriuretic peptide (5-13). The ionic liquids improved the crystallization behavior and provided improved diffraction resulting in the determination of the structure. Ionic liquids should be considered as useful additives for the crystallization of other proteins.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Texas Red dyes were used to partially label proteins for crystallization in both detergent and lipidic meso-phases. Fluorescence detection of Texas Red can then be used to differentiate the protein crystals from salt crystals and other phase separations in the crystallization drop. Whereas ultraviolet light absorption and fluorescence of protein crystals in lipidic meso phase crystallization trials using glass sandwich plates was difficult to discern, the fluorescence of the partially labeled protein can be used to distinguish protein crystals. With as little as 0.05% Texas Red labeling of the protein, protein crystals showed up very clearly in both detergent and the lipid meso-phase crystallization setups.
The Open Structural Biology Journal 01/2009; 309(11):11-15.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular chaperone HSP90 has been shown to facilitate cancer cell survival by stabilizing key proteins responsible for a malignant phenotype. We report here the results of parallel fragment-based drug design approaches in the design of novel HSP90 inhibitors. Initial aminopyrimidine leads were elaborated using high-throughput organic synthesis to yield nanomolar inhibitors of the enzyme. Second site leads were also identified which bound to HSP90 in two distinct conformations, an 'open' and 'closed' form. Intriguingly, linked fragment approaches targeting both of these conformations were successful in producing novel, micromolar inhibitors. Overall, this study shows that, with only a few fragment hits, multiple lead series can be generated for HSP90 due to the inherent flexibility of the active site. Thus, ample opportunities exist to use these lead series in the development of clinically useful HSP90 inhibitors for the treatment of cancers.
Chemical Biology & Drug Design 08/2007; 70(1):1-12. · 2.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of aryl sulfonamides of 5,6-disubstituted anthranilic acids were identified as potent inhibitors of methionine aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP2). Small alkyl groups and 3-furyl were tolerated at the 5-position of anthranilic acid, while -OCH(3), CH(3), and Cl were found optimal for the 6-position. Placement of 2-aminoethoxy group at the 6-position enabled interaction with the second Mn(2+) but did not result in enhancement in potency. Introduction of a tertiary amino moiety at the ortho-position of the sulfonyl phenyl ring gave reduced protein binding and improved cellular activity, but led to lower oral bioavailability.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new class of checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK-1) inhibitors bearing a 1,4-dihydroindeno[1,2-c]pyrazole core was developed after initial hits from high throughput screening. The efficient hit-to-lead process was facilitated by X-ray crystallography and led to potent inhibitors (<10nM) against CHK-1. X-ray co-crystal structures of bound inhibitors demonstrated that two sub-series of this class of compounds, exemplified by 21 and 41, exhibit distinctive hydrogen bonding patterns in the specificity pocket of the active site. Two compounds, 41 and 43, were capable of potentiating doxorubicin and camptothecin, both DNA-damaging agents, in cell proliferation assays (MTS and soft agar assays) and abrogating G2/M checkpoint in a mechanism-based FACS assay.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on the crystallographic analysis of a urea-checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) complex and molecular modeling, a class of macrocyclic Chk1 inhibitors were designed and their biological activities were evaluated. An efficient synthetic methodology for macrocyclic ureas was developed with Grubbs metathesis macrocyclization as the key step. The structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that the macrocyclization retains full Chk1 inhibition activity and that the 4-position of the phenyl ring can tolerate a wide variety of substituents. These novel Chk1 inhibitors exhibit excellent selectivity over a panel of more than 70 kinases. Compounds 5b, 5c, 5f, 15, 16d, 17g, 17h, 17k, 18d, and 22 were identified as ideal Chk1 inhibitors, which showed little or no single-agent activity but significantly potentiate the cytotoxicities of the DNA-damaging antitumor agents doxorubicin and camptothecin. These novel Chk1 inhibitors abrogate the doxorubicin-induced G2 and camptothecin-induced S checkpoint arrests, confirming that their potent biological activities are mechanism-based through Chk1 inhibition.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 05/2007; 50(7):1514-27. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel class of adamantane ethers 11beta-hydroxysteroid hydrogenase type I inhibitors has been discovered. These compounds have excellent HSD-1 potency and selectivity against HSD-2. The structure-activity relationships, selectivity, metabolism, PK, ex vivo pharmacodynamic data, and an X-ray crystal structure of one of these inhibitors bound to h-HSD-1 are discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potent and selective adamantane sulfone and sulfonamide inhibitors of 11-beta-HSD-1 have been discovered. Selected compounds from these series have robust pharmacokinetic profiles and strongly inhibit liver, fat, and brain HSD1 for extended periods after oral dosing.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kinase enzymes are involved in a vast array of biological processes associated with human disease; therefore, selective kinase inhibition by small molecules and therapeutic antibodies is an area of intense study. The authors show that drug candidates with immediate value for biological preclinical evaluation can be identified directly through ultra-efficient affinity screening of kinase enzymes and random compound mixtures. The screening process comprises sampling and trapping equilibrium binding between candidate ligands and protein in solution, followed by removal of unbound ligands via 3 rounds of ultrafiltration and direct identification of bound ligands by mass spectrometry. Evaluation of significant peaks is facilitated by automated integration and collation of the mass spectral data and import into custom software for analysis. One Chk1-selective ligand found by using this process is presented in detail. The compound is potent in both enzymatic and Chk1-dependent cellular assays, and specific contacts in the Chk1 active site are shown by X-ray crystallography.
Journal of Biomolecular Screening 11/2006; 11(7):755-64. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutron diffraction is uniquely sensitive to hydrogen positions and protonation state. In that context structural information from neutron data is complementary to that provided through X-ray diffraction. However, there are practical obstacles to overcome in fully exploiting the potential of neutron diffraction, i.e. low flux and weak scattering. Several approaches are available to overcome these obstacles and we have investigated the simplest: increasing the diffracting volume of the crystals. Volume is a quantifiable metric that is well suited for experimental design and optimization techniques. By using response surface methods we have optimized the xylose isomerase crystal volume, enabling neutron diffraction while we determined the crystallization parameters with a minimum of experiments. Our results suggest a systematic means of enabling neutron diffraction studies for a larger number of samples that require information on hydrogen position and/or protonation state.
European Biophysics Journal 10/2006; 35(7):621-32. · 2.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The location of hydrogen atoms in enzyme structures can bring critical understanding of catalytic mechanism. However, whilst it is often difficult to determine the position of hydrogen atoms using X-ray crystallography even with subatomic (<1.0 A) resolution data available, neutron crystallography provides an experimental tool to directly localize hydrogen/deuterium atoms in biological macromolecules at resolution of 1.5-2.0 A. D-Xylose isomerase (D-xylose ketol-isomerase, EC 22.214.171.124) is a 43 kDa enzyme that catalyses the first reaction in the catabolism of D-xylose. Linearization and isomerization of D-xylose at the active site of D-xylose isomerase rely upon a complex hydrogen transfer. Neutron quasi-Laue data at 2.2 A resolution were collected at room temperature on a partially deuterated Streptomyces rubiginosus D-xylose isomerase crystal using the LADI instrument at ILL with the objective to provide insight into the enzymatic mechanism. The neutron structure shows unambiguously that residue His 53 is doubly protonated at the active site of the enzyme. This suggests that the reaction proceeds through an acid catalyzed opening of the sugar ring, which is in accord with the mechanism suggested by Fenn et al. (Biochemistry 43(21): 6464-6474, 2004). This is the first report of direct observation of double protonation of His 53 and the first validation of the ring opening mechanism at the active site of D-xylose isomerase.
European Biophysics Journal 09/2006; 35(7):601-9. · 2.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bulk protein crystallization, unlike small molecule crystallization, has found very limited use in biopharmaceutical manufacture. Most work in this area targets obtaining single large crystals for molecular structure determination by crystallography. Design and optimization of bulk crystallization for protein recovery and purification is much less common, and requires a mathematical model for analysis of laboratory data suitable for scale-up purposes. Traditionally, the crystal size distribution and method of moments is used to characterize the crystallization process. A simpler method is presented in this paper that utilizes the desupersaturation curve. The method uses an approach that does not require expensive instrumentation or characterization of the seed crystal size distribution. The method is extended to allow determination of both the mass deposition rate constant and the growth rate order from a single desuperaturation curve. Experimental data for the bulk crystallization of ovalbumin are used to validate the method. The rate constants and rate order obtained using the new method compare well with literature values. Scale-up is illustrated by prediction of the impact of changes in seed mass on protein crystallization. This new method offers a straightforward and low-cost alternative to traditional methods for the analysis and scale-up of protein crystallization data.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 08/2005; 91(1):84-90. · 3.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the 1980s hundreds of macromolecular crystal growth experiments have been performed in the reduced acceleration environment of an orbiting spacecraft. Significant enhancements in structural knowledge have resulted from X-ray diffraction of the crystals grown. Similarly, many samples have shown no improvement or degradation in comparison to those grown on the ground. A complex series of interrelated factors affect these experiments and by building a comprehensive archive of the results it was aimed to identify factors that result in success and those that result in failure. Specifically, it was found that dedicated microgravity missions increase the chance of success when compared with those where crystallization took place as a parasitic aspect of the mission. It was also found that the chance of success could not be predicted based on any discernible property of the macromolecule available to us.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In theory macromolecular crystals grow through a process involving at least two transport phenomena of solute to the crystal surface: diffusion and convection. In absence of standard gravitational forces, the ratio of these two phenomena can change and explain why crystal growth in microgravity is different from that on Earth. Experimental evidence clearly shows, however, that crystal growth of various systems is not equally sensitive to reduction in gravitational forces, leading to quality improvement in microgravity for some crystals but not for others. We hypothesize that the differences in final crystal quality are related to crystal growth rate dispersion. If growth rate dispersion exists on Earth, decreases in microgravity, and coincides with crystal quality improvements then this dispersion is a predictor for crystal quality improvement. In order to test this hypothesis, we will measure growth rate dispersion both in microgravity and on Earth and will correlate the data with previously established data on crystal quality differences for the two environments. We present here the first crystal growth rate measurement data for three proteins (lysozyme, xylose isomerase and human recombinant insulin), collected on Earth, using hardware identical to the hardware to be used in microgravity and show how these data correlate with crystal quality improvements established in microgravity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As preparation for an extensive study that aims to image the cryocooling process of macromolecular crystals, the ability to thermally image solid objects and liquids at temperatures far below 273 K is demonstrated. In the case of a large lysozyme crystal (1.0 x 0.7 x 0.2 mm), qualitative measurements show the cooling process to take about 0.6 s with the cooling taking place in a wave starting from the face of the crystal nearest to the origin of the cryostream and ending at the point furthest away from the origin. Annealing of this lysozyme crystal, cooled under good cryoprotectant conditions, shows that cold striations form perpendicular to the cooling stream. These striations become more pronounced after successive annealing. Cryocooling of a non-cryoprotected crystal of glucose isomerase displayed an 'S-shaped' cold front wave traveling across the sample. These preliminary results are qualitative but show the power of infrared imaging as a new tool for fundamental and practical cryocrystallography studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A challenge in neutron diffraction experiments is growing large (greater than 1 cu mm) macromolecule crystals. In taking up this challenge we have used statistical experiment design techniques to quickly identify crystallization conditions under which the largest crystals grow. These techniques provide the maximum information for minimal experimental effort, allowing optimal screening of crystallization variables in a simple experimental matrix, using the minimum amount of sample. Analysis of the results quickly tells the investigator what conditions are the most important for the crystallization. These can then be used to maximize the crystallization results in terms of reducing crystal numbers and providing large crystals of suitable habit. We have used these techniques to grow large crystals of Glucose isomerase. Glucose isomerase is an industrial enzyme used extensively in the food industry for the conversion of glucose to fructose. The aim of this study is the elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism at the molecular level. The accurate determination of hydrogen positions, which is critical for this, is a requirement that neutron diffraction is uniquely suited for. Preliminary neutron diffraction experiments with these crystals conducted at the Institute Laue-Langevin (Grenoble, France) reveal diffraction to beyond 2.5 angstrom. Macromolecular crystal growth is a process involving many parameters, and statistical experimental design is naturally suited to this field. These techniques are sample independent and provide an experimental strategy to maximize crystal volume and habit for neutron diffraction studies.