Zhe Shen

Zhejiang University, Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China

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Publications (7)43.25 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: AimLactates accumulate in ischemic brains. G protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81) is an endogenous receptor for lactate. We aimed to explore whether lactate is involved in ischemic injury via activating GPR81.MethodsN2A cells were transfected with GFP-GPR81 plasmids 24 h previously, and then treated with GPR81 antagonist 3-hydroxy-butyrate (3-OBA) alone or cotreated with agonists lactate or 3, 5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3, 5-DHBA) during 3 h of oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD). Adult male C57BL/6J mice and primary cultured cortical neurons were treated with 3-OBA at the onset of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or OGD, respectively.ResultsThe GPR81 overexpression increased the cell vulnerability to ischemic injury. And GPR81 antagonism by 3-OBA significantly prevented cell death and brain injury after OGD and MCAO, respectively. Furthermore, inhibition of GPR81 reversed ischemia-induced apoptosis and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling may be involved in the neuroprotection.ConclusionsG protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81) inhibition attenuated ischemic neuronal death. Lactate may aggravate ischemic brain injury by activating GPR81. GPR81 antagonism might be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cerebral ischemia.
    CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 12/2014; · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transient cerebral ischemia leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, the contributions of ER stress to cerebral ischemia are not clear. To address this issue, the ER stress activators tunicamycin (TM) and thapsigargin (TG) were administered to transient middle cerebral artery occluded (tMCAO) mice and oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD-Rep.)-treated neurons. Both TM and TG showed significant protection against ischemia-induced brain injury, as revealed by reduced brain infarct volume and increased glucose uptake rate in ischemic tissue. In OGD-Rep.-treated neurons, 4-PBA, the ER stress releasing mechanism, counteracted the neuronal protection of TM and TG, which also supports a protective role of ER stress in transient brain ischemia. Knocking down the ER stress sensor Eif2s1, which is further activated by TM and TG, reduced the OGD-Rep.-induced neuronal cell death. In addition, both TM and TG prevented PARK2 loss, promoted its recruitment to mitochondria, and activated mitophagy during reperfusion after ischemia. The neuroprotection of TM and TG was reversed by autophagy inhibition (3-methyladenine and Atg7 knockdown) as well as Park2 silencing. The neuroprotection was also diminished in Park2(+/-) mice. Moreover, Eif2s1 and downstream Atf4 silencing reduced PARK2 expression, impaired mitophagy induction, and counteracted the neuroprotection. Taken together, the present investigation demonstrates that the ER stress induced by TM and TG protects against the transient ischemic brain injury. The PARK2-mediated mitophagy may be underlying the protection of ER stress. These findings may provide a new strategy to rescue ischemic brains by inducing mitophagy through ER stress activation.
    Autophagy 08/2014; 10(10). · 11.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acidosis is one of the key components in cerebral ischemic postconditioning that has emerged recently as an endogenous strategy for neuroprotection. We set out to test whether acidosis treatment at reperfusion can protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Adult male C57BL/6 J mice were subjected to 60-minute middle cerebral arterial occlusion followed by 24-hour reperfusion. Acidosis treatment by inhaling 10%, 20%, or 30% CO2 for 5 or 10 minutes at 5, 50, or 100 minutes after reperfusion was applied. Our results showed that inhaling 20% CO2 for 5 minutes at 5 minutes after reperfusion-induced optimal neuroprotection, as revealed by reduced infarct volume. Attenuating brain acidosis with NaHCO3 significantly compromised the acidosis or ischemic postconditioning-induced neuroprotection. Consistently, both acidosis-treated primary cultured cortical neurons and acute corticostriatal slices were more resistant to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion insult. In addition, acidosis inhibited ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis, caspase-3 expression, cytochrome c release to cytoplasm, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. The neuroprotection of acidosis was inhibited by the mPTP opener atractyloside both in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, these findings indicate that transient mild acidosis treatment at reperfusion protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. This neuroprotection is likely achieved, at least partly, by inhibiting mPTP opening and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 6 November 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.193.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 11/2013; · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) is a complex pathological process. Although autophagy can be evoked by ischemia, its involvement in the reperfusion phase after ischemia and its contribution to the fate of neurons remains largely unknown. In the present investigation, we found that autophagy was activated in the reperfusion phase, as revealed in both mice with middle cerebral artery occlusion and oxygen-glucose deprived cortical neurons in culture. Interestingly, in contrast to that in permanent ischemia, inhibition of autophagy (by 3-methyladenine, bafilomycin A 1, Atg7 knockdown or in atg5 (-/-) MEF cells) in the reperfusion phase reinforced, rather than reduced, the brain and cell injury induced by I-R. Inhibition of autophagy either with 3-methyladenine or Atg7 knockdown enhanced the I-R-induced release of cytochrome c and the downstream activation of apoptosis. Moreover, MitoTracker Red-labeled neuronal mitochondria increasingly overlapped with GFP-LC3-labeled autophagosomes during reperfusion, suggesting the presence of mitophagy. The mitochondrial clearance in I-R was reversed by 3-methyladenine and Atg7 silencing, further suggesting that mitophagy underlies the neuroprotection by autophagy. In support, administration of the mitophagy inhibitor mdivi-1 in the reperfusion phase aggravated the ischemia-induced neuronal injury both in vivo and in vitro. PARK2 translocated to mitochondria during reperfusion and Park2 knockdown aggravated ischemia-induced neuronal cell death. In conclusion, the results indicated that autophagy plays different roles in cerebral ischemia and subsequent reperfusion. The protective role of autophagy during reperfusion may be attributable to mitophagy-related mitochondrial clearance and inhibition of downstream apoptosis. PARK2 may be involved in the mitophagy process.
    Autophagy 06/2013; 9(9). · 11.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIM: Cerebral ischemic postconditioning has emerged recently as a kind of endogenous strategy for neuroprotection. We set out to test whether hypoxia or glucose deprivation (GD) would substitute for ischemia in postconditioning. METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6J mice were treated with postconditioning evoked by ischemia (bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion) or hypoxia (8% O(2) ) after 45-min middle cerebral arterial occlusion. Corticostriatal slices from mice were subjected to 1-min oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), GD, or oxygen deprivation (OD) postconditioning at 5 min after 15-min OGD. RESULTS: Hypoxic postconditioning did not decrease infarct volume or improve neurologic function at 24 h after reperfusion, while ischemic postconditioning did. Similarly, OGD and GD but not OD postconditioning attenuated the OGD/reperfusion-induced injury in corticostriatal slices. The effective duration of low-glucose (1 mmol/L) postconditioning was longer than that of OGD postconditioning. Moreover, OGD and GD but not OD postconditioning reversed the changes of glutamate, GABA, glutamate transporter-1 protein expression, and glutamine synthetase activity induced by OGD/reperfusion. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the transient lack of glucose but not oxygen plays a key role in ischemic postconditioning-induced neuroprotection, at least partly by regulating glutamate metabolism. Low-glucose postconditioning might be a clinically safe and feasible therapeutic approach against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.
    CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 11/2012; · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic preconditioning protects against cerebral ischemia. Recent investigations indicated that acidic preconditioning (APC) protects against ischemia-induced cardiomyocytes injury. However, it is not clear whether APC can protect against cerebral ischemia. To address this issue, C57BL/6 mice were exposed 3 times at 10-min intervals to a normoxic atmosphere containing 20% CO(2) for 5 min before being further subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. APC reversed the ischemia-induced brain injury as revealed by improved performance in passive avoidance experiments and decreased neuron loss in the hippocampal CA1 region. Consistently, both APC-treated brain slices and primary cultured neurons were more resistant to oxygen-glucose-deprivation (OGD)-induced injury, in a pH- and time-dependent manner, as revealed by reversed cell/tissue viability. In addition, the APC treatment prevented OGD-induced mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss and apoptosis, which was inhibited by the mitochondrial permeability transport pore opener atractyloside. Taken together, these findings indicated that APC protects against ischemia-induced neuronal injury. The beneficial effects may be attributed, at least in part, to decreased mitochondria-dependent neuronal apoptosis.
    Neuroscience Letters 05/2012; 523(1):3-8. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in vascular smooth muscle cells, which may contribute to their cardiovascular toxicity. The CNS toxicity of H1-antihistamines may also be related to their non-receptor-mediated activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in astrocytes and the mechanism involved. The H1-antihistamines induced large numbers of giant vacuoles in astrocytes. Such vacuoles were marked with both the lysosome marker Lysotracker Red and the alkalescent fluorescence dye monodansylcadaverine, which indicated that these vacuoles were lysosome-like acidic vesicles. Quantitative analysis of monodansylcadaverine fluorescence showed that the effect of H1-antihistamines on vacuolation in astrocytes was dose-dependent, and was alleviated by extracellular acidification, but aggravated by extracellular alkalization. The order of potency to induce vacuolation at high concentrations of H1-antihistamines (diphenhydramine>pyrilamine>astemizole>triprolidine) corresponded to their pKa ranking. Co-treatment with histamine and the histamine receptor-1 agonist trifluoromethyl toluidide did not inhibit the vacuolation. Bafilomycin A1, a vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor, which inhibits intracellular vacuole or vesicle acidification, clearly reversed the vacuolation and intracellular accumulation of diphenhydramine. The macroautophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine largely reversed the percentage of LC3-positive astrocytes induced by diphenhydramine, while only partly reversing the number of monodansylcadaverine-labeled vesicles. In Atg5⁻/⁻ mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which cannot form autophagosomes, the number of vacuoles induced by diphenhydramine was less than that in wild-type cells. These results indicated that H1-antihistamines induce V-ATPase-dependent acidic vacuole formation in astrocytes, and this is partly mediated by macroautophagy. The pKa and alkalescent characteristic of H1-antihistamines may be the major determinants of vacuolation, which may contribute to their CNS toxicity.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 01/2012; 260(2):115-23. · 3.98 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

25 Citations
43.25 Total Impact Points


  • 2012–2014
    • Zhejiang University
      • College of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China
    • Wenzhou Medical College
      • Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics
      Yung-chia, Zhejiang Sheng, China