[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nesfatin-1, a recently discovered satiety molecule, is localized in neurons of the hypothalamus and brain stem and colocalized with stress-related substances. However, the relation between nesfatin-1 and stressor related behaviors like anxiety and/or fear has not yet been investigated in human subjects. In the present study, our aim was to investigate whether there was a relationship between plasma nesfatin-1 levels and generalized anxiety disorder. The study group consisted of 40 patients (BMI, 22.98±0.56) with generalized anxiety disorder and 34 age-matched healthy male control subjects (23.05±0.4). Patients fully met the fourth Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, text revision. Blood samples for nesfatin-1 were drawn at the end of an overnight fasting period at least 10h. Plasma nesfatin-1 levels were measured and found significantly lower in anxiety disorder group than in control group (0.35±0.037ng/ml vs. 0.63±0.080ng/ml, respectively, p<0.05). Low nesfatin-1 levels may be related with generalized anxiety disorder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Prefrontal and/or temporo-limbic abnormalities associated with antisocial personality disorder (APD), high psychopathy scores and violent behaviours can readily be evaluated by neuroimaging methods.Objectives: In this study, we compared the brain metabolites in adult male military conscripts with APD, high psychopathy scores and serious violent crimes (n = 15) with age- and educational-level-matched healthy controls (n = 15) by means of magnetic resonance spectroscopy.Methods: All cases were diagnosed by means of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual-IV APD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) semistructured questionnaire in Turkish. The psychopathy scores were evaluated by means of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised translated into Turkish (PCL-R). PCL-R is a 20-item, reliable and valid instrument for assessment of psychopathy, both in categorical and dimensional natures. All patients had a total score of 29 (of possible 40) or higher from PCL-R, indicating a high degree of psychopathy.Results: Our results showed no significant differences in ratio of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and choline-related compounds in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and amygdala–hippocampus regions of cases compared with controls. ACC NAA/Cr was significantly negatively correlated with both the PCL-R total score and the PCL-R factor I score (interpersonal/affective problems) among the cases.Conclusion: As ACC plays an important role in decision-making and emotional information processing, we postulate that the lower NAA/Cr ratio, suggesting impaired neural integrity, may increase the severity of interpersonal/affective problems of the psychopathy factor in male subjects exhibiting APD, high psychopathy overall scores and violent crimes.