Publications (4)3.53 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: Andrographis paniculata Nees. (Acanthaceae) is an annual herbaceous plant widely cultivated in southern Asia, China, and Europe. It is used in the treatment of skin infections in India, China, and Malaysia by folk medicine practitioners. Antifungal activity of the whole plant extracts and isolation of active principles from A. paniculata were investigated. Dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MEOH) extracts of A. paniculata whole plant were screened for their antifungal potential using broth microdilution method in vitro against seven pathogenic fungal species responsible for skin infections. Active principles were detected through bioguided assays and isolated using chromatography techniques. Structures of compounds were elucidated through spectroscopy techniques and comparisons were made with previously reported data for similar compounds. DCM extract revealed lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (100 μg/mL) against Microsporum canis, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis, whereas MEOH extract revealed lowest MIC (150 µg/mL) against C. tropicalis and Aspergillus niger. DCM extract showed lowest minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) value (250 µg/mL) against M. canis, C. albicans, C. tropicalis and A. niger, whereas MEOH extract showed lowest MFC (250 µg/mL) against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, M. canis, C. albicans, C. tropicalis and A. niger. Bioassay guided isolation from DCM and MEOH extract afforded 3-O-β-d-glucosyl-14-deoxyandrographiside, 14-deoxyandrographolide, and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide as antifungal compounds. The lowest MIC (50 µg/mL) and MFC (50 µg/mL) was exerted by 14-deoxyandrographolide on M. canis. This is first report on the isolation of antifungal substances through bioassay-guided assay from A. paniculata. Our finding justifies the use of A. paniculata in folk medicines for the treatment of fungal skin infections.Pharmaceutical Biology 05/2012; 50(7):850-6. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-diabetic potential of the leaves of Tetracera scandens Linn. Merr. (Dilleniaceae) in vivo with regard to prove its efficacy by local herbalists in the treatment of diabetes frailties. Crude aqueous (AQ) and methanol (MEOH) extracts of the leaves of T. scandens L. were administered to both normal and alloxan induced diabetic male albino rats (Wistar strain). The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8h after oral administration of AQ and MEOH extracts. Significant reduction in glucose was observed in fasting blood glucose levels in the treated diabetic rats without causing any hypoglycemic effect compared to normal rats. Both polar extracts of the leaves of T. scandens L. exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activity at different doses and intervals. The highest anti-hyperglycemic effect (62.5%) was observed by the AQ extract at 0.25 g/kg body weight (b.w.) and MEOH extract (36.5%) at 0.5 g/kg b.w. after 8h. The significant anti-hyperglycemic activity was found to be comparable with a known oral synthetic hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide 0.25mg/kg b.w. This study provides scientific evidence that the leaves of T. scandens L. have anti-diabetic efficacy and justifies its utility by local herbalists. However, more experiments at the clinical levels are required to confirm the utility of this plant by traditional practitioners in the management of diabetes mellitus.Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2010; 131(1):140-5. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION Intervention with variety of pharmacological agents especially during sensitive period of the developing Central Nervous System (CNS) has been shown to result in potentially long lasting neurobehavioural and/or neurochemical abnormalities . The leaves of MS, (family: Rubiaeae), locally named katum or kratom is a plant endemic to tropical Southeast Asia, used by natives for opium-like effects and stimulant ability to combat fatigue and enhance tolerance to hard work . Its recreational use has been banned in many countries including Australia, Burma, Thialand and Malaysia, due to concerns over dependence liability potential. MS contains many alkaloids including mitragynine (once thought to be the primary active), mitraphylline, and 7-hydroxymitragynine (which is currently the most likely candidate for the primary active chemical in the plant). Although structurally related to yohimbine and other tryptamines, its pharmacology is quite different, acting primarily as a mu-opioid receptor agonist. It also shares some adrenergic receptor activity similar to that of yohimbine. MS also contains alkaloids found in uña de gato, which are thought to play a beneficial role on the immune system and lower blood pressure, as well as epicatechin, a powerful antioxidant also found in dark chocolate and closely related to the EGCG that gives green tea its beneficial effects. Other active chemicals in MS include raubasine (best known from Rauwolfia serpentina) and some yohimbe alkaloids such as corynantheidine . The opioid-like effects, of MS alkaloids, the naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome and cross tolerance with morphine [2,4,5], all point to a dependence liability potential. These findings also raise questions on the possibilities and potentials that these alkaloids have to other toxicological effects and mechanisms. The vulnerability of the developing central nervous system to a variety of neuroactive substances is well documented. ABSTRACT The developmental effects of in-utero administration of the crude ethanolic extract of the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa (MS) on neural tube in fetal rats were investigated. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally once daily by gavage, with graded (500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg) doses of the extract between the 8th and 13 th day prenatally. The control group received corn oil used as vehicle for the extract. On the 18th day of gestation, mothers were sacrificed and embryos removed and stained under established procedures. The embryos were then analyzed for the presence of neural tube defects (NTD) through measurements of the extent of vertebral arch closure and brain size. Results indicate that the medium (C) and high (D) (1000 & 1500mg/kg) doses but not the low (B) (500mg/kg) dose in comparison with control (A) group, significantly (p≤0.001) produced a widening of the vertebral arch in the thoracic, lumber and cervical regions of the spinal cord. The brain transverse diameter was also significantly (p≤0.05) increased by the high dose only. These effects were seen in the absence of any significant differences in litter size and other gross physical abnormalities. This study indicates that the crude extract of the leaves of MS is capable of selective neurotoxicity and producing spina bifida like NTD as characterized by altered brain size and neural tube formation, a finding that may have an important implication in the dependence liability associated with its use.