Nai-Wan Hsiao

National Changhua University of Education, Chang-hua Pei-pu, Taiwan, Taiwan

Are you Nai-Wan Hsiao?

Claim your profile

Publications (21)50.6 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tyrosinase, a key copper-containing enzyme involved in melanin biosynthesis, is closely associated with hyperpigmentation disorders, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, and as such, it is an essential target in medicine and cosmetics. Known tyrosinase inhibitors possess adverse side effects, and there are no safety regulations, so there is the necessity to develop new inhibitors with fewer side effects and less toxicity. Peptides are exquisitely specific to their in vivo targets, with high potencies and relatively few off-target side effects. Thus, we systematically and comprehensively investigated the tyrosinase-inhibitory abilities of N- and C-terminal cysteine/tyrosine-constrained tetrapeptides by constructing a phage-display random tetrapeptide library and conducting computational molecular docking studies on novel tyrosinase tetrapeptide inhibitors. We found that N-terminal cysteine-constrained tetrapeptides exhibited the most potent tyrosinase-inhibitory abilities. The positional preference of cysteine residues at the N-terminus in the tetrapeptides significantly contributed to their tyrosinase-inhibitory function. The sulfur atom in cysteine moieties of N- and C-terminal cysteine-constrained tetrapeptides coordinated with copper ions which then tightly blocked substrate-binding sites. N- and C-terminal tyrosine-constrained tetrapeptides functioned as competitive inhibitors against mushroom tyrosinase by using the phenol ring of tyrosine to stack with the imidazole ring of His263, thus competing for the substrate-binding site. The N-terminal cysteine-constrained tetrapeptide, CRVI, exhibited the strongest tyrosinase-inhibitory potency (with an IC50 of 2.7 ± 0.5 μM) which was superior to those of the known tyrosinase inhibitors (arbutin and kojic acid) and outperformed kojic acid-tripeptides, mimosine-FFY, and short-sequence oligopeptides at inhibiting mushroom tyrosinase. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
    Molecular pharmacology. 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tyrosinase, the crucial copper-containing enzyme involved in melanin synthesis, is strongly associated with hyperpigmentation disorders, cancer, and neurodegenerative disease, and is thus of considerable interest in the fields of medicine and cosmetics. The known tyrosinase inhibitors show numerous adverse side effects, and there is a lack of safety regulations governing their use. There is thus a need to develop novel inhibitors with no toxicity and long-term stability. In this study, we used molecular docking and pharmacophore modeling to construct a reasonable and reliable pharmacophore model, Hypo 1 that could be used for identifying potent natural products with crucial complementary functional groups for mushroom tyrosinase inhibition. It was observed that out of 47,263 natural compounds, A5 structurally resembles a dipeptide (WY) and B16 is the equivalent of a tripeptide (KFY), revealing that the C-terminus tyrosine residues play a key role in tyrosinase inhibition. Tripeptides RCY and CRY, which show high tyrosinase inhibitory potency, revealed a positional and functional preference for the cysteine residue at the N-terminus of the tripeptides, essentially determining the capacity of tyrosinase inhibition. CRY and RCY used the thiol group of cysteine residues to coordinate with the copper ions in the active site of tyrosinase and showed reduced tyrosinase activity. We discovered the novel tripeptide CRY that shows the most striking inhibitory potency against mushroom tyrosinase (IC50 = 6.16 μM); this tripeptide is more potent than the known oligopeptides and comparable with kojic acid-tripeptides. Our study provides an insight into the structural and functional roles of key amino acids of tripeptides derived from the natural compound B16, and the results are expected to be useful for the development of tyrosinase inhibitors.
    Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 10/2014; · 4.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Upregulation of the metastasis-promoting S100A4 protein has been linked to tumor migration and invasion, and clinical studies have demonstrated that significant expression of S100A4 in primary tumors is indicative of poor prognosis. However, the involvement of S100A4 in the drug responsiveness of gastric cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we used gastric cancer cell lines as a model to investigate the involvement of S100A4 in drug responsiveness. We overexpressed S100A4 in AGS and SCM-1 cells, which are characterized by relatively low-level expression of endogenous S100A4, and found that this significantly enhanced cell migration but did not affect cell survival in the presence of six common anticancer drugs. Moreover, in vitro cell proliferation was unchanged. Using RNA interference, we suppressed S100A4 expression in MKN-45 and TMK-1 cells (which are characterized by high-level expression of endogenous S100A4), and found that knockdown of S100A4 markedly attenuated cell motility but did not affect cell survival in the presence of six common anticancer drugs. Further study revealed that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of S100A4 (rs1803245; c.29A>T), which substitutes an Asp residue with Val (D10V), is localized within the conserved binding surface for Annexin II. Cells overexpressing S100A4D10V showed a significant reduction in cell migration ability, but no change in cell survival, upon anticancer drug treatment. Taken together, our novel results indicate that the expression level of S100A4 does not significantly affect cell survival following anticancer drug treatment. Thus, depending on the cell context, the metastasis-promoting effects of S100A4 may not be positively correlated with anticancer drug resistance in the clinic.
    Oncology reports. 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Zanamivir and Oseltamivir are both sialic acid analog inhibitors of Neuraminidase NA, which is an important target in influenza A virus treatment. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships QSAR is a common computational method for correlating the structural properties of compounds or inhibitors with their biological activities. The pharmcophore model easily and quickly recognises related inhibitors and also fits the binding site interaction features of a protein structure. The Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis CoMSIA model easily optimises molecular structures and describes the limit range of molecule weights. This study proposes a combination approach that integrates these two models based on the same training set inhibitors in order to screen and optimize NA inhibitor candidates during drug design.
    International Journal of Data Mining and Bioinformatics 03/2014; 9(3):305-320. · 0.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Aspartic proteases are a subfamily of endopeptidases that are useful in a variety of applications, especially in the food processing industry. Here we describe a novel aspartic protease that was purified from Peptidase R, a commercial protease preparation derived from Rhizopus oryzae. Results An aspartic protease sourced from Peptidase R was purified to homogeneity by anion exchange chromatography followed by polishing with a hydrophobic interaction chromatography column, resulting in a 3.4-fold increase in specific activity (57.5 × 103 U/mg) and 58.8% recovery. The estimated molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 39 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of the purified protein exhibited 63%–75% identity to rhizopuspepsins from various Rhizopus species. The enzyme exhibited maximal activity at 75°C in glycine–HCl buffer, pH 3.4 with casein as the substrate. The protease was stable at 35°C for 60 min and had an observed half-life of approximately 30 min at 45°C. Enzyme activity was not significantly inhibited by chelation with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and the addition of metal ions to EDTA-treated protease did not significantly change enzyme activity, indicating that proteolysis is not metal ion-dependent. The purified enzyme was completely inactivated by the aspartic protease inhibitor Pepstatin A. Conclusion Based on the observed enzyme activity, inhibition profile with Pepstatin A, and sequence similarity to other rhizopuspepsins, we have classified this enzyme as an aspartic protease.
    Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 01/2014; · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ATP is required as a structural activator for the reversible epimerization of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine to N-acetyl-d-mannosamine by N-acetyl-d-glucosamine 2-epimerase (AGE); however, the ATP-binding site on AGE has not been clearly identified. This study aimed to investigate the specific region of Anabaena sp. CH1 AGE (bAGE) that is required for ATP binding. In the absence of ATP, tryptic digest of bAGE resulted in the production of 2 segments of 17 and 26 kDa, while in the presence of 1 mM ATP, the enzyme was resistant to trypsin. ADP also displayed protective effects against trypsin digestion. A trypsin-mediated ATP-footprinting assay identified a deviant ATP-protected region, 156-GKYTK-160, which is located within the flexible loop of bAGE. Site-directed mutagenesis of residues in the loop region was performed, and both K151A and K160A variants greatly decreased the enzymatic activity as well as the ATP-binding ability of bAGE, indicating that residues K151 and K160 may be critical for ATP binding. This study demonstrated that the ATP-binding site (151-KDNPKGKYTK-160) of bAGE was a novel rather than a classical Walker motif A. This is the first ATP-binding site reported for AGEs.
    PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY 06/2012; 47(6):948–952. · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The NAD+-requiring enzymes of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family contain a glycine motif, GX1- 2GXXG, which is reminiscent of the fingerprint region of the Rossman fold, a conserved structural motif of the classical nicotinamide nucleotide-binding proteins. In this research, the role of three glycine residues situated within the putative NAD+-binding motif (211-GPGSSAG) together with Gly233 and Gly238 of Bacillus licheniformis ALDH (BlALDH) were probed by site-directed mutatgenesis. Fifteen mutant BlALDHs were obtained by substitution of the indicated glycine residues with alanine, glutamate and arginine. Except for the Ala replacement at positions 211, 213, 217 and 238, the remaining mutant enzymes lost the dehydrogenase activity completely. Tryptophan fluorescence and far-UV circular dichroism spectra allowed us to discriminate BlALDH and the inactive mutant enzymes, and unfolding analyses further revealed that they had a different sensitivity towards temperature- and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl)-induced denaturation. BlALDH and the functional variants had a comparable Tm value, but the value was reduced by more than 5.1�C in the rest of mutant enzymes. Acrylamide quenching analysis showed that the inactive mutant enzymes had a dynamic quenching constant greater than that of BlALDH. Native BlALDH started to unfold beyond ∼ 0.21 M GdnHCl and reached an unfolded intermediate, [GdnHCl]0.5, N-U, at 0.92 M equivalent to free energy change ( N-U H2O Δ G ) of 12.34 kcal/mol for the N → U process, whereas the denaturation midpoints for mutant enzymes were 0.45-1.61 M equivalent to N-U H2O Δ G of 0.31-4.35 kcal/mol. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the explored glycines are indeed important for the catalytic activity and structural stability of BlALDH.
    Protein and Peptide Letters 05/2012; 19(11):1183-93. · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes severe complications: encephalitis, pulmonary edema, and death. No effective drug has been approved for clinical use. This study investigated the antiviral effects of flavonoids against EV-A71. An in vitro inhibitor screening assay using recombinant EV-A71 3C protease (3Cpro) demonstrated fisetin and rutin inhibiting 3Cpro enzymatic activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay with an EV-A71 3Cpro cleavage motif probe also confirmed that fisetin and rutin inhibited the replication of EV-A71 in cells. A virus replication assay indicated that fisetin and rutin reduced significantly the EV-A71-induced cytopathic effect and viral plaque titers in RD cells culture. The IC(50) values of plaque reduction against EV-A71 were 85 μM for fisetin and 110 μM for rutin. Therapeutic indices (CC50/IC50 of plaque reduction assays) of fisetin and rutin exceeded 10. The study suggests that fisetin and rutin inhibit the replication of EV-A71.
    Journal of virological methods 03/2012; 182(1-2):93-8. · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT-3) is strongly correlated with acute myeloid leukemia, but no FLT-3-inhibitor cocomplex structure is available to assist the design of therapeutic inhibitors. Hence, we propose a dual-layer 3D-QSAR model for FLT-3 that integrates the pharmacophore, CoMFA, and CoMSIA. We then coupled the model with the fragment-based design strategy to identify novel FLT-3 inhibitors. In the first layer, the previously established model, Hypo02, was evaluated in terms of its correlation coefficient (r), RMS, cost difference, and configuration cost, with values of 0.930, 1.24, 106.45, and 16.44, respectively. Moreover, Fischer's cross-validation test of data generated by Hypo02 yielded a 98% confidence level, and the validation of the testing set yielded a best r value of 0.87. The features of Hypo02 were separated into two parts and then used to screen the MiniMaybridge fragment compound database. Nine novel FLT-3 inhibitors were generated in this layer. In the second layer, Hypo02 was subjected to an alignment rule to generate CoMFA- and CoMSIA-based models, for which the partial least-squares validation method was utilized. The values of q(2), r(2), and predictive r(2) were 0.58, 0.98, and 0.76, respectively, derived from the CoMFA model with steric and electrostatic fields. The CoMSIA model with five different fields yielded values of 0.54, 0.97, and 0.76 for q(2), r(2), and predictive r(2), respectively. The CoMFA and CoMSIA models were used to constrain 3D structures of the nine novel FLT-3 inhibitors. This dual-layer 3D-QSAR model constitutes a valuable tool to easily and quickly screen and optimize novel potential FLT-3 inhibitors for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.
    Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 12/2011; 52(1):146-55. · 4.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Type-2 ribosome-inactivating proteins, composed of a toxic A-chain and lectin-like B-chain, display various biological functions, including cytotoxicity and immunomodulation. We here cloned the lectin-like B-chain encoding fragment of a newly identified type-2 RIP gene, articulatin gene, from Viscum articulatum, into a bacterial expression vector to obtain nonglycosylated recombinant protein expressed in inclusion bodies. After purification and protein refolding, soluble refolded recombinant articulatin B-chain (rATB) showed lectin activity specific toward galactoside moiety and was stably maintained while stored in low ionic strength solution. Despite lacking glycosylation, rATB actively bound leukocytes with preferential binding to monocytes and in vitro stimulated PBMCs to release cytokines without obvious cytotoxicity. These results implicated such a B-chain fragment as a potential immunomodulator.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2011; 2011:283747. · 1.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Computational chemistry is playing an increasingly important role in drug design and discovery, structural biology, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies. For QSAR work, selecting an appropriate and accurate method to assign the electrostatic potentials of each atom in a molecule is a critical first step. So far several commonly used methods are available to assign charges. However, no systematic comparison of the effects of electrostatic potentials on QSAR quality has been made. In this study, twelve semi-empirical and empirical charge-assigning methods, AM1, AM1-BCC, CFF, Del-Re, Formal, Gasteiger, Gasteiger-Hückel, Hückel, MMFF, PRODRG, Pullman, and VC2003 charges, have been compared for their performances in CoMFA and CoMSIA modeling using several standard datasets. Some charge assignment models, such as Del-Re, PRODRG, and Pullman, are limited to specific atom and bond types, and, therefore, were excluded from this study. Among the remaining nine methods, the Gasteiger-Hückel charge, though commonly used, performed poorly in prediction accuracy. The AM1-BCC method was better than most charge-assigning methods based on prediction accuracy, though it was not successful in yielding overall higher cross-validation correlation coefficient (q(2)) values than others. The CFF charge model worked the best in prediction accuracy when q(2) was used as the evaluation criterion. The results presented should help the selection of electrostatic potential models in CoMFA and CoMSIA studies.
    European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2010; 45(4):1544-51. · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), an ubiquitin-like protein, is rapidly induced by IFN-alpha/beta, and ISG15 conjugation is associated with the antiviral immune response. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne neurotropic flavivirus, causes severe central nervous system diseases. We investigated the potential anti-JEV effect of ISG15 over-expression. ISG15 over-expression in human medulloblastoma cells significantly reduced the JEV-induced cytopathic effect and inhibited JEV replication by reducing the viral titers and genomes (p<0.05, Student's t-test); it also increased activation of the interferon stimulatory response element (ISRE)-luciferase cis-acting reporter in JEV-infected cells (p<0.05, Chi-square test). Furthermore, Western blotting revealed that ISG15 over-expression increased phosphorylation of IRF-3 (Ser396), JAK2 (Tyr1007/1008) and STAT1 (Tyr701 and Ser727) in JEV-infected cells (P<0.05, Chi-square test). Confocal imaging indicated that nucleus translocation of transcription factor STAT1 occurred in ISG15-over-expressing cells but not in vector control cells post-JEV infection. ISG15 over-expression activated the expression of STAT1-dependent genes including IRF-3, IFN-beta, IL-8, PKR and OAS before and post-JEV infection (p=0.063, Student's t-test). The results enabled elucidation of the molecular mechanism of ISG15 over-expression against JEV, which will be useful for developing a novel treatment to combat JEV infection.
    Antiviral research 03/2010; 85(3):504-11. · 3.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sco-CHH and Sco-CHH-L (CHH-like peptide), two structural variants of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family identified in the mud crab (Scylla olivacea), are presumably alternatively spliced gene products. In this study, Sco-CHH and Sco-CHH-L were isolated from the tissues using high performance liquid chromatography. Identity of the native peptides was confirmed using mass spectrometric (MS) analyses of purified materials and of trypsin-digested peptide fragments. Additionally, characterizations using circular dichroism (CD) spectrometry revealed that the 2 peptides have similar CD spectral profiles, showing they are composed mainly of alpha-helices, and are similarly thermo-stable with a melting temperature of 74-75 degrees C. Results of bioassays indicated that Sco-CHH exerted hyperglycemic and molt-inhibiting activity, whereas Sco-CHH-L did not. Further, recombinant Sco-CHH-Gly (rSco-CHH-Gly, a glycine extended Sco-CHH) and Sco-CHH-L (rSco-CHH-L) were produced using an Escherichia coli expression system, refolded, and purified. rSco-CHH-Gly was further alpha-amidated at the C-terminal end to produce rSco-CHH. MS analyses of enzyme-digested peptide fragments of rSco-CHH-Gly and rSco-CHH-L showed that the two peptides share a common disulfide bond pattern: C7-C43, C23-C39, and C26-C52. Circular dichroism analyses and hyperglycemic assay revealed that rSco-CHH and rSco-CHH-L resemble their native counterparts, in terms of CD spectral profiles, melting curve profiles, and biological activity. rSco-CHH-Gly has a lower alpha-helical content (32%) than rSco-CHH (47%), a structural deviation that may be responsible for the significant decrease in the biological activity of rSco-CHH-Gly. Finally, modeled structure of Sco-CHH and Sco-CHH-L indicated that they are similarly folded, each with an N-terminal tail region and 4 alpha-helices. Putative surface residues located in corresponding positions of Sco-CHH and Sco-CHH-L but with side chains of different properties were identified. The combined results support the notion that Sco-CHH and Sco-CHH-L are functionally different, but resemble each other at higher-level structures. Functional diversity between the 2 peptides is probably due to critical residues located in the C-terminus. The availability of large amounts of recombinant proteins will permit additional functional and structural studies of these CHH family peptides.
    General and Comparative Endocrinology 02/2010; 167(1):68-76. · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As an important transcription factor of the Ral family, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is involved in numerous cellular processes, such as the responses to cellular stress and to inflammation. For better elucidating the quantitative structure-activity relationship of NF-kappaB inhibitors and determining possible ligand-protein interaction, a pharmacophore model, Hypo1, was built based on 35 training molecules by Catalyst/HypoGen algorithm. The five pharmacophore features of Hypo1, including three hydrophobic groups, one hydrogen-bond acceptor, and one hydrophobic aromatic group, were correctly mapped onto NF-kappaB surface. This model has strong capability to identify NF-kappaB inhibitors and to predict the activities of structurally diverse molecules, thus to provide a valuable tool in the design of new leads with desired biological activity by virtual screening.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 09/2009; 19(19):5665-9. · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 977 bp cDNA containing an open reading frame encoding 224 amino acid residues of manganese superoxide dismutase was cloned from zebrafish (zMn-SOD). The deduced amino acid sequence showed high identity with the sequences of Mn-SODs from human (85.1%) to nematode (61.6%). The 3-D structure model was superimposed on the relative domains of human Mn-SOD with the root mean square (rms) deviation of 0.0919 A. The recombinant mature zMn-SOD with enzyme activity was purified using His-tag technique. The half-life of the enzyme is approximately 48 min and its thermal inactivation rate constant k(d) is 0.0154 min(-1)at 70 degrees C. The enzyme was active under a broad pH (2.2-11.2) and in the presence of up to 4% SDS. Real-time RT-PCR assay was used to detect the zMn-SOD mRNA expression during the developmental stages following a challenge with paraquat. A high level expression of Mn-SOD mRNA was detected at the cleavage stage, but decreased significantly under paraquat treatment. The results indicated that Mn-SOD plays an important role during embryonic development.
    Fish &amp Shellfish Immunology 07/2009; 27(2):318-24. · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, aloe-emodin was identified as a potential interferon (IFN)-inducer by screening compounds from Chinese herbal medicine. Aloe-emodin showed low cytotoxicity to human HL-CZ promonocyte cells and TE-671 medulloblastoma cells and significantly activated interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) and gamma-activated sequence (GAS)-driven cis-reporting systems. Moreover, aloe-emodin upregulated expression of IFN-stimulated genes such as dsRNA-activated protein kinase and 2',5'-oligoisoadenylate synthase. Aloe-emodin resulted in significant activation of nitric oxide production. The antiviral activity of aloe-emodin against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) was evaluated using dose- and time-dependent plaque reduction assays in HL-CZ cells and TE-671 cells. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of aloe-emodin ranged from 0.50microg/mL to 1.51microg/mL for JEV and from 0.14microg/mL to 0.52microg/mL for EV71. Aloe-emodin showed clearly potent virus inhibitory abilities and achieved high therapeutic indices, in particular for HL-CZ cells. Therefore, the study demonstrated dose- and time-dependent actions of aloe-emodin on the inhibition of JEV and EV71 replication via IFN signalling responses.
    International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 11/2008; 32(4):355-9. · 4.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As a commonly used structure-based approach for virtual screening, molecular design and lead optimization, molecular docking can search the preferred orientation and conformation of a ligand for its optimal binding to a receptor or enzyme active site. In doing so, selecting an appropriate method to calculate the electrostatic potentials is critical. In the current report, nine different semi-empirical and empirical methods, including AM1, AM1-BCC, Del-Re, MMFF, Gasteiger, Hückel, Gasteiger-Hückel, Pullman and formal charges were investigated for their performance on the prediction of docking poses using the DOCK5.4 program. The results demonstrated that the AM1-BCC charges had the highest success rate.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 07/2008; 18(12):3509-12. · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is associated with the development of Kaposi's sarcoma and several other human malignancies. Kaposin A protein of HHV-8 has been demonstrated as inducing tumorigenic transformation, being responsible for nuclear receptor coactivators in the transforming activity. In this study, a kaposin A-interacting septin 4 variant that contained the unique GDR at the N-terminus and AAALE at the C-terminus was identified using affinity selection of a phage display library. Co-immunoprecipitation and confocal imaging revealed in vitro binding specificity and in vivo co-localization of HHV-8 kaposin A protein to the septin 4 variant. The kaposin A-interacting septin 4 variant induced cell rounding up, activated caspase-3, and up-regulated transcriptional factor NF-kappaB. By contrast, kaposin A protein showed an antagonistic effect on the biological functions of the septin 4 variant. Therefore, the interaction of kaposin A protein and the septin 4 variant was suggested as playing a possible role in the development of HHV-8-associated malignancies. This study provides insights into the mechanism of the kaposin A protein pathology, in which the interactions of kaposin A protein with cellular proteins might allow alteration of fundamental cellular processes.
    Journal of Virological Methods 08/2007; 143(1):65-72. · 1.90 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Histidine-436 of a truncated Bacillus sp. strain TS-23 α-amylase (His6-tagged ΔNC) has been known to be responsible for thermostability of the enzyme. To understand further the structural role of this residue, site-directed mutagenesis was conducted to replace His-436 of His6-tagged ΔNC with aspartate, lysine, tyrosine or threonine. Starch-plate assay showed that all Escherichia coli M15 transformants conferring the mutated amylase genes retained the amylolytic activity. The over-expressed proteins have been purified to near homogeneity by nickel-chelate chromatography and the molecular mass of the purified enzymes was approximately 54kDa. The specific activity for H436T was decreased by more than 56%, while H436D, H436K, and H436Y showed a higher activity to that of the wild-type enzyme. Although the mutations did not lead to a significant change in the Km value, more than 66% increase in the value of catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) was observed in H436D, H436K, and H436Y. At 70C, H436D exhibited an increased half-life with respect to the wild-type enzyme.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 05/2005; 21(4):411-416. · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We developed a technique to compute structural entropy directly from protein sequences. We explored the possibility of using structural entropy to identify residues involved in thermal stabilization of various protein families. Examples include methanococcal adenylate kinase, Ribonuclease HI and holocytochrome c(551). Our results show that the positions of the largest structural entropy differences between wild type and mutant usually coincide with the residues relevant to thermostability. We also observed a good linear relationship between the average structural entropy and the melting temperatures for adenylate kinase and its chimeric constructs. To validate this linear relationship, we compiled a large dataset comprised of 1153 sequences and found that most protein families still display similar linear relationships. Our results suggest that the multitude of interactions involved in thermal stabilization may be generalized into the tendency of proteins to maintain local structural conservation. The linear relationship between structural entropy and protein thermostability should be useful in the study of protein thermal stabilization.
    Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 01/2005; 57(4):684-91. · 3.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

129 Citations
50.60 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • National Changhua University of Education
      Chang-hua Pei-pu, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2003–2011
    • National Tsing Hua University
      • • Department of Computer Science
      • • Department of Life Sciences
      Hsinchu, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2009
    • Academia Sinica
      • Genomics Research Center
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan