[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1) is a BCL-2 family protein that has been implicated in the progression and survival of multiple tumor types. Herein we report a series of MCL-1 inhibitors which emanated from a high throughput screening (HTS) hit and progressed via iterative cycles of structure-guided design. Advanced compounds from this series exhibited sub-nanomolar affinity for MCL-1, and excellent selectivity over other BCL-2 family proteins as well as multiple kinases and GPCRs. In a MCL-1 dependent human tumor cell line, administration of compound 30b rapidly induced caspase activation with associated loss in cell viability. The small molecules described herein thus comprise effective tools for studying MCL-1 biology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A-1155463, a highly potent and selective BCL-XL inhibitor, was discovered through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fragment screening and structure-based design. This compound is substantially more potent against BCL-XL-dependent cell lines relative to our recently reported inhibitor, WEHI-539, while possessing none of its inherent pharmaceutical liabilities. A-1155463 caused a mechanism-based and reversible thrombocytopenia in mice and inhibited H146 small cell lung cancer xenograft tumor growth in vivo following multiple doses. A-1155463 thus represents an excellent tool molecule for studying BCL-XL biology as well as a productive lead structure for further optimization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract In the present study, we report the structure of the free and drug-bound Fab fragment of a high affinity anti-methotrexate antibody and perform a thermodynamic analysis of the binding process. The anti-methotrexate Fab fragment features a remarkably rigid tunnel-like binding site that extends into a water channel serving as the specialized route to move solvent out and into the site upon ligand binding and dissociation. This new finding in antibody structure-function relationships directly relates to the fast association (1107 M-1s-1) and slow (410-5 s-1) dissociation rates determined for mAb ADD056, resulting in a very strong binding with a KD ~ 3.6 pM at 20°C. As follows from the X-ray data analysis, the methotrexate-antibody complex is stabilized by an extended network of hydrogen bonds and stacking interactions. The analysis also shows structural involvement of the CDR H3 in formation of the water channel revealing another important role of this hypervariable region, which suggests a new direction in natural affinity maturation and opens a new possibility in antibody engineering. Methotrexate is a widely used therapeutic agent for many malignant diseases and inflammatory disorders. Unfortunately, it may also interfere with central aspects of metabolism and thereby cause inevitable side effects. Therefore, methotrexate therapy requires careful monitoring of drug blood levels, which is traditionally done by immunoassays. An understanding of the structure-function properties of antibodies selected for drug monitoring substantiates the performance and robustness of such tests.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ketol-isomerases catalyze the reversible isomerization between aldoses and ketoses. D-Xylose isomerase carries out the first reaction in the catabolism of D-xylose, but is also able to convert D-glucose to D-fructose. The first step of the reaction is an enzyme-catalyzed ring opening of the cyclic substrate. The active-site amino-acid acid/base pair involved in ring opening has long been investigated and several models have been proposed. Here, the structure of the xylose isomerase E186Q mutant with cyclic glucose bound at the active site, refined against joint X-ray and neutron diffraction data, is reported. Detailed analysis of the hydrogen-bond networks at the active site of the enzyme suggests that His54, which is doubly protonated, is poised to protonate the glucose O5 position, while Lys289, which is neutral, promotes deprotonation of the glucose O1H hydroxyl group via an activated water molecule. The structure also reveals an extended hydrogen-bonding network that connects the conserved residues Lys289 and Lys183 through three structurally conserved water molecules and residue 186, which is a glutamic acid to glutamine mutation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several bispecific antibody-based formats have been developed over the past 25 years in an effort to produce a new generation of immunotherapeutics that target two or more disease mechanisms simultaneously. One such format, the dual-variable domain immunoglobulin (DVD-Ig™), combines the target binding domains of two monoclonal antibodies via flexible naturally occurring linkers, which yields a tetravalent IgG - like molecule. We report the structure of an interleukin (IL)12-IL18 DVD-Ig™ Fab (DFab) fragment with IL18 bound to the inner variable domain (VD) that reveals the remarkable flexibility of the DVD-Ig™ molecule and how the DVD-Ig™ format can function to bind four antigens simultaneously. An understanding of how the inner variable domain retains function is of critical importance for designing DVD-Ig™ molecules, and for better understanding of the flexibility of immunoglobulin variable domains and linkers, which may aid in the design of improved bi- and multi-specific biologics in general.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Successfully forming ligand-protein complexes with specific compounds can be a significant challenge in supporting structure-based drug design for a given protein target. In this respect, an on-column ligand- and detergent-exchange method was developed to obtain ligand-protein complexes of an adamantane series of compounds with 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) after a variety of other complexation methods had failed. This report describes the on-column exchange method and an unexpected byproduct of the method in which artificial trimers were observed in the structures.
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 05/2012; 68(Pt 5):601-5. DOI:10.1107/S1744309112010172 · 0.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the development of a novel series of N-aryl-benzimidazolone HSP90 inhibitors (9) targeting the N-terminal ATP-ase site. SAR development was influenced by structure-based design based around X-ray structures of ligand bound HSP90 complexes. Lead compounds exhibited high binding affinities, ATP-ase inhibition and cellular client protein degradation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Like many small molecule materials, tetragonal lysozyme crystals exhibit growth rate dispersion. To investigate this phenomenon further, the growth rate dispersion of the (110) and (101) crystal faces was determined as a function of sodium chloride concentration, temperature, and solution pH. Under the conditions investigated, the growth rate dispersion follows the constant crystal growth model, in which each individual crystal is assumed to have a unique, constant growth rate. While the growth rate dispersion of the (110) face seems independent of the solution conditions, for the (101) face it was observed to vary systematically with temperature and pH. The greater susceptibility of the (101) face to the causes of growth rate dispersion was interpreted in light of a model proposed to explain the differing growth mechanisms of each face. Overall, the magnitude of crystal growth rate dispersion observed for lysozyme is similar to that reported for some small organic molecules.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ionic liquids exhibit a variety of properties that make them attractive solvents for biomaterials. Given the potential for productive interaction between ionic liquids and biological macromolecules, we investigated the use of ionic liquids as precipitating agents and additives for protein crystallization for six model proteins (lysozyme, catalase, myoglobin, trypsin, glucose isomerase, and xylanase). The ionic liquids produced changes in crystal morphology and mediated significant increases in crystal size in some cases. Crystals grown using ionic liquids as precipitating agents or as additives provided X-ray diffraction resolution similar to or better than that obtained without ionic liquids. Based upon the experiments performed with model proteins, the ionic liquids were used as additives for the crystallization of the poorly diffracting monoclonal antibody 106.3 Fab in complex with the B-type natriuretic peptide (5-13). The ionic liquids improved the crystallization behavior and provided improved diffraction resulting in the determination of the structure. Ionic liquids should be considered as useful additives for the crystallization of other proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Texas Red dyes were used to partially label proteins for crystallization in both detergent and lipidic meso-phases. Fluorescence detection of Texas Red can then be used to differentiate the protein crystals from salt crystals and other phase separations in the crystallization drop. Whereas ultraviolet light absorption and fluorescence of protein crystals in lipidic meso phase crystallization trials using glass sandwich plates was difficult to discern, the fluorescence of the partially labeled protein can be used to distinguish protein crystals. With as little as 0.05% Texas Red labeling of the protein, protein crystals showed up very clearly in both detergent and the lipid meso-phase crystallization setups.
The Open Structural Biology Journal 02/2009; 309(11):11-15. DOI:10.2174/1874199100903010011
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The challenge in supporting biological macromolecule crystallization projects for structure based drug design is to develop robust crystallization systems, from which high-resolution crystal structures for a variety of ligand complexes can be obtained. Each biological macromolecule is unique, often requiring the testing of binding partners, additives, purification tag placement and crystallization methods, in addition to solution condition screening. It is often a combination of a number of these factors that lead to the most robust crystallization system. In this presentation we will discuss case studies illustrating how the use of additives such as ionic liquids, second site binders, crystallization method, tag placement and purification methods have provided high quality crystals for a number of biological macromolecules.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spacecraft orbiting the earth experience a reduced acceleration environment due to being in a state of continuous free-fall. This state colloquially termed microgravity, has produced improved X-ray diffraction quality crystals of biological macromolecules. Improvements in X-ray diffraction resolution (or detail) or signal to noise, provide greater detail in the three-dimensional molecular structure providing information about the molecule, how it works, how to improve its function or how to impede it. Greater molecular detail obtained by crystallization in microgravity, has important implications for structural biology. In this paper we examine the theories behind macromolecule crystal quality improvement in microgravity using results obtained from studies with the model protein, chicken egg white lysozyme.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering 01/2008; 10(5‐6):491 - 500. DOI:10.1002/apj.5500100604 · 0.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular chaperone HSP90 has been shown to facilitate cancer cell survival by stabilizing key proteins responsible for a malignant phenotype. We report here the results of parallel fragment-based drug design approaches in the design of novel HSP90 inhibitors. Initial aminopyrimidine leads were elaborated using high-throughput organic synthesis to yield nanomolar inhibitors of the enzyme. Second site leads were also identified which bound to HSP90 in two distinct conformations, an 'open' and 'closed' form. Intriguingly, linked fragment approaches targeting both of these conformations were successful in producing novel, micromolar inhibitors. Overall, this study shows that, with only a few fragment hits, multiple lead series can be generated for HSP90 due to the inherent flexibility of the active site. Thus, ample opportunities exist to use these lead series in the development of clinically useful HSP90 inhibitors for the treatment of cancers.
Chemical Biology & Drug Design 08/2007; 70(1):1-12. DOI:10.1111/j.1747-0285.2007.00535.x · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of aryl sulfonamides of 5,6-disubstituted anthranilic acids were identified as potent inhibitors of methionine aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP2). Small alkyl groups and 3-furyl were tolerated at the 5-position of anthranilic acid, while -OCH(3), CH(3), and Cl were found optimal for the 6-position. Placement of 2-aminoethoxy group at the 6-position enabled interaction with the second Mn(2+) but did not result in enhancement in potency. Introduction of a tertiary amino moiety at the ortho-position of the sulfonyl phenyl ring gave reduced protein binding and improved cellular activity, but led to lower oral bioavailability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new class of checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK-1) inhibitors bearing a 1,4-dihydroindeno[1,2-c]pyrazole core was developed after initial hits from high throughput screening. The efficient hit-to-lead process was facilitated by X-ray crystallography and led to potent inhibitors (<10nM) against CHK-1. X-ray co-crystal structures of bound inhibitors demonstrated that two sub-series of this class of compounds, exemplified by 21 and 41, exhibit distinctive hydrogen bonding patterns in the specificity pocket of the active site. Two compounds, 41 and 43, were capable of potentiating doxorubicin and camptothecin, both DNA-damaging agents, in cell proliferation assays (MTS and soft agar assays) and abrogating G2/M checkpoint in a mechanism-based FACS assay.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on the crystallographic analysis of a urea-checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) complex and molecular modeling, a class of macrocyclic Chk1 inhibitors were designed and their biological activities were evaluated. An efficient synthetic methodology for macrocyclic ureas was developed with Grubbs metathesis macrocyclization as the key step. The structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that the macrocyclization retains full Chk1 inhibition activity and that the 4-position of the phenyl ring can tolerate a wide variety of substituents. These novel Chk1 inhibitors exhibit excellent selectivity over a panel of more than 70 kinases. Compounds 5b, 5c, 5f, 15, 16d, 17g, 17h, 17k, 18d, and 22 were identified as ideal Chk1 inhibitors, which showed little or no single-agent activity but significantly potentiate the cytotoxicities of the DNA-damaging antitumor agents doxorubicin and camptothecin. These novel Chk1 inhibitors abrogate the doxorubicin-induced G2 and camptothecin-induced S checkpoint arrests, confirming that their potent biological activities are mechanism-based through Chk1 inhibition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel class of adamantane ethers 11beta-hydroxysteroid hydrogenase type I inhibitors has been discovered. These compounds have excellent HSD-1 potency and selectivity against HSD-2. The structure-activity relationships, selectivity, metabolism, PK, ex vivo pharmacodynamic data, and an X-ray crystal structure of one of these inhibitors bound to h-HSD-1 are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potent and selective adamantane sulfone and sulfonamide inhibitors of 11-beta-HSD-1 have been discovered. Selected compounds from these series have robust pharmacokinetic profiles and strongly inhibit liver, fat, and brain HSD1 for extended periods after oral dosing.