Jacques Dutrieux

Paris Diderot University, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (8)42.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Thymus dysfunction characterizes human/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections and contributes to physiopathology. However, both the mechanisms involved in thymic dysfunction and its precise timing remain unknown. We here analyzed thymic function during acute SIV infection in rhesus macaques. Rhesus macaques were intravenously infected with SIVmac251 and bled every 2/3 days or necropsied at different early time points postinfection. Naive T-cell counts were followed by flow cytometry and their T-cell receptor excision circle content evaluated by qPCR. Thymic chemokines were quantified by reverse transcription-qPCR and localized by in-situ hybridization in thymuses collected at necropsy. Thymic interferon alpha (IFN-α) subtype production was quantified by reverse transcription-qPCR combined to heteroduplex tracking assay. The effect of thymic IFN-α subtypes was tested on sorted triple negative thymocytes cultured on OP9-hDL1 cells. A reduced intrathymic proliferation history characterizes T cells produced during the first weeks of infection. Moreover, we evidenced a profound alteration of both chemokines and IFN-α subtypes transcriptional patterns in SIV-infected thymuses. Finally, we showed that IFN-α subtypes produced in the infected thymuses inhibit thymocyte proliferation, still preserving their differentiation capacity. Thymopoiesis is deeply impacted from the first days of SIV infection. Reduced thymocyte proliferation - a time-consuming process - together with modified chemokine networks is consistent with thymocyte differentiation speed-up. This may transiently enhance thymic output, thus increasing naive T-cell counts and diversity and the immune competence of the host. Nonetheless, long-lasting modification of thymic physiology may lead to thymic exhaustion, as observed in late primary HIV infection.
    AIDS (London, England) 03/2014; · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IFN-I production is a characteristic of HIV/SIV primary infections. However, acute IFN-I plasma concentrations rapidly decline thereafter. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are key players in this production but primary infection is associated with decreased responsiveness of pDC to TLR 7 and 9 triggering. IFNα production during primary SIV infection contrasts with increased pDC death, renewal and dysfunction. We investigated the contribution of pDC dynamics to both acute IFNα production and the rapid return of IFNα concentrations to pre-infection levels during acute-to-chronic transition. Nine cynomolgus macaques were infected with SIVmac251 and IFNα-producing cells were quantified and characterized. The plasma IFN-I peak was temporally associated with the presence of IFNα(+) pDC in tissues but IFN-I production was not detectable during the acute-to-chronic transition despite persistent immune activation. No IFNα(+) cells other than pDC were detected by intracellular staining. Blood-pDC and peripheral lymph node-pDC both lost IFNα(-) production ability in parallel. In blood, this phenomenon correlated with an increase in the counts of Ki67(+)-pDC precursors with no IFNα production ability. In tissues, it was associated with increase of both activated pDC and KI67(+)-pDC precursors, none of these being IFNα(+) in vivo. Our findings also indicate that activation/death-driven pDC renewal rapidly blunts acute IFNα production in vivo: pDC sub-populations with no IFNα-production ability rapidly increase and shrinkage of IFNα production thus involves both early pDC exhaustion, and increase of pDC precursors.
    PLoS Pathogens 01/2014; 10(1):e1003915. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Forkhead box N1 (FOXN1) is a transcription factor crucial for thymic epithelium development and prevention of its involution. Investigation of a patient with a rare homozygous FOXN1 mutation (R255X), leading to alopecia universalis and thymus aplasia, unexpectedly revealed non-maternal circulating T-cells, and, strikingly, large numbers of aberrant double-negative αβ T-cells (CD4negCD8neg, DN) and regulatory-like T-cells. These data raise the possibility that a thymic rudiment persisted, allowing T-cell development, albeit with disturbances in positive/negative selection, as suggested by DN and FoxP3+ cell expansions. Although regulatory-like T-cell numbers normalized following HLA-mismatched thymic transplantation, the αβDN subset persisted 5 years post-transplantation. Involution of thymus allograft likely occurred 3 years post-transplantation based on sj/βTREC ratio, which estimates intrathymic precursor T-cell divisions and, consequently, thymic explant output. Nevertheless, functional immune-competence was sustained, providing new insights for the design of immunological reconstitution strategies based on thymic transplantation, with potential applications in other clinical settings.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e37042. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Cytokine 10/2011; 56(1):25–26. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The contribution of naive CD4⁺ T cells to the pool of HIV-infected cells remains poorly described. This study aimed at evaluating HIV infection in naive T-cell subsets in viremic and HAART-treated patients, together with various parameters implicated in naive T-cell homeostasis, in order to better understand infection in these subsets. HIV provirus was quantified in various FACS-sorted CD4/CD8 T-cell subsets [recent thymic emigrants (RTEs), non-RTE naives and memory T cells] purified from peripheral blood cells of untreated viremic and HAART-treated aviremic HIV-infected patients. HIV proviral DNA was quantified using a highly sensitive real-time PCR assay allowing detection of one HIV copy in 10⁵ cells. Intrathymic precursor T-cell proliferation and circulating T-cell cycling were, respectively, evaluated through measurement of the sj/βTREC ratio (signal joint T-Cell Receptor Excision Circle frequency divided by DβJβTREC frequency) and Ki-67 expression. Plasma interleukin (IL)-7 concentrations were measured by ELISA. RTEs and non-RTEs were equally HIV infected. Altogether, naive CD4⁺ T cells represented 0.24%-60% of the infected cells. In contrast, HIV DNA was undetectable in naive CD8⁺ T cells. RTE infection rate directly correlated with IL-7 plasma levels (r = 0.607, P = 0.0035) but was independent from plasma viral load, peripheral T-cell cycling and intrathymic precursor T-cell proliferation. We demonstrated that RTEs are effectively HIV infected. The similar infection rate observed in RTEs and other naive T cells, its relationship with plasma IL-7 levels, together with the lack of correlation between RTE infection and either thymic or peripheral proliferation, strongly suggests that RTE infection occurs either late during thymopoiesis or early on during their extrathymic maturation.
    AIDS (London, England) 06/2011; 25(9):1153-62. · 4.91 Impact Factor
  • Cytokine 01/2011; 56(1):44-45. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interferon-α (IFN-α)-based therapy is presently the standard treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Despite good effectiveness, this cytokine is associated with major side effects, including significant lymphopenia, that limits its use for HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) has recently shown therapeutic potential and safety in several clinical trials designed to demonstrate T-cell restoration in immunodeficient patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques, the relevance of IL-7 therapy as a means to overcoming IFN-α-induced lymphopenia. We showed that low-dose IFN-α treatment induced strong lymphopenia in chronically infected monkeys. In contrast, high-dose IFN-α treatment stimulated IL-7 production, leading to increased circulating T-cell counts. Moreover, IL-7 therapy more than abrogated the lymphopenic effect of low-dose IFN-α. Indeed, the association of both cytokines resulted in increased circulating T-cell counts, in particular in the naive compartments, as a consequence of central and peripheral homeostatic functions of the IL-7. Finally, reduced PD-1 expression by memory CD8(+) T cells and transient T-cell repertoire diversification were observed under IL-7 therapy. Our data strongly suggest that IL-7 immunotherapy will be of substantial benefit in the treatment of HIV/HCV coinfection and should enhance the likelihood of HCV eradication in poorly responding patients.
    Blood 12/2010; 116(25):5589-99. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term immune recovery in older patients given hematopoietic cell transplantation after non-myeloablative conditioning remains poorly understood. This prompted us to investigate long-term lymphocyte reconstitution and thymic function in 80 patients given allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells after non-myeloablative conditioning. Median age at transplant was 57 years (range 10-71). Conditioning regimen consisted of 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) with (n=46) or without (n=20) added fludarabine, 4 Gy TBI with fludarabine (n=6), or cyclophosphamide plus fludarabine (n=8). Stem cell sources were unmanipulated (n=56), CD8-depleted (n=19), or CD34-selected (n=5) peripheral blood stem cells. Immune recovery was assessed by signal-joint T-cell receptor excision circle quantification and flow cytometry. Signal-joint T-cell receptor excision circle levels increased from day 100 to one and two years after transplantation in patients under 50 years of age (n=23; P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively), and in those aged 51-60 years (n=35; P=0.17 and P=0.06, respectively), but not in patients aged over 60 (n=22; P=0.3 and P=0.3, respectively). Similarly, CD4(+)CD45RA(+) (naïve) T-cell counts increased from day 100 to one and two years after transplantation in patients aged 50 years and under 50 (P=0.002 and P=0.02, respectively), and in those aged 51-60 (P=0.4 and P=0.001, respectively), but less so in patients aged over 60 (P=0.3 and P=0.06, respectively). In multivariate analyses, older patient age (P<0.001), extensive chronic GVHD (P<0.001), and prior (resolved) extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (P=0.008) were associated with low signal-joint T-cell receptor excision circle levels one year or more after HCT. In summary, our data suggest that thymic neo-generation of T cells occurred from day 100 onwards in patients under 60 while signal-joint T-cell receptor excision circle levels remained low for patients aged over 60. Further, chronic graft-versus-host disease had a dramatic impact on thymic function, as observed previously in patients given grafts after myeloablative conditioning.
    Haematologica 10/2010; 96(2):298-306. · 5.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

50 Citations
42.23 Total Impact Points

Top Journals

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2010
    • Institut Pasteur International Network
      • Département de Virologie de Paris
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France