[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentation disorder largely caused by defective melanocyte- or autoimmunity-induced melanocyte destruction. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is essential for melanocyte homeostasis and immune process, and abnormal AHR was observed in vitiligo. We previously identified the T allele of AHR -129C > T variant as a protective factor against vitiligo. However, biological characterization underlying such effects is not fully certain, further validation by mechanistic research is warranted and was conducted in the present study. We showed that -129T allele promoted AHR transcriptional activity through facilitating its interaction with SP1 transcription factor (SP1) compared with -129C allele. We subsequently found reduced peripheral AHR and SP1 transcript expressions in vitiligo and a negative correlation of AHR level with disease duration. We also investigated AHR-related cytokines and observed increased serum TNF-α concentration and diminished serum levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in vitiligo. Further genetic analysis showed that -129T carriers possessed higher levels of AHR and IL-10 than -129C carriers. Therefore, our study indicates that the modulation of AHR transcription by a promoter variant has a profound influence on vitiligo, not only advancing our understanding on AHR function but also providing novel insight into the pathogenesis of degenerative or autoimmune diseases including vitiligo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To describe the prostatic arterial supply using Cone-beam computed tomography (CT) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) before prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
In a retrospective study from January 2012 to January 2014, 55 male patients (110 hemipelves) with BPH who underwent PAE were evaluated by Cone-beam CT in addition to pelvic DSA during embolization planning. Each hemipelvis was evaluated regarding the number of prostatic arteries (PA) and their origins, diameters, territorial perfusion, and anastomoses with adjacent arteries.
A total of 114 PAs were identified in 110 hemipelves. There was one PA in 96.4% of the hemipelves (n=106), and two independent PAs in the other 3.6% (n=4). The PA was found to originate from the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery in 39.5% of cases (n=45) , from the superior vesical artery in 32.6% (n=37), and from the internal pudendal artery in 27.9% of cases (n=32). Extra-prostatic anastomoses between PA and adjacent arteries were found in 39.1% of hemipelves (n=43). Intra-prostatic anastomoses between PAs and contra-lateral prostatic branches were found in 61.8% of hemipelves (n=68). In 67.3% of our study population (n=37), the prostate was dominantly supplied via a unilateral PA.
The prostatic vascularization is complex with frequent anatomic variations. Knowledge of the vascular anatomy of the prostate may provide indications for planning PAE and avoiding nontarget embolization.
PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7):e0132678. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0132678 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, large prostate size (>80 mL) of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) still pose technical challenges for surgical treatment. This prospective study was designed to explore the safety and efficacy of prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) as an alternative treatment for patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to largeBPH.
A total of 117 patients with prostates >80 mL were included in the study; all were failure of medical treatment and unsuited for surgery. PAE was performed using combination of 50-μm and 100-μm particles in size, under local anaesthesia by a unilateral femoral approach. Clinical follow-up was performed using the international prostate symptoms score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), peak urinary flow (Qmax), post-void residual volume (PVR), international index of erectile function short form (IIEF-5), prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic volume (PV) measured by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, at 1, 3, 6 and every 6 months thereafter.
The prostatic artery origins in this study population were different from previously published results. PAE was technically successful in 109 of 117 patients (93.2%). Follow-up data were available for the 105 patients with a mean follow-up of 24 months. The clinical improvements in IPSS, QoL, Qmax, PVR, and PV at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months was 94.3%, 94.3%, 93.3%, 92.6%, and 91.7%, respectively. The mean IPSS (pre-PAE vs post-PAE 26.0 vs 9.0; P < .0.01), the mean QoL (5.0 vs 3.0; P < 0.01), the mean Qmax (8.5 vs 14.5; P < 0.01), the mean PVR (125.0 vs 40.0; P < 0.01), and PV (118.0 vs 69.0, with a mean reduction of 41.5%; P < 0.01 ) at 24-month after PAE were significantly different with respect to baseline. The mean IIEF-5 was not statistically different from baseline. No major complications were noted.
PAE is a safe and effective treatment method for patients with LUTS due to large volume BPH. PAE may play an important role in patients in whom medical therapy has failed, who are not candidates for open surgery or TURP or refuse any surgical treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the outcomes of prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) in treating large prostates (>80 mL) in comparison with medium-sized prostates (50-80 mL), largely to determine whether size may affect the outcome of PAE.
A total of 115 patients (mean, 71.5 years) diagnosed with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) that was refractory to medical treatment underwent PAE. Group A (n=64) included patients with a mean prostate volume of 129 mL; group B (n=51) included patients with a mean prostate volume of 64 mL. PAE was performed using 100-μm particles. Follow-up was performed using the international prostate symptoms score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), peak urinary flow rate (Qmax), post-void residual volume (PVR), the international index of erectile function short form (IIEF-5), prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and prostate volume (PV) measured by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, at 1, 3, 6 and every 6 months thereafter.
There were no significant differences in baseline IPSS, QoL, Qmax, PVR, PSA, or IIEF-5, between groups. Technical success rate was 93.8% in group A and 96.8% in group B (P=0.7). A total of 101 patients (55 patients in group A and 46 patients in group B) had completed the follow-up with a mean of 17 months (range 12-33 months). Compared with the baseline, there were significant improvements in IPSS, QoL, Qmax, PV, and PVR in both groups after PAE. The outcomes in group A were significantly better (group A vs group B mean±SD) regarding IPSS (-14±6.5 vs -10.5±5.5), Qmax (6.0±1.5 vs 4.5±1.0), PVR (-80.0±25.0 vs -60.0±20.0), PV (-54.5±18.0 [-42.3%] vs -18.5±5.0 [-28.9%]), and QoL (-3.0±1.5 vs -2.0±1.0) with P values <0.05. The mean IIEF-5 was not statistically different from baseline in both groups. No major complications were noted.
PAE is a safe and effective treatment method for patients with LUTS due to large and medium-sized BPH. The clinical and imaging outcomes of PAE were better in patients with larger BPH than medium size ones. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
BJU International 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/bju.13147 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although non-segmental vitiligo (NSV) results from the autoimmune destruction of melanocytes, the detailed immune mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. Th17 cells have been identified to be implicated in human autoimmune diseases. In the present study, the frequencies of peripheral blood Th17 cells and serum levels of IL-17A and Th17 cell-related cytokines were examined in 45 active NSV patients compared to 45 race-, gender- and age-matched healthy subjects. Our results showed increased circulating Th17 cell frequencies and elevated serum IL-17A, TGF-β1 and IL-21 levels in NSV patients. Meanwhile, the increased Th17 cell frequencies are positively correlated with serum TGF-β1 level, and the body surface area of lesions are positively correlated with elevated TGF-β1, IL-21 levels and Th17 cell frequencies. Furthermore, positive correlation was identified between Th17 and Th1 cell frequencies in NSV patients. These results further indicate the potential involvement of Th17 cells and the collaborative contribution of Th17 and Th1 in NSV development, and suggest that the elevated serum TGF-β1 and IL-21 could contribute to enhanced Th17 cell differentiation in NSV.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purposes:
Uncontrolled proliferation is a key characteristic of gastric carcinogenesis and the precise mechanisms underlying the altered proliferation behaviors of GC cells have not been clearly elucidated. miRNAs has been suggested to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and development of various cancers. In the present study, we employed an impedance-based real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) system to detect the effects of ectopically expressed miRNAs on GC cell proliferation.
miRNA mimics were transfected into gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 and the effect of individual miRNA on the proliferation rate of the cells was measured by the RT-CES system. The screening results were validated with qRT-PCR and miR-137 was selected for further research. The effects of ectopically expressed miR-137 on GC cell growth and cell cycle progress were measured using MTT assay and flow cytometry. The target gene of miR-137 was predicted using different bioinformatics tools and the direct interaction between miR-137 and the 3'-UTR was confirmed with a luciferase reporter assay. The in vivo effect of miR-137 on GC cell proliferation was examined with a tumor-bearing nude mouse model. The correlation between miR-137 expression and patients' prognosis was explored in a cohort of 38 patients. Prognosis was explored in a cohort of 38 patients.
Ectopic expression of miR-137 was sufficient to inhibit GC cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Bioinformatics prediction and luciferase reporter assay revealed CDK6 as a target gene through which miR-137 exerted an inhibitory function. Moreover, miR-137 expression positively correlated with better prognosis.
Our data indicated an important regulatory role of miR-137 in GC cell proliferation and that it may be explored as a prognostic marker for GC.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 10/2014; 141(5). DOI:10.1007/s00432-014-1847-4 · 3.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
To investigate and compare the efficacy and safety of percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting (PTBS) using a one- or two-stage procedure and determine the predictive factors for the efficacious treatment of malignant hilar obstruction (MHO).
159 consecutive patients with MHO who underwent PTBS were enrolled between January 2010 and June 2013. Patients were classified into one- or two-stage groups. Independent predictors of therapeutic success were evaluated using a logistic regression model.
108 patients were treated with one-stage PTBS and 51 patients were treated with two-stage PTBS. The stents were technically successful in all patients. Successful drainage was achieved in 114 patients (71.4 %). A total of 42 early major complications were observed. Re-interventions were attempted in 23 patients during follow-up. The cumulative primary patency rates at 3, 6, and 12 months were 88, 71, and 48 %, respectively. Stent placement using a one- or two-stage procedure did not significantly affect therapeutic success, early major complications, median stent patency, or survival. A stent placed across the duodenal papilla was an independent predictor of therapeutic success (odds ratio = 0.262, 95 % confidence interval [0.107-0.642]). Patients with stents across papilla had a lower rate of cholangitis compared with patients who had a stent above papilla (7.1 vs. 20.3 %, respectively, p = 0.03).
The majority of patients with MHO who underwent one-stage PTBS showed similar efficacy and safety outcomes compared with those who underwent two-stage PTBS. Stent placement across the duodenal papilla was associated with a higher therapeutic success rate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronin3 expression is increased in gastric cancer (GC) tissues and can promote GC invasion and metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying Coronin3 function in GC remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the interacting molecules essential for the tumor-promoting effects of Coronin3 in GC. Using mass spectrometric analysis, functional studies, and immunohistochemistry, we found that Arp2 interacted with Coronin3, and ectopic expression of Arp2 promoted GC cell migration and invasion, while Arp2 knockdown suppressed whole-cell motility and attenuated the Coronin3-mediated upregulation of cell migration and invasion. In addition, both proteins correlated with the metastatic status of GC patients. Furthermore, survival analyses demonstrated that both Coronin3 and Arp2 correlated with overall GC patient survival, and the combination of Coronin3 and Arp2 most accurately predicted GC patient prognosis. Combined, these data demonstrate that Coronin3 can regulate GC invasion and metastasis through Arp2, and the combination of Coronin3 and Arp2 provides a potential marker for predicting GC prognosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitiligo melanocytes possess higher susceptibility to oxidative insults. Consistent with this, impairment of the antioxidant defense system has been reported to be involved in the onset and progression of vitiligo. Our previous study showed that the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element (Nrf2-ARE) pathway and its downstream antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) are crucial for melanocytes to cope with H2O2-induced oxidative damage. Here, we sought to determine whether the diminished Nrf2-ARE activity that contributes to reduced downstream antioxidant enzymes and increased oxidative stress could be the reason why melanocytes are more vulnerable to vitiligo. We found that vitiligo melanocytes exhibited hypersensitivity to H2O2-induced oxidative injury because of reduced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity, which led to decreased HO-1 expression and aberrant redox balance. Moreover, we also found that the level of serum HO-1 was significantly decreased and that of interleukin (IL)-2 was dramatically increased in 113 vitiligo patients when compared to healthy controls. These data demonstrate that impaired activation of Nrf2 under oxidative stress could result in decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes and increased death of vitiligo melanocytes.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 24 March 2014; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.152.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small-diameter end-mill is a key element for micro-machining technique. It is a new attempt to manufacture a small-diameter tool with polycrystalline diamond (PCD), which is also a hot issue in the research area of micro-manufacturing. PCD end-mills with small-diameter were fabricated and utilized in micro-milling. With a contact simulation model, the stress distribution and potential crack propagation of the PCD tool was revealed via 2D finite element (FE) analysis of 2Al2 aluminum alloy acting on the tool surface. Thereafter, a series of machining experiments on 2A12 micro-part were carried out with the PCD small-diameter end-mill. The wear characteristics of the rake face and flank face were analyzed, and the wear mechanisms of small-diameter end-mills were carefully investigated by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Three typical breakage morphologies of PCD end-mills were demonstrated while machining the aluminum alloy workpiece, i.e., the breakage of the tool tip, the edge chipping, and the peeling off of PCD layer. The consequent experiment results showed that abrasive wear, adhesive wear, and oxidative wear were the predominant characteristics in the damage region of PCD small-diameter end-mill. The effect mechanisms of various wear characteristics were also analyzed and revealed in detail. The experimental results were discussed according to the simulation results and effects on failure behavior of the PCD tool. The research can provide a better understanding for the wear and breakage behaviors of the downsized PCD tool in machining aluminum alloy and underpin the development of micro-milling process with diamond tool.
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 03/2014; 77(5-8):839-846. DOI:10.1007/s00170-014-6435-x · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) display adjuvant functions when given as fusion proteins to enhance vaccination efficiency. To evaluate enhanced potency of Hantaan virus (HTNV) glycoprotein (GP) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) immunogenicity by heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), a recombinant adenovirus rAd-GnS0.7-pCAG-HSP70C expression vector was developed by genetically linking the HSP70 C-terminal gene (HSP70 359-610 aa, HSP70C) to the Gn and 0.7 kb fragment of the NP (aa1-274-S0.7). C57BL/6 mice were immunized with these recombinant adenoviral vectors. A series of immunological assays determined the immunogenicity of the recombinant adenoviral vectors. The results showed that rAd-GnS0.7-pCAG-HSP70C induced a stronger humoral and cellular immune response than other recombinant adenoviruses (rAd-GnS0.7-pCAG and rAd-GnS0.7) and the HFRS vaccine control. Animal protection experiments showed that rAd-GnS0.7-pCAG-HSP70C was effective at protecting C57BL/6 mice from HTNV infection. The results of the immunological experiments showed that HSP70C lead to enhanced vaccine potency, and suggested significant potential in the development of genetically engineered vaccines against HTNV.
PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e88183. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0088183 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemoresistance remains the most significant obstacle to successful chemotherapy for leukemia, and its exact mechanism is still unknown. In this work, we used the cell surface capturing method together with quantitative proteomics to investigate differences in the glycoproteomes of adriamycin-sensitive and adriamycin-resistant leukemia cells. Two quantitative methods, isotopic dimethyl labeling and SWATH, were used to quantify glycoproteins, and 35 glycoproteins were quantified by both methods. High correlation was observed between the glycoproteins quantified by the above two methods, and 15 glycoproteins displayed a consistent significant change trend in both sets of quantitative results. These 15 proteins included classical multidrug resistance-related glycoproteins such as ABCB1, as well as a set of novel glycoproteins that have not previously been reported to be associated with chemoresistance in leukemia cells. Further validation with quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting confirmed the proteomic screening results. Subsequent functional experiments based on RNA interference technology showed that CTSD, FKBP10 and SLC2A1 are novel genes that participate in the acquisition and maintenance of the adriamycin- resistant phenotype in leukemia cells.
Journal of Proteome Research 01/2014; · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemoresistance remains the most significant obstacle to successful chemotherapy for leukemia, and its exact mechanism is still unknown. In this work, we used the cell-surface capturing method together with quantitative proteomics to investigate differences in the glycoproteomes of adriamycin-sensitive and adriamycin-resistant leukemia cells. Two quantitative methods, isotopic dimethyl labeling and SWATH, were used to quantify glycoproteins, and 35 glycoproteins were quantified by both methods. High correlation was observed between the glycoproteins quantified by the above two methods, and 15 glycoproteins displayed a consistent significant change trend in both sets of quantitative results. These 15 proteins included classical multidrug resistance-related glycoproteins such as ABCB1 as well as a set of novel glycoproteins that have not previously been reported to be associated with chemoresistance in leukemia cells. Further validation with quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting confirmed the proteomic screening results. Subsequent functional experiments based on RNA interference technology showed that CTSD, FKBP10, and SLC2A1 are novel genes that participate in the acquisition and maintenance of the adriamycin-resistant phenotype in leukemia cells.
Journal of Proteome Research 01/2014; 13(3). DOI:10.1021/pr4010822 · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RhoE, a novel member of the Rho protein family, is a key regulator of the cytoskeleton and cell migration. Our group has previously shown that RhoE as a direct target for HIF-1α and mediates hypoxia-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer cells. Therefore, we assumed that RhoE might play an important role in gastric cancer metastasis. In the present study, we have explored the role of RhoE expression in gastric cancer, cell invasion and metastasis, and the influence of RhoE on regulating the potential expression of down-stream genes. RhoE expression was elevated in gastric cancer tissues as compared with normal gastric tissues. We also found a close correlation between the histological grade and the diagnosis of the patient. Up-regulation of RhoE significantly enhanced the migratory and invasive abilities of gastric cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, down-regulation of RhoE diminished the metastatic potential of cancer cells. PCR array and subsequent transwell assay showed that the regulation of gastric cancer metastasis by RhoE was partially mediated by CXCR4. This observation suggested that CXCR4 might be a downstream effector for RhoE. In summary, our study identified RhoE as a novel prognostic biomarker and metastatic-promoting gene of gastric cancer.
PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e81709. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081709 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a common autoimmune skin disease, characterized by intense proliferation and abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes. Recently, some miRNAs have been proven to show aberrant expression in psoriasis and play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this study was to detect serum and skin miR-369-3p levels in patients with psoriasis and confirm their correlation with disease severity. The regulatory mechanism between miR-369-3p and TNF-α was also investigated. Bioinformatics analysis for target genes of miRNAs was performed using multiple prediction software. Serum samples and skin tissues were collected and serum and skin miR-369-3p levels were measured. The Psoriasis Area Severity Index scores of patients and the correlation with serum and skin miR-369-3p levels were evaluated. Transient transfection and Elisa were applied to HaCaT cells to testify the relationship between expression of miR-369-3p and TNF-α. Serum and skin miR-369-3p levels were both higher in patients with psoriasis than those in healthy controls (P<0.05; P<0.001, respectively). And miR-369-3p levels in skin had a positive linear relation with PASI scores in psoriasis patients (r = 0.70, P<0.05). Unexpectedly, miR-369-3p failed to show a regulatory effect on TNF-α levels in HaCaT cells. The expression of miR-369-3p is increased in both serum samples and skin tissues from psoriasis patients, and its level in the skin positively correlates with disease severity. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of miR-369-3p in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the technical safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with immediate radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for large hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) (maximum diameter ≥ 5 cm).
Individual lesions in 18 patients with HCCs (mean maximum diameter: 7.5 cm; range: 5.1-15.5 cm) were treated by TACE combined with percutaneous RFA between January 2010 and June 2012. All of the patients had previously undergone one to four cycles of TACE treatment. Regular imaging and laboratory tests were performed to evaluate the rate of technical success, technique-related complications, local-regional tumor responses, recurrence-free survival time and survival rate after treatment.
Technical success was achieved for all 18 visible HCCs. Complete response (CR) was observed in 17 cases, and partial response was observed in 1 case 1 mo after intervention. The CR rate was 94.4%. Local tumors were mainly characterized by coagulative necrosis. During follow-up (2-29 mo), the mean recurrence-free survival time was 16.8 ± 4.0 mo in 17 cases of CR. The estimated overall survival rate at 6, 12, and 18 mo was 100%. No major complications were observed. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the blood of 17 patients transiently increased on the third day after treatment (ALT 200.4 ± 63.4 U/L vs 24.7 ± 9.3 U/L, P < 0.05; AST 228.1 ± 25.4 U/L vs 32.7 ± 6.8 U/L, P < 0.05). Severe pain occurred in three patients, which was controlled with morphine and fentanyl.
TACE combined with immediate RFA is a safe and effective treatment for large solitary HCCs. Severe pain is a major side effect, but can be controlled by morphine.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2013; 19(26):4192-9. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v19.i26.4192 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hantavirus glycoprotein Gc is one of the main components that contribute to the generation of humoral immune responses, while the nucleocapsid protein (NP) is involved in cellular immune responses through the induction of antibody-dependent cytotoxic T cells. In this study, a chimeric gene, GcS0.7, which encodes a fusion protein containing Gc and truncated NP, was constructed as a candidate for Hantaan virus (HTNV) vaccine development. The chimeric gene was cloned into an adenoviral vector in conjunction with the powerful hybrid cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer/chicken β-actin (CAG) promoter or the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE), or both. Both elements increased the expression level of the fusion protein. The rAd-GcS0.7-pCAG group demonstrated the highest fusion protein expression level, with a 2.3‑fold increase compared with the unmodified adenoviral vector. To further evaluate the humoral and cellular immunity induced by the recombinant adenovirus, the antibody titers, interferon (IFN)-γ secretion level and cytotoxic T cell ratio were detected in immunized mice. The strongest HTNV‑specific humoral and cellular immune responses were detected in the rAd-GcS0.7‑pCAG group. The immunogenicity of these recombinant adenoviruses was compared with that of the inactivated vaccine through a series of immunological assays. In terms of the cellular immune responses, the rAd-GcS0.7-pCAG group even exceeded those induced by the vaccine control. The CAG hybrid promoter improved not only the expression level, but also the immunogenicity of the fusion protein, and may thus provide a promising strategy for HTNV vaccine research.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 06/2013; 32(3). DOI:10.3892/ijmm.2013.1421 · 2.09 Impact Factor