Dietrich Althausen

Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany

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Publications (132)257.82 Total impact

  • International Dust Conference; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: [1] We present combined Raman and elastic backscatter lidar observations that were carried out in Zhongshan, PRD (Pearl River Delta), China, during two periods in 2009: one haze pollution period and one moderate pollution period. During the haze period , high AOD (0.86 and 1.20 at 355 nm) and medium Ångström exponents (1.23 and 1.35 at 355 nm/532 nm) were observed. In the moderate pollution period, the corresponding parameters were comparatively lower with values of 0.83 and 0.74 at 355 nm for AOD and 1.108 and 0.98 at 355 nm/532 nm for Ångström exponent.The mean lidar ratios in the two periods were 64 ± 10sr and 56 ±9 sr, respectively, at 355 nm. The lidar ratio during haze phase was a bit higher compared to that in previous observations in this area. The calculated values of the lidar ratio and Ångström exponent were also used to help identify aerosol types. The Ångström exponent was calculated for the extinction from the wavelength pair 355 nm/532 nm, with high values of around 1.35 for the haze event. The particle size distribution (PSD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) derived from sunphotometer measurements indicate the presence of rather small particles. The three-day back trajectories from a HYSPLIT model in the haze period indicate that the air masses in the lower layer were advected from the southeast coast of China, where incomplete combustion of carbonaceous fuels and straw burning are frequently found in Shanghai during the heating period in winter. In the moderate pollution period, the air mass passed through western China, indicating a combination of some pollution from South Asia in case of strong convection, local aerosol aging, and smoke from adjacent fire burning spots in the PRD region.
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the CALIPSO data analysis the surface type (land/ocean) is used to augment the aerosol characterization. However, this surface-dependent aerosol typing prohibits a correct classification of sea-breeze-related marine aerosol over land. This might result in a systematic overestimation of the particle extinction coefficient and of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of up to a factor of 3.5 over land in coastal areas. We present a long-term comparison of CALIPSO and ground-based lidar observations of the aerosol conditions in the coastal environment of southern Latin America (Punta Arenas, Chile, 53° S), performed in December 2009-April 2010. Punta Arenas is almost entirely influenced by marine particles throughout the year, indicated by a rather low AOT of 0.02-0.04. However, we found an unexpectedly high fraction of continental aerosol in the aerosol types inferred by means of CALIOP observations and, correspondingly, too high particle extinction values. Similar features of the CALIOP data analysis are presented for four other coastal areas around the world. Since CALIOP data serve as important input for global climate models, the influence of this systematic error was estimated by means of simplified radiative-transfer calculations.
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 01/2014; 7(2). · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At present one of the largest uncertainties in our understanding of global climate concerns the interaction of aerosols with clouds and atmospheric dynamics. In the climate system, mineral dust aerosol is of key importance, because mineral dust contributes to about half of the global annual particle emissions by mass. Although our understanding of the effects of mineral dust on the atmosphere and the climate improved during the past decade, many questions such as the change of the dust size distribution during transport across the Atlantic Ocean and the associated impact on the radiation budget, the role of wet and dry dust removal mechanisms during transport, and the complex interaction between mineral dust and clouds remain open. The Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE: http://www.pa.op.dlr.de/saltrace) was conducted in June/July 2013 to investigate the transport and transformation of Saharan mineral dust during long-range transport from the Sahara across the Atlantic Ocean into the Caribbean. SALTRACE is a German initiative combining ground-based and airborne in-situ and lidar measurements with meteorological data, long-term measurements, satellite remote sensing and modeling which involved many national and international partners. During SALTRACE, the DLR Falcon research aircraft was based at Sal, Cape Verde, between 11 and 17 June 2013, and at Barbados between 18 June and 11 July 2013. The Falcon was equipped with a suite of in-situ instruments for the measurement of microphysical and optical aerosol properties, with sampling devices for offline particle analysis, with a nadir-looking 2-�m wind lidar, with dropsondes and instruments for standard meteorological parameters. Ground-based lidar and in-situ instruments were deployed in Cape Verde, Barbados and Puerto Rico. During SALTRACE, mineral dust from five dust outbreaks was studied by the Falcon research aircraft between Senegal, the Caribbean and Florida under different atmospheric conditions. On the eastern side of the Atlantic, dust plumes were quite homogenous and extended up to 6-7 km altitude. In contrast, the dust layers in the Caribbean showed three layers with different dust characteristics and were mainly below 4.5 km altitude. In the upper part of the dust layers in the Caribbean, the aerosol properties were similar to the observations near Africa. In contrast, much more variability in the dust microphysical and optical properties was observed between 0.7 and 2.5 km altitude. The aerosol optical thickness of the dust outbreaks studied in the Barabados area ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 at 500 nm. Highlights during SALTRACE included the Lagrangian sampling of a dust plume in the Cape Verde area on 17 June which was again measured with the same instrumentation on 21 and 22 June 2013 near Barbados. The event was also captured by the ground-based lidar and in-situ instrumentation. Another highlight was the formation of tropical storm Chantal in the dusty environment. In our presentation, we give an overview of the SALTRACE study and investigate the impact of dust aging processes between the Cape Verde region and the Caribbean on dust microphysical and optical properties. We show vertical profiles of dust size distributions, CCN and dust optical properties and compare our results with the ground-based in-situ, sun photometer and lidar measurements. In particular, we show the results from the trans-Atlantic Lagrangian dust study and discuss similarities and differences of the dust plumes observed over Cape Verde and in the Caribbean.
    EGU General Assembly; 01/2014
  • International Aerosol Conference; 01/2014
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    ABSTRACT: [1] The direct solar radiative effect of aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean was investigated on the basis of aerosol Raman/polarization lidar observations aboard the research vessel Polarsternbetween Germany (50°N) and either South America (50°S) or South Africa (40°S) in 2009 and 2010. First, a case study of complex aerosol conditions with marine aerosol, dust, and smoke particles in the boundary layer and free troposphere is presented to demonstrate that detailed knowledge of aerosol layering (boundary layer, free troposphere) and aerosol mixing state is required for an accurate determination of the resulting radiative effects. A statistical analysis based on all lidar observations revealed the highest daily mean radiative effect (−43±59 W m−2at the surface, −14±18 W m−2at top of atmosphere) in the latitudinal belt from 0°N–15°N in the Saharan dust outflow region. Mean aerosol radiative effects of the polluted northern and clean southern midlatitudes were contrasted. In the northern midlatitudes, the averaged aerosol radiative effect of all simulations was −24±33 W m−2at the surface which is a factor of 1.6 higher than at similar southern hemispheric latitudes. The simulations based on the lidar observations are in good agreement with colocated pyranometer measurements.
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 11/2013; 118(22).
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    ABSTRACT: PollyNET is a growing global network of automatized multiwavelength polarization Raman lidars of type Polly (Althausen et al., 2009). The goal of this network is to conduct advanced remote measurements of aerosol profiles and clouds by the same type of instrument. Since 2006 this network assists the controlling and adjustment activities of Polly systems. A central facility receives the data from the Polly measurements. The observational data are displayed in terms of quicklooks at http://polly:tropos.de in near real time. In this way, the network serves as a central information platform for inquisitive scientists. PollyNET comprises permanent stations at Leipzig (Germany), Kuopio (Finland), Evora (Portugal), Baengnyeong Island (South Korea), Stockholm (Sweden), and Warsaw (Poland). Non-permanent stations have been used during several field experiments under both urban and very remote conditions - like the Amazon rainforest. These non-permanent stations were lasting from several weeks up to one year and have been located in Brazil, India, China, South Africa, Chile, and also aboard the German research vessels Polarstern and Meteor across the Atlantic. Within PollyNET the interaction and knowledge exchange is encouraged between the Polly operators. This includes maintenance support in system calibration procedures and distribution of latest hardware and software improvements. This presentation introduces the PollyNET. Main features of the Polly systems will be presented as well as recent instrumental developments. Some measurement highlights achieved within PollyNET are depicted.
    Proc SPIE 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The study of interactions between aerosol particles, atmospheric dynamics and clouds and their resulting corresponding indirect effects on precipitation and radiative transfer demand new measurement strategies combining the strength of lidar, radar, and in-situ instrumentation. To match this challenge the Leipzig Aerosol and Cloud Remote Observations System (LACROS) has been set up at TROPOS, combining the strengths of a unique set of active and passive remote sensing and in-situ measurement systems.
    Proc SPIE 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Ground-based Raman lidar measurements during the second Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM-2) in 2008 were used for validation of measurements of the lidar aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite within the dusty environment of the Cape Verde region. SAMUM-2 featured two one-month campaigns in January/February and May/June 2008 to cover different modes of aerosol transport to the tropical Atlantic: dust from northern Africa and biomass-burning smoke from western Africa during winter, and pure Saharan dust during summer. During the investigated time period, 33 CALIPSO overflights occurred at a distance of less than 500 km from the location of the ground-based lidar. Fifteen out of these 33 cases were found suitable for comparing the findings of the two instruments. The parameters for this comparison are the particle backscatter coefficient at 532 and 1064 nm, the extinction coefficient, the lidar ratio (aerosol type), and the particle depolarization ratio at 532 nm, as well as the backscatter-related Ångström exponent for the wavelength pair 532/1064 nm. Best agreement was found for the 532 nm backscatter coefficient, while the 532 nm extinction coefficient is underestimated by up to 30%. The latter is due to the use of an effective dust lidar ratio that gives reliable backscatter coefficients but is not suitable to transform these to extinction coefficients. CALIPSO particle depolarization ratios provided in the current (version 3.01) aerosol profile product were found to be affected by a computing error and should be calculated from the perpendicular and total particle backscatter coefficients provided in the same data file. CALIPSO aerosol classification was found to be mostly correct but a demand for homogeneous aerosol layers could improve the retrieval. Suggestions for the improvement of the CALIPSO retrieval by introducing iterative procedures are provided.
    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres 04/2013; 118(7):2889-2902. · 3.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [1] Shipborne aerosol lidar observations were performed aboard the research vessel Polarstern in 2009 and 2010 during three north-south cruises from about 50°N to 50°S. The aerosol data set provides an excellent opportunity to characterize and contrast the vertical aerosol distribution over the Atlantic Ocean in the polluted northern and relatively clean southern hemisphere. Three case studies, an observed pure Saharan dust plume, a Patagonian dust plume east of South America, and a case of a mixed dust/smoke plume west of Central Africa are exemplarily shown and discussed by means of their optical properties. The meridional transatlantic cruises were used to determine the latitudinal cross section of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT). Profiles of particle backscatter and extinction coefficients are presented as mean profiles for latitudinal belts to contrast northern- and southern-hemispheric aerosol loads and optical effects. Results of lidar observations at Punta Arenas (53°S), Chile, and Stellenbosch (34°S), South Africa, are shown and confirm the lower frequency of occurrence of free-tropospheric aerosol in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere. The maximum latitudinal mean AOT of 0.27 was found in the northern tropics (0– 15°N) in the Saharan outflow region. Marine AOT is typically 0.05 ± 0.03. Particle optical properties are presented separately for the marine boundary layer and the free troposphere. Concerning the contrast between the anthropogenically influenced midlatitudinal aerosol conditions in the 30– 60°N belt and the respective belt in the southern hemisphere over the remote Atlantic, it is found that the AOT and extinction coefficients for the vertical column from 0–5km (total aerosol column) and 1–5km height (lofted aerosol above the marine boundary layer) are a factor of 1.6 and 2 higher at northern midlatitudes than at respective southern midlatitudes, and a factor of 2.5 higher than at the clean marine southern-hemispheric site of Punta Arenas. The strong contrast is confined to the lowermost 3km of the atmosphere.
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 03/2013; 118(6).
  • ESA Living Planet Symposium 2013; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: The study examines seasonal and air-flow-dependent variations of the vertical distribution of aerosols at the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station of Shangdianzi in the North China Plain 100 km northeast of Beijing. One-year Raman lidar observations of profiles of aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients at 532 nm were performed from April 2009 to March 2010 in the framework of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI) project. In the nighttime statistics a two-layer structure with the main haze layer reaching to 1-1.5 km height asl and an elevated aerosol layer on top with a top height of 2.5-5 km height asl was generally observed. A case study of a Beijing haze plume is presented to document the drastic changes in the environmental conditions over the background monitoring station during the passage of a strong haze front. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and extinction coefficients increased from 0.2 to 1.2 and from 200 Mm-1 to 1000 Mm-1, respectively, within less than two hours. The statistical analysis revealed layer mean extinction coefficients of the haze layer most frequently from 200-600 Mm-1 and typically from 50-100 Mm-1in the elevated layer. The AOD ranged from about 0.3 for northerly air flows to, on average, 0.95 during southerly air flows. The lidar ratio shows a narrow distribution peaking at 60 sr in the haze layer caused by anthropogenic fine-mode aerosol and a broad distribution from 40-90 sr in the elevated layer caused by the complex mixture of aged desert dust, biomass burning smoke, and industrial pollution over eastern Asia.
    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres 07/2012; 117(D13):13201-. · 3.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1] The Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) 2006, Morocco, aimed at the characterization of optical, physical, and radiative properties of Saharan dust. AERONET Sun photometer, several lidars (Raman and high-spectral-resolution instruments), and airborne and ground-based in situ instruments provided us with a comprehensive set of data on particle-shape dependent and particle-shape independent dust properties. We compare 4 measurement days in detail, and we carry out a statistical analysis for some of the inferred data products for the complete measurement period. Particle size distributions and complex refractive indices inferred from the Sun photometer observations and measured in situ aboard a research aircraft show systematic differences. We find differences in the wavelength-dependence of single-scattering albedo, compared to light-scattering computations that use data from SOAP (spectral optical absorption photometer). AERONET data products of particle size distribution, complex refractive index, and axis ratios were used to compute particle extinction-to-backscatter (lidar) ratios and linear particle depolarization ratios. We find differences for these parameters to lidar measurements of lidar ratio and particle depolarization ratio. Differences particularly exist at 355 nm, which may be the result of differences of the wavelength-dependent complex refractive index that is inferred by the methods employed in this field campaign. We discuss various error sources that may lead to the observed differences. Citation: Müller, D., et al. (2012), Comparison of optical and microphysical properties of pure Saharan mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM
    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres 04/2012; 117. · 3.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For the first time in Amazonia, continuous measurements of the vertical aerosol structure were carried out in the framework of EUCAARI (European Integrated Project on Aerosol, Cloud, Climate, Air Quality Interactions) and AMAZE-08 (Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment). The observations were performed 60 km north of Manaus, Brazil (at 2° 35.5' S and 60° 2.3' W) in the central northern part of the Amazon rain forest from January to November 2008 with the automated multi-wavelength-Raman-polarization-lidar PollyXT. With this instrument, vertical profiles of the particle backscatter coefficient at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, of the particle extinction coefficient at 355 and 532 nm, and of the particle linear depolarization ratio at 355 nm can be determined. During the 10-months observational period, measurements were performed on 211 days resulting in more than 2500 hours of tropospheric aerosol and cloud profile observations. The analysis of the long-term data set revealed strong differences in the aerosol characteristics between the wet and the dry season. In the wet season, very clean atmospheric conditions occurred in ca. 50% of all observation cases. During these clean conditions, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 532 nm was less than 0.05 and the aerosol was trapped in the lowermost 2 km of the troposphere. However, also intrusions of Saharan dust and African biomass-burning aerosol (BBA) - characterized by a significantly increased AOD and particle depolarization ratio - were observed in about one third (32%) of all lidar observations. These African aerosol plumes extended usually from the surface up to about 3.5 km agl. During the dry season, BBA from fires on the South American continent was the dominant aerosol species. The mean AOD of the dry season was found to be a factor of 3 higher than the mean AOD of the wet season (0.26 compared to 0.08 at 532 nm). This is due to the high BBA concentration in the atmosphere. Maximum AOD values were less than 0.55 and hence show that the lidar location was not in the direct vicinity of fire events. An AOD below 0.1 was observed in only 7% of all cases in the dry season 2008. Significantly different geometrical, optical, and microphysical properties of BBA (e.g., vertical layering, extinction-to-backscatter ratio, Ångström exponent, effective radius, single-scattering albedo) were observed in dependence of the burning conditions, transport time, etc. The measurements also revealed that BBA can easily mix up to 3-5 km height and thus has the potential to affect cloud microphysics.
    04/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: In May 2011, eruptions of Iceland's Grímsvötn volcano released huge amounts of material into the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Volcanic ash transported to southern Scandinavia could be identified in satellite observations and at air quality monitoring stations in Norway, Sweden, and Finland with PM10 exceeding 100 μg/m3 for several hours. The overpass of the ash plume over Stockholm was also detected with a Raman lidar and a sun photometer (SPM). The first traces of ash were identified at 1900 UTC on 24 May 2011 by an increase in PM10 concentrations and strong lidar signals within the planetary boundary layer (PBL). A maximum ash concentration of 160 μg/m3 was observed at 0000 UTC on 25 May 2011. A second maximum of 110 μg/m3 occurred 4 h later. Measurements of particle size distributions at the surface showed 5 times higher concentrations of particles with diameters between 1 and 7 μm compared to measurements performed 24 h earlier and later, respectively. In addition, an elevated ash layer was detected by lidar between 1.5 and 3.0 km height from 0200 to 0800 UTC on 25 May 2011. The maximum aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of this layer was found to be 0.3 at 532 nm while the total AOT of both the PBL and the elevated layer was 0.6. The AOT obtained with lidar is in good agreement with SPM measurements after sunrise. Ash mass concentrations estimated from the lidar measurements were in the range of 140-270 μg/m3 at 2.8 km height.
    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres 04/2012; 117(D9):5384-. · 3.44 Impact Factor
  • B. Heese, D. Althausen, M. Bauditz, R. Deng, R. Bao, Z. Li
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    ABSTRACT: The priority program "Megacities-Megachallenge - Informal Dynamics of Global Change" is a large interdisciplinary project funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). One of the subproject deals with mega-urbanisation in the Pearl River Delta, South-China, with special respect to particulate air pollution and public health. In the frame of this subproject the vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties are investigated by measurements with the multiwavelength-Raman-polarization lidar PollyXT of the IfT. The instrument can measure the particle backscatter coefficient at 355 nm, 532 nm, and 1064 nm, the particle extinction coefficients at 355 nm and 532 nm, and the particle linear depolarization ratio at 532 nm. These measurements are supported by a dual-polar sun photometer that provides height integrated data as the aerosol optical depth and the degree of linear depolarization. These instruments are placed at the East campus of the Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China. Guangzhou and the Pearl River Delta is a developing area with currently around 11 Million inhabitants. The measurements started in November 2011 and are supposed to continue for at least half a year covering the late autumn and winter season and parts of the spring season. Extensions of the measurements towards a whole seasonal cycle are planned. Thus, different meteorological conditions will lead to particle transport from several source regions. Different aerosol types are expected to be observed during the measurement period: urban particles from local and regional sources as well as dust from the deserts in Central Asia. The observed particles can be distinguished by analyzing their optical properties at several wavelengths. In particular, the depolarization measurements from both instruments promise a better determination of the particle shape.
    04/2012;
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    Weather and Forecasting 12/2011; 26(6):1056-1066. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For the first time, multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar observations of optical and microphysical particle properties over the Amazon Basin are presented. The fully automated advanced Raman lidar was deployed 60 km north of Manaus, Brazil (2.5°S, 60°W) in the Amazon rain forest from January to November 2008. The measurements thus cover both the wet season (Dec-June) and the dry or burning season (July-Nov). Two cases studies of young and aged smoke plumes are discussed in terms of spectrally resolved optical properties (355, 532, and 1064 nm) and further lidar products such as particle effective radius and single-scattering albedo. These measurement examples confirm that biomass burning aerosols show a broad spectrum of optical, microphysical, and chemical properties. The statistical analysis of the entire measurement period revealed strong differences between the pristine wet and the polluted dry season. African smoke and dust advection frequently interrupt the pristine phases during the wet season. Compared to pristine wet season conditions, the particle scattering coefficients in the lowermost 2 km of the atmosphere were found to be enhanced, on average, by a factor of 4 during periods of African aerosol intrusion and by a factor of 6 during the dry (burning) season. Under pristine conditions, the particle extinction coefficients and optical depth for 532 nm wavelength were frequently as low as 10-30 Mm-1 and <0.05, respectively. During the dry season, biomass burning smoke plumes reached to 3-5 km height and caused a mean optical depth at 532 nm of 0.26. On average during that season, particle extinction coefficients (532 nm) were of the order of 100 Mm-1 in the main pollution layer (up to 2 km height). Ångström exponents were mainly between 1.0 and 1.5, and the majority of the observed lidar ratios were between 50-80 sr.
    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres 11/2011; 117(D21):21201-. · 3.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heterogeneous freezing in the Northern and Southern HemisphereDiscussion of sources of natural and anthropogenic ice nucleiDetermination of cloud phase state by depolarization lidar
    Geophysical Research Letters 09/2011; 38(17). · 3.98 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
257.82 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1029–2014
    • Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research
      • Department of Physics
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
  • 2011
    • Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 2001–2010
    • Institut für Therapieforschung München
      München, Bavaria, Germany