M. Yu. Torgashin

Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation, Moskva, Moscow, Russia

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Publications (21)19.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) comprises on one chip all elements needed for heterodyne detection. Light weight and low power consumption combined with nearly quantum limited sensitivity and a wide tuning range of the superconducting local oscillator make SIR a perfect candidate for many practical applications.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 03/2014; 486(1):012026.
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    ABSTRACT: A superconducting integrated receiver (SIR) comprises in a single chip a planar antenna combined with a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer, a superconducting Flux Flow Oscillator (FFO) acting as a Local Oscillator (LO) and a second SIS harmonic mixer (HM) for the FFO phase locking. In this report, an overview of the SIR and FFO developments and optimizations is presented. Improving on the fully Nb-based SIR we have developed and studied Nb–AlN–NbN circuits, which exhibit an extended operation frequency range. Continuous tuning of the phase locked frequency has been experimentally demonstrated at any frequency in the range 350–750 GHz. The FFO free-running linewidth has been measured between 1 and 5 MHz, which allows to phase lock up to 97% of the emitted FFO power. The output power of the FFO is sufficient to pump the matched SIS mixer. Therefore, it is concluded that the Nb–AlN–NbN FFOs are mature enough for practical applications.These achievements enabled the development of a 480–650 GHz integrated receiver for the atmospheric-research instrument TErahertz and submillimeter LImb Sounder (TELIS). This balloon-borne instrument is a three-channel superconducting heterodyne spectrometer for the detection of spectral emission lines of stratospheric trace gases that have their rotational transitions at THz frequencies. One of the channels is based on the SIR technology. We demonstrate for the first time the capabilities of the SIR technology for heterodyne spectroscopy in general, and atmospheric limb sounding in particular. We also show that the application of SIR technology is not limited to laboratory environments, but that it is well suited for remote operation under harsh environmental conditions. Light weight and low power consumption combined with broadband operation and nearly quantum limited sensitivity make the SIR a perfect candidate for future airborne and space-borne missions. The noise temperature of the SIR was measured to be as low as 120 K in double sideband operation, with an intermediate frequency band of 4–8 GHz. The spectral resolution is well below 1 MHz, confirmed by our measurements. Remote control of the SIR under flight conditions has been demonstrated in a successful balloon flight in Kiruna, Sweden.Capability of the SIR for high-resolution spectroscopy has been successfully proven also in a laboratory environment by gas cell measurements. The possibility to use SIR devices for the medical analysis of exhaled air will be discussed. Many medically relevant gases have spectral lines in the sub-terahertz range and can be detected by an SIR-based spectrometer. The SIR can be considered as an operational device, ready for many applications.
    08/2011: pages 263-296;
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    ABSTRACT: A Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) comprises on one chip all elements needed for heterodyne detection: a low-noise SIS mixer with quasioptical antenna, a Flux-Flow Oscillator (FFO) acting as a Local Oscillator (LO) and a second SIS harmonic mixer (HM) for the FFO phase locking. Light weight and low power consumption combined with nearly quantum limited sensitivity and a wide tuning range of the FFO make SIR a perfect candidate for many practical applications. In particular, the SIR developed for novel balloon borne instrument TELIS (TErahertz and submillimeter LImb Sounder) covers frequency range 480 -650 GHz. As a result of recent receiver's optimization the DSB noise temperature was measured as low as 120 K for the SIR with intermediate frequency (IF) band 4 – 8 GHz. The capability of the SIR for high resolution atmospheric spectroscopy has been successfully proven with scientific balloon flights from Kiruna, North Sweden. Diurnal cycles of ClO and BrO has been observed with BrO line level of only about 0.5 K. Possibility to use the SIRs for analysis of the breathed out air at medical survey has been demonstrated.
    Proc SPIE 11/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: A Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) developed for balloon borne instrument TELIS covers frequency range 450-650 GHz. The DSB noise temperature was measured as low as 120 K. The SIR application for high resolution spectroscopy of breathed out air has been proven.
    Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2010 35th International Conference on; 10/2010
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    ABSTRACT: The balloon-borne instrument TELIS (TErahertz and submillimetre LImb Sounder) is a three-channel superconducting heterodyne spectrometer for atmospheric research use. It detects spectral emission lines of stratospheric trace gases that have their rotational transitions at THz frequencies. One of the channels is based on the superconducting integrated receiver (SIR) technology. We demonstrate for the first time the capabilities of the SIR technology for heterodyne spectroscopy in general, and atmospheric limb sounding in particular. We also show that the application of SIR technology is not limited to laboratory environments, but that it is well suited for remote operation under harsh environmental conditions. Within a SIR the main components needed for a superconducting heterodyne receiver such as a superconductor–insulator–superconductor (SIS) mixer with a quasi-optical antenna, a flux-flow oscillator (FFO) as the local oscillator, and a harmonic mixer to phase lock the FFO are integrated on a single chip. Light weight and low power consumption combined with broadband operation and nearly quantum limited sensitivity make the SIR a perfect candidate for use in future airborne and space-borne missions. The noise temperature of the SIR was measured to be as low as 120 K, with an intermediate frequency band of 4–8 GHz in double-sideband operation. The spectral resolution is well below 1 MHz, confirmed by our measurements. Remote control of the SIR under flight conditions has been demonstrated in a successful balloon flight in Kiruna, Sweden. The sensor and instrument design are presented, as well as the preliminary science results from the first flight.
    Superconductor Science and Technology 03/2010; 23(4):045016. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The balloon-borne instrument TELIS (TErahertz and submillimetre LImb Sounder) is a three-channel superconducting heterodyne spectrometer for atmospheric research use. It detects spectral emission lines of stratospheric trace gases that have their rotational transitions at THz frequencies. One of the channels is based on the superconducting integrated receiver (SIR) technology. We demonstrate for the first time the capabilities of the SIR technology for heterodyne spectroscopy in general, and atmospheric limb sounding in particular. We also show that the application of SIR technology is not limited to laboratory environments, but that it is well suited for remote operation under harsh environmental conditions. Within a SIR the main components needed for a superconducting heterodyne receiver such as a superconductor–insulator–superconductor (SIS) mixer with a quasi-optical antenna, a flux-flow oscillator (FFO) as the local oscillator, and a harmonic mixer to phase lock the FFO are integrated on a single chip. Light weight and low power consumption combined with broadband operation and nearly quantum limited sensitivity make the SIR a perfect candidate for use in future airborne and space-borne missions. The noise temperature of the SIR was measured to be as low as 120 K, with an intermediate frequency band of 4–8 GHz in double-sideband operation. The spectral resolution is well below 1 MHz, confirmed by our measurements. Remote control of the SIR under flight conditions has been demonstrated in a successful balloon flight in Kiruna, Sweden. The sensor and instrument design are presented, as well as the preliminary science results from the first flight.
    Superconductor Science and Technology 03/2010; 23(2010-4):045016. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A GaAs/AlAs resonant-tunneling diode is designed for use as part of a subharmonic mixer, and its prototypes are fabricated and characterized. Its current-voltage characteristics measured at room, liquid-nitrogen, or liquid-helium temperature provide evidence for its adequate performance over the entire temperature range. Its impedance is measured against frequency up to 40 GHz, on which basis an appropriate equivalent circuit is selected for the device, and its components are quantified. The operation of a subharmonic mixer incorporating the resonant-tunneling diode is simulated for a number of values of its quantum-well width. At liquid-helium temperature, adjusting the quantum-well width is predicted to make the appropriate local-oscillator power vary from 50 μW to 15 mW, while holding the conversion loss of a subharmonic mixer below 10 dB.
    Russian Microelectronics 01/2010; 39(5):331-339.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the latest results of developing and implementing a fully superconducting integrated receiver of the submillimeter-wave range on the basis of the superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction. Characteristics of a new-generation unique device operated in the frequency range 500–600 GHz and intended for atmospheric research onboard a high-altitude balloon within the framework of the international TELIS project are given. This frequency range comprises spectral lines of many chlorine-containing compounds, the registration of which is a major problem of the environmental monitoring of the atmosphere. In the process of creating the spectrometer, we developed the technology for manufacturing Nb/AlN/NbN junctions, which made it possible to reduce the emission linewidth of the superconducting local oscillator based on the long Josephson junction and decrease the noise temperature of the receiver. At the same time, the possibility to continuously tune the local-oscillator frequency in the entire operating range was realized.
    Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics 09/2007; 50(10):847-851. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The superconducting integrated receiver (SIR) comprising in one chip a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer and a phase-locked superconducting flux flow oscillator (FFO) is under development for the international project TELIS. To overcome temperature constraints and extend operation frequency of the SIR we have developed and studied Nb-AlN-NbN-Nb circuits with a gap voltage Vg up to 3.7 mV and extremely low leakage currents . Based on these junctions integrated microcircuits comprising FFO and harmonic mixer have been designed, fabricated and tested; the radiation from such circuits has been measured at frequencies up to 700 GHz. Employment of NbN electrode does not result in the appearance of additional noise. For example, FFO linewidth as low as 1 MHz was measured at 600 GHz, that allows us to phase lock up to 92% of the emitted by FFO power and realize very low phase noise about 90 dBc. Preliminary results demonstrated uncorrected DSB noise temperature of the Nb-AlN-NbN SIR below 250 K at frequencies around 600 GHz.
    IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 07/2007; · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this report an overview of the results on the development of a single-chip superconducting integrated receiver for the terahertz limb sounder (TELIS) balloon project intended to measure a variety of stratosphere trace gases is presented. The superconducting integrated receiver (SIR) comprises in one chip a planar antenna integrated with a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer, a superconducting flux flow oscillator (FFO) acting as local oscillator (LO) and a second SIS harmonic mixer (HM) for FFO phase locking. As a result of the FFO design optimization a free-running linewidth between 9 and 1.5 MHz has been measured in the frequency range 500-710 GHz resulting in phase-locking of 35 to 95% of the FFO power correspondingly. A new generation of the SIR devices with improved FFO performance and optimized interface between FFO and SIS/HM has been developed and comprehensively tested. As a result all required TELIS parameters were demonstrated. Phase-locked FFO operation over entire SIR channel frequency range has been realized, spectral resolution below 1 MHz has been confirmed by gas cell and CW signal measurements. An uncorrected double side band (DSB) noise temperature below 250 K has been measured with the phase-locked FFO. The intermediate frequency bandwidth 4-8 GHz has been realized. To ensure remote operation of the phase-locked SIR several procedures for its automatic computer control have been developed and tested.
    IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 07/2007; · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: In this report we present design and first experimental results for development of the submm superconducting integrated receiver spectrometer for Terahertz Limb Sounder (TELIS). TELIS is a collaborative European project to build up a three-channel heterodyne balloon-based spectrometer for measuring a variety of atmospheric constituents of the stratosphere. The 550 - 650 GHz channel of TELIS is based on a phase-locked Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR). SIR is an on-chip combination of a low-noise Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixer with quasioptical antenna, a superconducting Flux Flow Oscillator (FFO) acting as Local Oscillator (LO), and SIS harmonic mixer (HM) for FFO phase locking. A number of new solutions were implemented in the new generation of SIR chips. To achieve the wide-band performance of the spectrometer, a side-feed twin-SIS mixer and balanced SIS mixer with 0.8 µm2 junctions integrated with a double-dipole (or double-slot) antenna is used. An improved design of the FFO for TELIS has been developed and optimized providing a free-running linewidth between 10 and 2 MHz in the frequency range 500 - 700 GHz. It is important to ensure that tuning of a phase-locked (PL) SIR can be performed remotely by telecommand. For this purpose a number of approaches for the PL SIR automatic computer control have been developed. All receiver components (including input optical elements and Martin-Puplett polarization rotating interferometer for single side band operation) will be mounted on a single 4.2 K plate inside a 40 × 180 × 80 mm3 box. First measurements give an uncorrected double side band (DSB) noise temperature below 250 K measured with the phase-locked FFO; more detailed results are presented at the conference.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 01/2006; 43(1):1377-1380.
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    ABSTRACT: The results of the development of sub-mm Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) for monitoring of the Earth’s atmosphere from high-altitude balloons are presented. The microchip of the superconducting integrated receiver comprising local oscillator based on the long Josephson junction (flux flow oscillator, FFO) is developed and successfully tested. The receiver noise temperature as low as 200 K is measured at a frequency of 650 GHz. The possibility to phase-lock FFO to the reference oscillator, which is vitally important for spectrometer operation, is demonstrated. To ensure the possibility of remote tuning of a phase-locked (PL) SIR onboard a balloon, a number of approaches for the PL SIR automatic computer control are developed and tested. New modifications of the superconducting local oscillator (FFO) are developed, fabricated and tested. The FFO design is optimized for the integrated spectrometer. The FFO linewidth is studied at frequencies of up to 700 GHz using a specially developed technique. A free-running linewidth between 9 and 2 MHz is measured in the frequency range from 500 to 700 GHz. As a result, the spectral ratio of the phased-locked FFO ranges from 35 to 90%. The effect of FFO linewidth imperfections on the retrieval procedure of the atmosphere gas spectra is studied.
    Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics 09/2005; 48(10):844-850. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TELIS (Terahertz and submm Limb Sounder) is a cooperative European project to develop a three-channel heterodyne balloon-based spectrometer for measuring a variety of atmospheric constituents within the lower stratosphere. The 600-650GHz channel is based on a phase-locked Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR). SIR is the on-chip combination of a low-noise SIS mixer with quasioptical antenna, a superconducting Flux Flow Oscillator (FFO) acting as Local Oscillator (LO) and an SIS harmonic mixer (HM) for FFO phase locking. A number of new solutions was implemented in the new generation of SIR chips. To achieve the wide-band performance of the spectrometer, a side-feed twin-SIS mixer with 0.8 μm<sup>2</sup> junctions integrated with a double-dipole (or double-slot) antenna is used. A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) test demonstrated a possibility to obtain the required instantaneous bandwidth for the SIS mixer. To ensure the autonomous operation of the phase-locked SIR on the balloon a number of approaches for the PLL SIR automatic control have been developed.
    IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 07/2005; · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) comprises in one chip a planar antenna integrated with an SIS mixer, a superconducting Flux Flow Oscillator (FFO) acting as Local Oscillator (LO) and a second SIS harmonic mixer (HM) for FFO phase locking. Free-running FFO linewidth well below 10 MHz is required to ensure phase-locked operation of an SIR. Comprehensive experimental study of the Nb-AlOx-Nb FFO linewidth and other main parameters has been carried out in order to achieve this goal. Essential dependence of the FFO linewidth on its width and idle region dimension has been found. It makes possible an optimization of the FFO design and selection of the best FFO parameters for practical operation of the SIR.
    IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 07/2005; · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Comprehensive measurements of the flux flow oscillator (FFO) radiation linewidth are performed using an integrated harmonic SIS mixer; the FFO linewidth and spectral line profile are compared to a theory. An essential dependence of the FFO linewidth on frequency is found; a possible explanation is proposed. The results of the numerical solution of the perturbed sine–Gordon equation qualitatively confirm this assumption. To optimize the FFO design, the influence of the FFO parameters on the radiation linewidth is studied. A novel FFO design at a moderate current density has resulted in a free-running FFO linewidth of about 10 MHz in the flux flow regime up to 712 GHz, limited only by the gap frequency of Nb. This relatively narrow free-running linewidth (along with implementation of a wide-band phase locking loop system) allows continuous phase locking of the FFO in the wide frequency range of 500–710 GHz. These results are the basis for the development of a 550–650 GHz integrated receiver for the terahertz limb sounder (TELIS) intended for atmosphere study and scheduled to fly on a balloon in 2005. We report here also on the design of the second generation of the phase-locked superconducting integrated receiver chip for TELIS.
    Superconductor Science and Technology 02/2004; 17(5):S127. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A Josephson flux flow oscillator (FFO) is the most developed superconducting local oscillator for integration with an SIS mixer in a single-chip submm-wave receiver. Recently, using a new FFO design, a free-running linewidth ≤10 MHz has been measured in the frequency range up to 712 GHz, limited only by the gap frequency of Nb. This enabled us to phase lock the FFO in the frequency range 500-712 GHz where continuous frequency tuning is possible; resulting in an absolute FFO phase noise as low as -80 dBc at 707 GHz. Comprehensive measurements of the FFO radiation linewidth have been performed using an integrated SIS harmonic mixer. The influence of FFO parameters on radiation linewidth, particularly the effect of the differential resistances associated both with the bias current and the applied magnetic field has been studied in order to further optimize the FFO design. A new approach with a self-shielded FFO has been developed and experimentally tested.
    IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 07/2003; · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We overview recent achievements in the field of cryogenic submillimeter-wave receivers based on superconductor–insulator–superconductor (SIS) tunnel junctions. The main attention is paid to the novel superconducting integrated receivers (SIRs) with an on-chip superconducting local oscillator. The single-chip microcircuit of the receiver, which integrates a quantum mixer based on the nonlinearity of a quasi-particle current in the SIS junction, a planar superconducting receiving antenna, and a cryogenic local oscillator, is described. Being dc-powered only by batteries, such a microcircuit operates as a submillimeter-wave superheterodyne receiver without any additional microwave equipment. Such receivers are very attractive for radioastronomical research, space communication systems, and monitoring of the environment from satellites, balloons, and special aircraft. A breadboard of a superconducting spectrometer with a phase-locked flux-flow oscillator (FFO) has been developed and tested. A frequency resolution better than 10 kHz was reached at a frequency of 365 GHz. We describe a balloon-borne 500-650 GHz integrated spectrometer for oblique atmospheric sounding, developed for the international Terahertz Limb Sounder (TELIS) project. The first flight is scheduled for 2005.
    Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics 01/2003; 46. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Josephson flux flow oscillator (FFO) has proven to be one of the best on-chip local oscillators for heterodyne detection in integrated sub-mm receivers based on SIS mixers. Nb–AlOx–Nb FFOs have been successfully tested from about 120 to 700 GHz (gap frequency of Nb) providing enough power to pump an SIS mixer (about 1 μW at 450 GHz). Both the frequency and the power of the FFO can be dc-tuned. Extensive measurements of the dependence of the free-running FFO linewidth on the differential resistances associated with both the bias current and the control-line current (applied magnetic field) have been performed. The FFO line is Lorentzian both in the resonant regime, on Fiske steps (FSs), and on the flux flow step (FFS). This indicates that internal wide-band noise is dominant. A phenomenological noise model can account for the FFO linewidth dependence on experimental parameters. The narrow free-running FFO linewidth achieved, in combination with the construction of a wide-band phase-locked loop (PLL) system, enable us to phase lock the FFO in the frequency range 490–712 GHz where continuous frequency tuning is possible.
    Superconductor Science and Technology 11/2002; 15(12):1701. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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