Xiaochun Fei

Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (11)49.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To assess diagnostic accuracy with diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in patients with breast lesions and to evaluate the potential association between DKI-derived parameters and breast cancer clinical-pathologic factors. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained. Data from 97 patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 45.7 years ± 13.1; range, 19-70 years) with 98 lesions (57 malignant and 41 benign) who were treated between January 2014 and April 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. DKI (with b values of 0-2800 sec/mm(2)) and conventional diffusion-weighted imaging data were acquired. Kurtosis and diffusion coefficients from DKI and apparent diffusion coefficients from diffusion-weighted imaging were measured by two radiologists. Student t test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Jonckheere-Terpstra test, receiver operating characteristic curves, and Spearman correlation were used for statistical analysis. Results Kurtosis coefficients were significantly higher in the malignant lesions than in the benign lesions (1.05 ± 0.22 vs 0.65 ± 0.11, respectively; P < .0001). Diffusivity and apparent diffusion coefficients in the malignant lesions were significantly lower than those in the benign lesions (1.13 ± 0.27 vs 1.97 ± 0.33 and 1.02 ± 0.18 vs 1.48 ± 0.33, respectively; P < .0001). Significantly higher specificity for differentiation of malignant from benign lesions was shown with the use of kurtosis and diffusivity coefficients than with the use of apparent diffusion coefficients (83% [34 of 41] and 83% [34 of 41] vs 76% [31 of 41], respectively; P < .0001) with equal sensitivity (95% [54 of 57]). In patients with invasive breast cancer, kurtosis was positively correlated with tumor histologic grade (r = 0.75) and expression of the Ki-67 protein (r = 0.55). Diffusivity was negatively correlated with tumor histologic grades (r = -0.44) and Ki-67 expression (r = -0.46). Conclusion DKI showed higher specificity than did conventional diffusion-weighted imaging for assessment of benign and malignant breast lesions. Patients with grade 3 breast cancer or tumors with high expression of Ki-67 were associated with higher kurtosis and lower diffusivity coefficients; however, this association must be confirmed in prospective studies. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    Radiology 05/2015; DOI:10.1148/radiol.15141625 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is often associated with a poor prognosis. The aim of our study was to identify biomarkers predictive of TNBC progression. Primary TNBC breast tissue samples including four with metastasis and six without metastasis were subjected to Affymetrix GeneChip® analysis (human genome U133). Ubiquitin-specific protease 2 (USP2) was identified as an upregulated gene in the metastatic group, and its expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 121 primary breast cancers, 13 paired normal tissues, and 13 paired metastatic lesions. Survival analysis was performed using the log-rank test and Cox regression hazard model. Matrigel migration and invasion assays in USP2-silenced and USP2-overexpressed breast cancer cell lines were used to investigate the mechanisms of USP2 in vitro. Positive immunostaining for USP2 was detected in breast tumors and was correlated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) statuses and TNBC subtype. USP2 was overexpressed in distant metastatic lesions compared with primary breast cancers. Survival analyses demonstrated that positive USP2 is a poor prognostic factor for disease-free survival. Silencing of USP2 expression decreased migration and invasion in LM2-4175 and SCP46 cells in association with the downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) expression, whereas overexpression of USP2 in MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 cells enhanced migration and invasion and upregulated the expression of MMP2. The present study showed that USP2 expression is associated with TNBC cell line's invasiveness and poor survival of breast cancer patients and may serve as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for TNBC.
    Tumor Biology 02/2015; 36(7). DOI:10.1007/s13277-015-3207-7 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is commonly associated with chronic hypoxemia in disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Prostacyclin analogs are widely used in the management of PAH patients; however, clinical efficacy and long-term tolerability of some prostacyclin analogs may be compromised by concomitant activation of the E-prostanoid 3 (EP3) receptor. Here, we found that EP3 expression is upregulated in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and human distal pulmonary arteries (PAs) in response to hypoxia. Either pharmacological inhibition of EP3 or Ep3 deletion attenuated both hypoxia and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension and restrained extracellular matrix accumulation in PAs in rodent models. In a murine PAH model, Ep3 deletion in SMCs, but not endothelial cells, retarded PA medial thickness. Knockdown of EP3α and EP3β, but not EP3γ, isoforms diminished hypoxia-induced TGF-β1 activation. Expression of either EP3α or EP3β in EP3-deficient PASMCs restored TGF-β1 activation in response to hypoxia. EP3α/β activation in PASMCs increased RhoA-dependent membrane type 1 extracellular matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) translocation to the cell surface, subsequently activating pro-MMP-2 and promoting TGF-β1 signaling. Activation or disruption of EP3 did not influence PASMC proliferation. Together, our results indicate that EP3 activation facilitates hypoxia-induced vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension in mice and suggest EP3 inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy for pulmonary hypertension.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 02/2015; 125(3). DOI:10.1172/JCI77656 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The chromodomain helicase/adenosine triphosphatase DNA binding protein 1–like gene (CHD1L) is a recently identified oncogene localized at 1q21. CHD1L protein over-expression in primary hepatocellular carcinoma is correlated with enhanced apoptosis inhibition, reduced chemosensitivity and shortened patient survival. However, CHD1L protein status or mRNA expression in breast cancer and its clinical significance remain obscure. Material and Methods In this study, immunohistochemical staining for CHD1L expression was performed on tissue microarrays containing 179 primary invasive breast cancers and 65 matched normal breast tissue specimens. Clinico-pathological features were collected and compared between different CHD1L statuses. Kaplan-Meier curves were applied to estimate disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Cox regression was used to identify independent prognostic factors. Also, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) was employed to evaluate the mRNA level expression of CHD1L in six breast cancer cell lines. Results Presence of CHD1L over-expression was observed in 87 of the 179 patients (48.6%), which associated with a younger age (P = 0.011), higher grade (P = 0.004), higher Ki-67 index (P = 0.018) and HER2 over-expression/amplification (P = 0.037). After a median follow-up of 55 months, patients with presence of CHD1L over-expression had significantly poorer DFS (82.6% Vs 76.3%, P = 0.035), but not OS (87.0% Vs 94.9%, P = 0.439). In multivariate analysis, CHD1L status (HR = 2.169, [95%CI, 1.029–4.573], P = 0.042), triple negative subtype (HR = 2.809, [95%CI 1.086–7.264], P = 0.033) and HER2 positive subtype (HR = 5.221, [95%CI 1.788–15.240], P = 0.002) were identified as independent prognostic factors for DFS. In vitro study indicated that relative mRNA expression level of CHD1L was higher in breast cancer cell lines, especially in MDA-MB-231 and LM2-4175, when compared to normal breast epithelial cell line. Conclusions Presence of CHD1L over-expression is probably associated with aggressive tumor biology in breast cancer. CHD1L status might be a novel prognostic biomarker for patients with breast cancer.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e98673. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098673 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Few studies has documented early relapse in luminal B/HER2-negative breast cancer. We examined prognostic factors for early relapse among these patients to improve treatment decision-making. Patients and Methods A total 398 patients with luminal B/HER2-negative breast cancer were included. Kaplan-Meier curves were applied to estimate disease-free survival and Cox regression to identify prognostic factors. Results Progesterone receptor (PR) negative expression was associated with higher tumor grade (p<.001) and higher Ki-67 index (p = .010). PR-negative patients received more chemotherapy than the PR-positive group (p = .009). After a median follow-up of 28 months, 17 patients (4.3%) had early relapses and 8 patients (2.0%) died of breast cancer. The 2-year disease-free survival was 97.7% in the PR-positive and 90.4% in the PR-negative groups (Log-rank p = .002). Also, patients with a high Ki-67 index (defined as >30%) had a reduced disease-free survival (DFS) when compared with low Ki-67 index group (≤30%) (98.0% vs 92.4%, respectively, Log-rank p = .013). In multivariate analysis, PR negativity was significantly associated with a reduced DFS (HR = 3.91, 95% CI 1.29–11.88, p = .016). Conclusion In this study, PR negativity was a prognostic factor for early relapse in luminal B/HER2-negative breast cancer, while a high Ki-67 index suggested a higher risk of early relapse.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(8):e95629. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095629 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can promote cancer initiation and progression by releasing cytokines. Previously, we have found the density of TAMs correlated with lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, the mechanisms of how TAMs promote PTC progression remain unclear. In this study, we first showed that the TAMs density in the tumor core was associated with progressive PTC features and TAMs conditioned medium enhanced PTC cells invasion. Cytokine profiling identified a mixed M1/M2 phenotype and CXCL8 was the most consistently abundant cytokine in PTC-derived TAMs. CXCL8 receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, were positively stained in PTC cell lines and tissues, though no association with lymph node metastasis or extrathyroid extension. PTC cell invasion was abrogated by anti-CXCL8-neutralizing antibody, whereas addition of exogenous recombinant human CXCL8 enhanced the invasiveness. More importantly, CXCL8 promoted PTC metastasis in vivo. No difference was found for TAMs-derived CXCL8 expression in patients with and without lymph node metastasis or extrathyroid extension. These findings indicated that TAMs may facilitate PTC cell metastasis through CXCL8 and its paracrine interaction with CXCR1/2.
    Carcinogenesis 03/2014; 35(8). DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgu060 · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the capacity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to distinguish breast cancer from inflammatory breast diseases manifesting as a rim-enhanced mass with central cystic changes. Forty cases of breast cancer and 52 of inflammatory breast diseases showing a rim-enhanced mass with central cystic changes were retrospectively reviewed. All cases underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and 31 of them underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Morphological features, dynamic parameters and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were comparatively analyzed using univariate analysis and binary logistic regression analysis. Breast cancer had a significantly thicker wall than the inflammatory breast diseases (P<0.001) while internal enhancing septa were more common in inflammatory breast diseases (P = 0.003). On DWI, 86.7% of breast cancers demonstrate a peripheral hyperintensity whereas 93.8% of inflammatory breast diseases had a central hyperintensity (P<0.001). Compared to the inflammatory breast diseases, breast cancers had a lower ADC value for the wall (1.09×10-3 mm2/s vs 1.42×10-3 mm2/s, P<0.001) and a higher ADC value for the central part (1.94×10-3 mm2/s vs 1.05×10-3 mm2/s, P<0.001). Both breast cancer and inflammatory breast diseases could present as a rim-enhanced mass with central cystic changes on MRI. Integrated analysis of the MR findings can allow for an accurate differential diagnosis.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e90355. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090355 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The programmed death-1 (PD-1) molecule is mainly expressed on functionally "exhausted" CD8(+) T cells, dampening the host antitumor immune response. We evaluated the ratio between effective and regulatory T cells (Tregs) and PD-1 expression as a prognostic factor for operable breast cancer patients. A series of 218 newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer patients who had undergone primary surgery at Ruijin Hospital were identified. The influence of CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes, FOXP3(+) (Treg cell marker), and PD-1(+) immune cell counts on prognosis was analyzed utilizing immunohistochemistry. Both PD-1(+) immune cells and FOXP3(+) Tregs counts were significantly associated with unfavorable prognostic factors. In bivariate, but not multivariate analysis, high tumor infiltrating PD-1(+) cell counts correlated with significantly shorter patient survival. Our results suggest a prognostic value of the PD-1(+) immune cell population in such breast cancer patients. Targeting the PD-1 pathway may be a feasible approach to treating patients with breast cancer.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 02/2014; 63(4). DOI:10.1007/s00262-014-1519-x · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) is a rare and recently recognized subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Apart from the classic morphology comprising conventional three components, there exist a large number of non-classic morphological variants of MTSCC, which make it necessity to differentiate from other RCC. Herein, we report two non-classic morphological variants of MTSCC. Case 1, a 85 years old man, showed numerous vacuoles among inherent components and cytoplasmic pallor/clearing within tubules mimicking conventional clear cell RCC with a 8.5 years follow-up, while Case 2 indicated a "mucin-poor" MTSCC associated with simultaneous conventional clear cell RCC at her age of 73 years. Until now Case 1 carries the longest disease-free survival reported in literature since MTSCC was defined and ranks the oldest since reported in literature, while Case 2 is the first report of "mucin-poor" MTSCC associated with simultaneous conventional clear cell RCC. Now, since no biomarkers or imagining tools but pathological examination can confirm the diagnosis of MTSCC, the management is always following the guideline of RCC in clinical practice. Generally, most reports consider it as a good prognosis disease, but sarcomatoid variant, even classic subtype can progress rapidly to life-threatening disease.
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), HER2, and Ki67 have been increasingly evaluated by core needle biopsy (CNB) and are recommended for classifying breast cancer into molecular subtypes. However, the concordance rate between CNB and open excision biopsy (OEB) has not been well documented. Patients with paired CNB and OEB samples from Oct. 2009 to Feb. 2012 in Ruijin Hospital were included. ER, PgR, HER2, and Ki67 were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Patients with HER2 IHC 2+ were further examined by FISH. Cutoff value for Ki67 high expression was 14%. Molecular subtypes were constructed as follows: Luminal A, Luminal B, Triple Negative, and HER2 positive. There were 298 invasive breast cancer patients analyzed. Concordance rates for ER, PgR, and HER2 were 93.6%, 85.9%, and 96.3%, respectively. Ki67 expression was slightly higher in OEB than in CNB samples (29.3% vs. 26.8%, P = 0.046). Good agreement (kappa = 0.658) was demonstrated in evaluating molecular subtypes between CNB and OEB, with a concordance rate of 77.2%. We also used a different Ki67 cutoff value (20%) for determining Luminal A and B subtypes in HR (hormone receptor) +/HER2- diseases and the overall concordance rate was 79.2%. However, using a cut-point of Ki67 either 14% or 20% for both specimens, there will be about 14% of HR+/HER2- specimens that are called Luminal A on CNB and Luminal B on OEB. CNB was accurate in determining ER, PgR, and HER2 status as well as non-Luminal molecular subtypes in invasive breast cancer. Ki67 should be retested on OEB samples in HR+/HER2- patients to accurately distinguish Luminal A from B tumors.
    BMC Cancer 08/2013; 13(1):390. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-13-390 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) have recently been recognized as an important player in the tumoriogenesis of many cancers, including advanced thyroid cancer. However, a role in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most prevalent thyroid cancer, has not been established. We hypothesized that TAMs facilitate tumor progression in PTC as well. Methods We investigated TAMs density in both benign thyroid lesions and PTC tumors by CD68 immunostaining. CD68 positive cell density was further associated with clinicopathological characters of PTC patients. Finally, TAMs were isolated from PTC tumors and phenotyped it by cytokine and receptor profiling. Results The overall density of TAMs was found to be significantly higher in PTC tumors, compared with thyroid goiter and follicular adenoma (FA). TAMs density was positively associated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stages III/VI compared with Stages I/II. No association was observed other common tumor features, including BRAF mutation. The isolated TAMs presented with high levels of M2 associated cytokine and receptors, making M2 the predominant TAM phenotype. Conclusions TAMs may have a functional role in the progression of PTC tumors.
    Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 05/2012; DOI:10.1089/thy.2011-0452 · 3.84 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

20 Citations
49.66 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Shanghai Ruijin Hospital
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • Shanghai Jiao Tong University
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2013–2014
    • Ruijin Hospital North
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China