Kathryn M Rose

Social & Scientific Systems, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States

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Publications (91)366.29 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Having a small social network and lack of social support have been associated with incident coronary heart disease; however, epidemiological evidence for incident stroke is limited. We assessed the longitudinal association of a small social network and lack of social support with risk of incident stroke and evaluated whether the association was partly mediated by vital exhaustion and inflammation.
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Autoantibodies are of growing interest in cancer research as potential biomarkers; yet the determinants of autoimmunity are not well understood. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are common in the general population, and are more prevalent in women and older adults. Here we examined the relationship of ANA with reproductive and hormonal factors in a representative sample of U.S. women. Methods:We analyzed data on reproductive history and exogenous hormone use in relation to serum ANA in 2,037 females ages 12 and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; 1999-2004). Estimated ANA prevalences were adjusted for sampling weights. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were adjusted for age, race and poverty-income-ratio, and models were stratified by menopause status. Results:In premenopausal women ages 20 and older, ANA prevalence was associated with parity (p<0.001; parous versus nulliparous POR=2.0; 95%CI 1.2, 3.4), but in parous women ANA did not vary by number of births, age at first birth, years since last birth or breastfeeding. In postmenopausal women, ANA prevalence was associated with an older age at menarche (p=0.019; age 16-20 versus 10-12 years POR=3.0, 95%CI 1.6, 5.9), but not with parity. Oral contraceptives and estrogen therapy were not associated with a higher ANA prevalence. Conclusions:Childbearing (having had one or more births) may explain age-associated elevations in ANA prevalence seen in premenopausal women. Impact:These findings highlight the importance of considering reproductive history in studies of autoimmunity and cancer in women.
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    ABSTRACT: Low birth weight (LBW) has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A previous study, however, found higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in individuals with higher birth weight (BW). To further understand this apparent paradox, we examined the relationship between AF and BW in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort.
    BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 05/2014; 14(1):69. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Purpose:The myositis syndromes are rare systemic autoimmune diseases with poorly understood etiologies. We present the demographics, illness features and treatments of patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) who enrolled in a newly created national registry.Methods:Using a patient database from The Myositis Association and supplemental advertisements, a national registry of myositis patients was established. Between December 2010 and July 2012 questionnaires were mailed to 8847 myositis patients in the US and Canada. The questionnaire queried demographics, clinical features, environmental exposures, and quality of life. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis were computed using GraphPad Prysm and SAS.Results:1956 patients (22%) returned the questionnaire and consented to participate; 1806 who met probable or definite Bohan and Peter criteria for myositis were included (708 DM, 483 PM, 466 IBM, 139 JDM, 10 JPM); juvenile patients were diagnosed before age 18 years. Of the 139 JDM patients, the median age at diagnosis was 6.9 years and median disease duration at enrollment was 10.3 years. Most JDM patients were female (78%) and Non-Hispanic Caucasian (88%), and the remainder were Hispanic (6.5%), Asian (2.9%), multiple races (2.2%), and Black (0.7%). Patients or their parents often completed a graduate degree (23%) or college degree (29%). JDM patients were primarily diagnosed by a pediatric rheumatologist (48%), with adult and pediatric dermatologists (22%), pediatric neurologists and primary care physicians (11% each) diagnosing most of the remaining patients; 67% were under the care of a pediatric rheumatologist. JDM patients frequently had skin rashes as a major manifestation (86%); arthritis (35%) and dysphagia (32%) were also common, whereas lung disease (12%) was less frequent. An additional autoimmune disease was present in 18% of JDM patients, with JIA (8%) and SLE and celiac disease (3% each) the most frequent. There were no recorded associated malignancies. 98% of JDM patients received prednisone therapy. Methotrexate was the most common steroid-sparing agent (84%), followed by hydroxychloroquine (60%), IV pulse solumedrol (54%), IVIG (48%), cyclosporine (19%), rituximab and anti-TNFs (10% each). Predictors of which agents were received varied among medications, but included age, year of JDM diagnosis, gender, and region of country. Pulse solumedrol and cyclosporine were more likely to be used in JDM patients with dysphagia, hydroxychloroquine in patients with skin rashes and less likely in those with fevers, and azathioprine was less likely in patients with arthritis. Of medications utilized, 45% of JDM patients reported responding best to IVIG, 39% responded best to prednisone, 33% to anti-TNFs, and 29% to cyclophosphamide.Conclusion:A nationwide myositis registry has been established and includes a subsample of JDM patients that appears demographically and clinically representative of other US populations. This registry may help identify environmental exposures associated with myositis, elucidate factors associated with quality of life, and serve as an important resource for future clinical investigations.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology. 03/2014; 66(S11).
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    ABSTRACT: Background Allergic sensitization is an important risk factor for the development of atopic disease. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 provides the most comprehensive information on IgE-mediated sensitization in the general US population. Objective We investigated clustering, sociodemographic, and regional patterns of allergic sensitization and examined risk factors associated with IgE-mediated sensitization. Methods Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from NHANES 2005-2006. Participants aged 1 year or older (n = 9440) were tested for serum specific IgEs (sIgEs) to inhalant and food allergens; participants 6 years or older were tested for 19 sIgEs, and children aged 1 to 5 years were tested for 9 sIgEs. Serum samples were analyzed by using the ImmunoCAP System. Information on demographics and participants' characteristics was collected by means of questionnaire. Results Of the study population aged 6 years and older, 44.6% had detectable sIgEs, whereas 36.2% of children aged 1 to 5 years were sensitized to 1 or more allergens. Allergen-specific IgEs clustered into 7 groups that might have largely reflected biological cross-reactivity. Although sensitization to individual allergens and allergen types showed regional variation, the overall prevalence of sensitization did not differ across census regions, except in early childhood. In multivariate modeling young age, male sex, non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, geographic location (census region), and reported pet avoidance measures were most consistently associated with IgE-mediated sensitization. Conclusions The overall prevalence of allergic sensitization does not vary across US census regions, except in early life, although allergen-specific sensitization differs based on sociodemographic and regional factors. Biological cross-reactivity might be an important but not the sole contributor to the clustering of allergen-specific IgEs.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 01/2014; · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: No previous studies have examined the interplay among socioeconomic status, sex, and race with the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF).
    Journal of the American Heart Association. 01/2014; 3(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background. Acute stroke patients require immediate medical attention. Therefore, American Stroke Association guidelines recommend that for suspected stroke cases, emergency medical services (EMS) personnel spend less than 15 minutes on-scene at least 90% of the time. However, not all EMS providers include specific scene time limits in their stroke patient care protocols. Objective. We sought to determine whether having a protocol with a specific scene time limit was associated with less time EMS spent on scene. Methods. Stroke protocols from the 100 EMS systems in North Carolina were collected and abstracted for scene time instructions. Suspected stroke events occurring in 2009 were analyzed using data from the North Carolina Prehospital Medical Information System. Scene time was defined as the time from EMS arrival at the scene to departure with the patient. Quantile regression was used to estimate how the 90th percentile of the scene time distribution varied by systems with protocol instructions limiting scene time, adjusting for system patient volume and metropolitan status. Results. In 2009, 23 EMS systems in North Carolina had no instructions regarding scene time; 73 had general instructions to minimize scene time; and 4 had a specific limit for scene time (i.e., 10 or 15 min). Among 9,723 eligible suspected stroke events, mean scene time was 15.9 minutes (standard deviation 6.9 min) and median scene time was 15.0 minutes (90th percentile 24.3 min). In adjusted quantile regression models, the estimated reduction in the 90th percentile scene time, comparing protocols with a specific time limit to no instructions, was 2.2 minutes (95% confidence interval 1.3, 3.1 min). The difference in 90th percentile scene time between general and absent instructions was not statistically different (0.7 min [95% confidence interval -0.1, 1.4 min]). Conclusion. Protocols with specific scene time limits were associated with EMS crews spending less time at the scene while general instructions were not. These findings suggest EMS systems can modestly improve scene times for stroke by specifying a time limit in their protocols.
    Prehospital Emergency Care 09/2013; · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whereas dyslipidemia has been associated with leukocytosis, the relationship between serum cholesterol and other hematopoietic lineages is poorly defined. Erythrocytes and platelets, anucleate cells relegated to nonspecific, diffusional exchange of cholesterol with serum, have been proposed to have a distinct relationship to cholesterol from leukocytes. We examined the relationship between serum cholesterol and circulating erythrocyte/platelet indices in 4,469 adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006. In linear regression analyses, serum non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) was positively associated with mean erythrocyte number, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, and platelet crit independently of age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, serum folate, and C-reactive protein. The magnitude of the relationship was most marked for platelets, with lowest vs. highest non-HDL-C quartile subjects having geometric mean platelet counts of 258,000/μL vs. 281,000/μL, respectively (adjusted model, P<0.001 for trend). These associations persisted in a sensitivity analysis excluding several conditions that affect erythrocyte/platelet and/or serum cholesterol levels, and were also noted in an independent analysis of 5,318 participants from NHANES 2007-2008. As non-HDL-C, erythrocytes, and platelets all impact cardiovascular disease risk, there is a need for advancing understanding of the underlying interactions that govern levels of these three blood components.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 09/2013; · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Migraine is associated with white matter hyperintensities (WMH) cross-sectionally, but its effect on WMH progression is uncertain. Participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort study (n = 10,924) completed a standardized headache questionnaire between 1993 and 1995. A subset of participants (n = 1,028) received 2 MRIs 8 to 12 years apart: once at the time of headache ascertainment, and again from 2004 to 2006. WMH were quantified using both a visually graded score (0-9) and semiautomated volumetric analysis. Linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and other vascular risk factors were constructed. Individuals who had migraine without aura were cross-sectionally associated with an 87% greater odds of having a WMH score ≥3 than individuals without headache (adjusted odds ratio = 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 3.37). Participants with migraine had an average of 2.65 cm(3) more WMH than those without headache (95% CI: 0.06, 5.24). However, there was no significant difference in WMH progression over the study period between individuals with and without migraine (1.58 cm(3) more progression for individuals with migraine compared to those without; 95% CI: -0.37, 3.53). Migraine is associated with WMH volume cross-sectionally but not with WMH progression over time. This suggests that the association between migraine and WMH is stable in older age and may be primarily attributable to changes occurring earlier in life, although further work is needed to confirm these findings.
    Neurology 08/2013; · 8.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: External common carotid artery (CCA) diameter and intima-media thickness (IMT) are independently associated with incident stroke and other cardiovascular events. Arterial geometry such as large IMT and large diameter may reflect vulnerable plaques and so impact stroke risk. Finally, arterial changes that exist bilaterally may increase stroke risk. METHOD: We studied middle-aged men and women (n=7276) from a prospective observational study who had right (R) and left (L) CCA IMT and external diameters measured via B-mode ultrasound (1987--89) in order to categorize CCA geometry. Using side- and gender-specific IMT and diameter medians, we categorized each measurement as large (>= median) vs. not large (<median) and defined four geometries: both IMT and diameter were large, only one parameter was large, or neither was large (reference group). Participants were followed for first time stroke through December 31, 1999. We used proportional hazards models to assess associations between right and left CCA geometries with new stroke. We also calculated positive and negative likelihood ratios (+LR and -LR) for CCA bilateral phenotypes as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS: Presence of both large CCA IMT and large diameter on one side was associated with strong stroke risk even after risk factor adjustment (men: RCCA hazards ratio [HR]=3.7 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.9-7.4; LCCA HR=2.4 95% CI=1.4-4.4; women: RCCA HR=4.0 95% CI=1.5-10.5; LCCA HR=5.7 95% CI=1.7-19.0). Presence of both large IMT and large diameter bilaterally was the strongest predictor of stroke identifying 64% of women and 44% of men who developed strokes. This phenotype showed potential for predicting stroke among individuals (women: +LR=3.1, 95% CI=2.6-3.8; men: +LR=2.3, 95% CI=1.8-2.8). CONCLUSION: Bilateral carotid artery geometries may be useful for stroke risk prediction.
    Cardiovascular Ultrasound 06/2013; 11(1):22. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine the survival benefit of multiple medical therapies in a large, community-based population of validated myocardial infarction (MI) events. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Population-based sample of 30 986 definite or probable MIs in residents of four US communities aged 35-74 years randomly sampled between 1987 and 2008 as part of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Surveillance Study. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All-cause mortality 30, 90 and 365 days after discharge. RESULTS: We used unadjusted and propensity score (PS) adjusted models to examine the relationship between medical therapy use and mortality. In unadjusted models, each medication and procedure was inversely associated with 30-day mortality. After PS adjustment, the crude survival benefits were attenuated for all therapies except for intravenous tissue plasminogen activator therapy (IV-tPA) and stent use. After inclusion of other therapies received during the event in regression models, risk ratio effect estimates (RR; (95% CI)) were attenuated for aspirin (0.66; (0.58 to 0.76) to 0.91 (0.80 to 1.03)), non-aspirin antiplatelets (0.74; (0.59 to 0.92) to 0.92 (0.72 to 1.18)), IV-tPA (0.50; (0.41 to 0.62) to 0.65 (0.52 to 0.80)) and stents (0.53 (0.40 to 0.69) to 0.68 (0.49 to 0.94)). Effect estimates remained stable for all other therapies and were similar for 90- and 365-day mortality endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: We observed inverse associations between receipt of six medications and procedures for MI and all-cause mortality at 30, 90 and 365 days after adjustment for PS. The mortality benefits observed in this population-based setting are consistent with those reported in clinical trials.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 03/2013; · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prior assessments of emergency medical services (EMS) stroke capacity found deficiencies in education and training, use of protocols and screening tools, and planning for the transport of patients. A 2001 survey of North Carolina EMS providers found many EMS systems lacked basic stroke services. Recent statewide efforts have sought to standardize and improve prehospital stroke care. The objective of this study was to assess EMS stroke care capacity in North Carolina and evaluate statewide changes since 2001. In June 2012, we conducted a web-based survey on stroke education and training and stroke care practices and policies among all EMS systems in North Carolina. We used the McNemar test to assess changes from 2001 to 2012. Of 100 EMS systems in North Carolina, 98 responded to our survey. Most systems reported providing stroke education and training (95%) to EMS personnel, using a validated stroke scale or screening tool (96%), and having a hospital prenotification policy (98%). Many were suboptimal in covering basic stroke educational topics (71%), always communicating stroke screen results to the destination hospital (46%), and always using a written destination plan (49%). Among 70 EMS systems for which we had data for 2001 and 2012, we observed significant improvements in education on stroke scales or screening tools (61% to 93%, P < .001) and use of validated stroke scales or screening tools (23% to 96%, P < .001). Major improvements in EMS stroke care, especially in prehospital stroke screening, have occurred in North Carolina in the past decade, whereas other practices and policies, including use of destination plans, remain in need of improvement.
    Preventing chronic disease 01/2013; 10:E149. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Measurement error/misclassification is commonplace in research when variable(s) can notbe measured accurately. A number of statistical methods have been developed to tackle this problemin a variety of settings and contexts. However, relatively few methods are available to handlemisclassified categorical exposure variable(s) in the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Inthis paper, we aim to review and compare different methods to handle this problem - naïvemethods, regression calibration, pooled estimation, multiple imputation, corrected score estimation,and MC-SIMEX - by simulation. These methods are also applied to a life course study with recalleddata and historical records. In practice, the issue of measurement error/misclassification should beaccounted for in design and analysis, whenever possible. Also, in the analysis, it could be moreideal to implement more than one correction method for estimation and inference, with properunderstanding of underlying assumptions.
    Journal of statistical theory and practice 01/2013; 7(2):381-400.
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    ABSTRACT: Autonomic fluctuations are associated with the initiation and possibly maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, little is known about the relationship between orthostatic blood pressure change, a common manifestation of autonomic dysfunction, and incident AF. We examined whether supine-to-standing changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) are associated with incident AF in 12,071 African American and white men and women aged 45-64 years, enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risks in Communities (ARIC) study. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) was defined as a supine-standing drop in SBP by ≥20 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure by ≥10 mmHg. AF cases were identified based on study scheduled 12-lead ECG, hospital discharge ICD codes, and death certificates through 2009. OH was seen in 603 (5%) at baseline. During an average follow-up of 18.1 years, 1438 (11.9%) study participants developed AF. Incident AF occurred more commonly among those with OH than those without, a rate of 9.3 vs. 6.3 per 1000 person years, (p<0.001). The age, gender, and race adjusted hazard ratio (95%CI) of AF among those with OH compared to those without was 1.62 (1.34, 2.14). This association was attenuated after adjustment for common AF risk factors to HR 1.40 (1.15, 1.71), a strength similar to that of diabetes or hypertension with AF in the same model. A non-linear relationship between orthostatic change in SBP and incident AF was present after multivariable adjustment. OH is associated with higher AF incidence. Whether interventions that decrease OH can reduce AF risk remains unknown.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e79030. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Declines in case fatality post-myocardial infarction (MI) have been observed over the past 3 decades. Few studies report socioeconomic disparities in survival post-MI. We assessed 1-year case fatality among 9,116 incident MI patients included in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities community surveillance from 1992 to 2002. Addresses of hospitalized MI patients were geocoded by a commercial vendor and linked to year 2000 United States Census tract-level neighborhood income (nINC) data. We estimated case fatality odds ratios and 95% CIs with a multinomial logistic model to quantify the association between nINC tertile and case fatality, comparing short- (within 28 days) and long-term (29-365 days) case fatality to no death 1 year post-MI. Overall, 1-year age-adjusted case fatality rates were highest among MI patients living in low-nINC areas, followed by medium- and high-nINC areas, respectively. We found significant odds ratio modification by race (P < .10) and formed race-nINC strata with high-nINC whites as the referent group. In multivariable models adjusting for age, gender, study community, and year of MI, low-nINC whites and low- and medium-nINC blacks had higher short-term case fatality than high-nINC whites. Low- and medium-nINC blacks had higher long-term case fatality compared with high-nINC whites. Differences in short- and long-term case fatality by neighborhood socioeconomic factors have not been systematically studied in the United States. Surveillance efforts can be expanded to incorporate measures of the neighborhood context to examine these associations over time.
    American heart journal 01/2013; 165(1):102-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) accounts for 6.5 million hospital days per year. It remains unknown if socioeconomic factors are associated with hospital length of stay (LOS). We analyzed predictors of longer hospital LOS [mean (days), 95% confidence interval (CI)] among participants with incident hospitalized HF (n = 1,300) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort from 1987 to 2005. In a statistical model adjusted for median household income, age, gender, race/study community, education level, hypertension, alcohol use, smoking, Medicaid status, and Charlson comorbidity index score, Medicaid recipients experienced a longer LOS (7.5, 6.3-8.9) compared to non-Medicaid recipients (6.2, 5.7-6.7), and patients with a higher burden of comorbidity had a longer LOS (7.5, 6.4-8.6) compared to patients with a lower burden (6.2, 5.7-6.9). Median household income and education were not associated with longer LOS in multivariable models. Medicaid recipients and patients with more comorbid disease may not have the resources for adequate, comprehensive, out-of-hospital management of HF symptoms, and may require a longer LOS due to the need for more care during the hospitalization because of more severe HF. Data on out-of-hospital management of chronic diseases as well as HF severity are needed to further elucidate the mechanisms leading to longer LOS among subgroups of HF patients.
    Journal for Healthcare Quality 12/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Reports from large studies using administrative data sets and event registries have characterized recent temporal trends and treatment patterns for acute myocardial infarction. However, few were population based, and fewer examined differences in patterns of treatment for patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). The aim of this study was to examine 22-year trends in the use of 10 medical therapies and procedures by STEMI and NSTEMI classification in 30,986 definite or probable myocardial infarctions in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Community Surveillance Study from 1987 to 2008. Weighted multivariate Poisson regression, controlling for gender, race and center classification, age, and Predicting Risk of Death in Cardiac Disease Tool score, was used to estimate average annual percentage changes in medical therapy use. From 1987 to 2008, 6,106 hospitalized events (19.7%) were classified as STEMIs and 20,302 (65.5%) as NSTEMIs. Among patients with STEMIs, increases were noted in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (6.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.7 to 7.2), antiplatelet agents other than aspirin (5.0%, 95% CI 4.0% to 6.0%), lipid-lowering medications (4.5%, 95% CI 3.1% to 5.8%), β blockers (2.7%, 95% CI 2.4% to 3.0%), aspirin (1.2%, 95% CI 1.0% to 1.3%), and heparin (0.8%, 95% CI 0.4% to 1.3%). Among patients with NSTEMIs, the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (5.5%, 95% CI 5.0% to 6.1%), antiplatelet agents other than aspirin (3.7%, 95% CI 2.7% to 4.7%), lipid-lowering medications (3.0%, 95% CI% 1.9 to 4.1%), β blockers (4.2%, 95% CI 3.9% to 4.4%), aspirin (1.9%, 95% CI 1.6% to 2.1%), and heparin (1.7%, 95% CI 1.3% to 2.1%) increased. Among patients with STEMIs, decreases in the use of thrombolytic agents (-7.2%, 95% CI -7.9% to -6.6%) and coronary artery bypass grafting (-2.4%, 95% CI -3.6% to -1.2%) were observed. Similar increases in percutaneous coronary intervention and decreases in the use of thrombolytic agents and coronary artery bypass grafting were noted among all patients. In conclusion, trends of increasing use of evidence-based therapies were found for patients with STEMIs and those with NSTEMIs over the past 22 years.
    The American journal of cardiology 11/2012; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    Steve Wing, Rachel Avery Horton, Kathryn M Rose
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Industrial swine operations emit odorant chemicals including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and volatile organic compounds. Malodor and pollutant concentrations have been associated with self-reported stress and altered mood in prior studies. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a repeated measures study of air pollution, stress, and blood pressure of swine operation neighbors. METHODS: For approximately two weeks, 101 non-smoking adult volunteers living near industrial swine operations in 16 neighborhoods in eastern North Carolina, USA, sat outdoors for 10 minutes twice daily at pre-selected times. Afterwards, they reported levels of hog odor on a 9-point scale and measured their blood pressure twice using an oscillometric, automated device. Simultaneously, we measured ambient levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and particulate matter ≤10 µm in aerodynamic diameter at a central location in each neighborhood. Associations between systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and pollutant measures were estimated using fixed effects (conditional) linear regression with adjustment for time-of-day. RESULTS: Particulate matter showed little association with blood pressure. DBP (±standard error) increased 0.23±0.08 mmHg per unit of reported hog odor during the 10 minutes outdoors and 0.12±0.08 mmHg per 1 ppb increase of H2S concentration in the same hour. SBP increased 0.10±0.12 mmHg per odor unit and 0.29±0.12 mmHg per 1 ppb increase of H2S in the same hour. Reported stress was strongly associated with BP; adjustment for stress reduced the odor-DBP association, but the H2S-SBP association changed little. CONCLUSIONS: Like noise and other repetitive environmental stressors, malodors may be associated with acute blood pressure increases that could contribute to development of chronic hypertension.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 10/2012; · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disparities in the receipt of angiography and subsequent coronary revascularization have not been well-studied. We estimated prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (PR, 95% CIs) for the association between neighborhood-level income (nINC) and receipt of angiography; and among those undergoing angiography, receipt of revascularization procedures, among 9941 hospitalized myocardial infarction patients under epidemiologic surveillance by the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (1993-2002). In analyses by tertile of nINC controlling for age, study community, gender, and year, compared with white patients from high nINC areas, black patients from low nINC (0.60, 0.54-0.66) and medium nINC (0.70, 0.60-0.78) areas, as well as white patients from low nINC areas (0.83, 0.75-0.91) were less likely to receive angiography, whereas black patients from high nINC and white patients from medium nINC areas were not. Associations were attenuated, but persisted, after we controlled for event severity, medical history, receipt of Medicaid, and hospital type. Compared with high nINC white patients, black patients were less likely, and white patients were as likely, to undergo cardiac revascularization, given receipt of an angiogram. Black and lower nINC patients were less likely to undergo angiography than were white patients and those from higher nINC areas. Among those receiving angiography, race, but not nINC, gradients persisted.
    Annals of epidemiology 07/2012; 22(9):623-9. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prospective studies have shown that social isolation (i.e. lack of social contacts) predicts incident coronary heart disease (CHD), but it is unclear whether it predicts incident heart failure (HF) and what factors might mediate this association. HF patients may be more susceptible to social isolation as they tend to be older and may have disrupted social relationships due to life course factors (e.g. retirement or bereavement). We prospectively examined whether individuals with higher vs. low social isolation have a higher incidence of HF and determined whether this association is mediated by vital exhaustion. We estimated incident HF hospitalization or death among 14 348 participants from Visit 2 (1990-1992) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study using Cox proportional hazard models which were sequentially adjusted for age, race/study community, gender, current smoking, alcohol use, and co-morbidities. We conducted mediation analyses according to the Baron and Kenny method. After a median follow-up of 16.9 person-years, 1727 (13.0%) incident HF events occurred. The adjusted hazard of incident HF was greater for those in the higher vs. low social isolation risk group (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.35). Our data suggest that vital exhaustion strongly mediates the association between higher social isolation and incident HF (the percentage change in beta coefficient for higher vs. low social isolation groups after adjusting for vital exhaustion was 36%). These data suggest that greater social isolation is an independent risk factor for incident HF, and this association appears to be strongly mediated by vital exhaustion.
    European Journal of Heart Failure 05/2012; 14(7):748-53. · 5.25 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
366.29 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Social & Scientific Systems
      Silver Spring, Maryland, United States
  • 2013
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • SRA International Inc.
      Fairfax, Virginia, United States
    • University of North Carolina at Pembroke
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2010–2013
    • The Ohio State University
      • Division of Epidemiology
      Columbus, OH, United States
    • LaGrange College
      Lagrange, Indiana, United States
  • 1997–2013
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2008
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Branch of Epidemiology (EPI)
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2007
    • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • Morehouse School of Medicine
      • Department of Community Health and Preventive Medicine
      Atlanta, GA, United States