[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Backgroun and Objective: Resistance to multiple antimicrobials is the major cause of debility and death due to infectious diseases around the world. Our objective was to determine the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of aerobic microbial isolates in a clinical laboratory. Methodology: All culture specimens of tissue, pus, urine, bone, blood, fluid, stool, sputum, and high vaginal swab received in the Microbiology Department of Clinical & Research Laboratory, Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology from May 2010 to January 2011 were included in the present study. Bacterial isolates were identified and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined. Results: Out of 312 cultured specimens, 272 (87.17%) were found infected with 437 microbial organisms (412 bacteria and 25 Candida isolates). A total of 90 (20.59%) multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates were found. MDR Escherichia coli was isolated in 40 (34.19%) out of 117 culture specimens which showed the growth of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 17 (22.08%), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in 13 (11.50%), Klebsiella pneumoniae in 7 (22.58%), Proteus species in 6 (31.58%), Acinetobacter species in 3 (33.33%), Enterobacter species in 2 (28.57%), Coliform (Escherichia coli) in 1 (16.67%) and Enterococcus species were isolated in 1 (50%) culture specimen. Conclusions: High prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria was found in the present study. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance has become a major challenge in infectious disease medicine. Antimicrobial resistance may be due to misuse of antimicrobials by physicians and self medication in Pakistan. Further large scale studies are needed to validate our findings.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Online 05/2013; 29(3):851-5. · 0.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To observe the effects of active glucose monitoring, alteration of drug dosage and timing, dietary counselling and patient education in the occurrence of acute diabetic complications in fasting individuals with diabetes during the month of Ramadan.
This prospective study was conducted at the outpatient department of the Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology. Two educational sessions, one about drug dosage and timing alteration and glucose monitoring, and the other about dietary and lifestyle modifications, were given to the patients by a doctor and a dietician, respectively. Patients who had been recruited were advised to note their blood glucose readings on a chart for at least 15 fasting days, twice a day with at least one reading in the fasting state.
A total of 3946 readings were obtained in 110 subjects; 82 readings were in the hypoglycaemic range, and there were 22 episodes of symptomatic hypoglycaemia and 60 episodes of biochemical hypoglycaemia observed in 27 patients. Seven patients experienced symptomatic hypoglycaemia, whereas 20 patients had biochemical hypoglycaemia. Symptomatic hypoglycaemic episodes showed a downward trend from weeks 1 to 4. The highest frequencies of hypo- and hyperglycaemic episodes were observed pre-dawn. None of the patients developed diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state.
We observed that, with active glucose monitoring, alteration of drug dosage and timing, dietary counselling and patient education, the majority of the patients did not have any serious acute complications of diabetes during Ramadan.
Diabetic Medicine 06/2012; 29(6):709-15. · 3.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To observe temporal changes in the prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and its associated risk factors in the rural area of Baluchistan province of Pakistan according to American Diabetes Association criteria by comparing the two surveys done in 2002 and 2009.
This community based survey of 1264 subjects aged 25 years and above was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 in sixteen villages of southern Baluchistan. The temporal changes were assessed in comparison with a similar survey conducted seven years previously. Data from 2002 survey was also re-analyzed according to the latest ADA criteria.
A two-fold increase in the prevalence of diabetes (from 7.2% to 14.2%) was seen in 2009 survey and the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose also increased significantly (6.5-11.0%). An important finding was the number of hypertensives and subjects with positive family history of diabetes also increased significantly (p<0.000) from the previous survey.
Coordinated National Programs for primary prevention to counteract the increasing prevalence of diabetes are the need of time. Further large scale studies with proper risk factor assessment are needed to ascertain the reasons of rising prevalence of glucose intolerance.
Diabetes research and clinical practice 09/2011; 94(3):456-62. · 2.74 Impact Factor