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ABSTRACT: The integrase enzyme facilitates the incorporation of HIV-1 proviral DNA into the host cell genome and catalyses a function vital to viral replication. Inhibitors of this enzyme represent the newest class of antiretroviral drugs in our armamentarium to treat HIV-1 infection. Raltegravir, an integrase strand transfer inhibitor, was the first drug of this class approved by the US FDA; it is a potent and well tolerated antiviral agent. However, it has the limitations of twice-daily dosing and a relatively modest genetic barrier to the development of resistance. These qualities have prompted the search for agents with once-daily dosing, a more robust barrier to resistance, and a resistance profile of limited overlap with that of raltegravir. We review a series of integrase inhibitors that are in clinical or advanced pre-clinical studies. Elvitegravir, recently approved by the FDA as part of the elvitegravir/cobicistat/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine fixed-dose combination pill has the benefit of being part of a one-pill, once-daily regimen, but suffers from extensive cross-resistance with raltegravir. Dolutegravir is the most advanced second-generation integrase inhibitor, and it boasts good tolerability, once-daily dosing with no need for a pharmacological enhancer, and relatively little cross-resistance with raltegravir. S/GSK1265744 has been developed into a long-acting parenteral agent that shows a high barrier to resistance in vitro and the potential for an infrequent dosing schedule. BI 224436 is in early clinical trials, but is unlikely to demonstrate cross-resistance with other integrase inhibitors. The inhibitors of the lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF)/p75 binding site of integrase (LEDGINs) are extremely early in development. Each of these contributes a new benefit to the class and will extend the treatment options for patients with HIV-1 infection.
Drugs 03/2013; 73(3):213-28. · 4.13 Impact Factor
American journal of infection control 07/2012; · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is critical to managing HIV-1-infected individuals and being a public health concern. We report on TDR prevalence and include analyses of phylogenetic clustering of HIV-1 in a predominantly men who have sex with men cohort diagnosed during acute/recent HIV-1 infection in New York City.
Genotypic resistance testing was conducted on plasma samples of 600 individuals with acute/recent HIV-1 infection (1995-2010). Sequences were used for resistance and phylogenetic analyses. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from medical records. TDR was defined according to International AIDS Society-USA and Stanford HIV database guidelines. Phylogenetic and other analyses were conducted using PAUP*4.0 and SAS, respectively.
The mean duration since HIV-1 infection was 66.5 days. TDR prevalence was 14.3% and stably ranged between 10.8% and 21.6% (P(trend) = 0.42). Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors resistance declined from 15.5% to 2.7% over the study period (P(trend) = 0.005). M41L (3.7%), T215Y (4.0%), and K103N/S (4.7%) were the most common mutations. K103N/S prevalence increased from 1.9% to 8.0% between 1995 and 2010 (P(trend) = 0.04). Using a rigorous definition of clustering, 19.3% (112 of 581) of subtype B viral sequences cosegregated into transmission clusters and clusters increased over time. There were fewer and smaller transmission clusters than had been reported in a similar cohort in Montreal but similar to reports from elsewhere.
TDR is stable in this cohort and remains a significant concern to both individual patient management and the public health.
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 05/2012; 61(1):1-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor