A. Bauer

Australian Astronomical Observatory, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Publications (147)112.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present an estimate of the galaxy stellar mass function and its division by morphological type in the local (0.025 < z < 0.06) Universe. Adopting robust morphological classifications as previously presented (Kelvin et al.) for a sample of 3,727 galaxies taken from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey, we define a local volume and stellar mass limited sub-sample of 2,711 galaxies to a lower stellar mass limit of M = 10^9.0 M_sun. We confirm that the galaxy stellar mass function is well described by a double Schechter function given by M* = 10^10.64 M_sun, {\alpha}1 = -0.43, {\phi}*1 = 4.18 dex^-1 Mpc^-3, {\alpha}2 = -1.50 and {\phi}*2 = 0.74 dex^-1 Mpc^-3. The constituent morphological-type stellar mass functions are well sampled above our lower stellar mass limit, excepting the faint little blue spheroid population of galaxies. We find approximately 71+3-4% of the stellar mass in the local Universe is found within spheroid dominated galaxies; ellipticals and S0-Sas. The remaining 29+4-3% falls predominantly within late type disk dominated systems, Sab-Scds and Sd-Irrs. Adopting reasonable bulge-to-total ratios implies that approximately half the stellar mass today resides in spheroidal structures, and half in disk structures. Within this local sample, we find approximate stellar mass proportions for E : S0-Sa : Sab-Scd : Sd-Irr of 34 : 37 : 24 : 5.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the relationship between colour and structure within galaxies using a large, volume-limited sample of bright, low-redshift galaxies with optical to near-infrared imaging from the GAMA survey. We fit single-component, wavelength-dependent, elliptical S\'ersic models to all passbands simultaneously, using software developed by the MegaMorph project. Dividing our sample by S\'ersic index and colour, the recovered wavelength variations in effective radius (R_e) and S\'ersic index (n) reveal the internal structure, and hence formation history, of different types of galaxies. All these trends depend on n; some have an additional dependence on galaxy colour. Late-type galaxies (n_r < 2.5) show a dramatic increase in S\'ersic index with wavelength. This might be a result of their two-component (bulge-disk) nature, though stellar population gradients within each component and dust attenuation are likely to play a role. All galaxies show a substantial decrease in R_e with wavelength. This is strongest for early-types (n_r > 2.5), even though they maintain constant n with wavelength, revealing that ellipticals are a superimposition of different stellar populations associated with multiple collapse and merging events. Processes leading to structures with larger R_e must be associated with lower metallicity or younger stellar populations. This appears to rule out the formation of young cores through dissipative gas accretion as an important mechanism in the recent lives of luminous elliptical galaxies.
    04/2014; 441(2).
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    ABSTRACT: The PAU Survey studies the existence and properties of dark energy from the observations of redshift space distortions and weak lensing magnification from galaxy cross-correlations as main cosmological probes. The PAU Team is building an instrument, PAUCam, equipped with fully depleted CCD detectors, designed to be mounted at the prime focus of the 4.2 m diameter William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in La Palma. Simulations indicate that PAUCam at the WHT will be able to image about 2 square degrees per night in 40 narrow-band filters plus six wide-band filters to an AB magnitude depth of i ~ 22.5, providing low-resolution (R ~ 50) photometric spectra for around 30,000 galaxies, 5,000 stars and 1,000 quasars per square degree. Accurate photometric calibration of the PAU data is vital to achieve the survey science goals. This calibration is challenging due to the large and unusual filter set. We outline the data management pipelines being developed for the survey, both for nightly data reduction and co-addition of multiple epochs, with emphasis on the photometric calibration strategies. We also describe the main tests and results in the characterization of our Hamamatsu fully depleted detectors.
    02/2014; 9(03).
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    ABSTRACT: The Dark Energy Survey (DES) -- a five-year 5000 sq deg grizY survey of the Southern sky to probe the parameters of dark energy -- recently began operations using the new 3 sq deg DECam imager on the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory. In order to achieve its science goals, the DES has tight requirements on both its relative and absolute photometric calibrations. The 5-year requirements are (1) an internal (relative) photometric calibration of 2% rms (2) an absolute color calibration of 0.5%, and (3) an absolute flux calibration of 0.5% (in i-band relative to BD+17 4708). In preparation for DES operations, the instrument+telescope underwent a period of Science Verification between November 2012 and February 2013. These Science Verification (SV) data were quickly processed to determine whether the image data were being produced with sufficient quality and efficiency to meet DES science goals. These data were also useful for initial science, and they were re-processed and re-calibrated during Summer 2013. The photometric goals for Summer 2013 re-processing of the DES SV were intentionally more relaxed than the requirements for the final 5-year survey: (1) an all-sky internal (relative) calibration goal of 3%, (2) an absolute color goal of 3%, and (3) an absolute flux goal of 3%. Here, we describe the results from the photometric calibration of the Summer 2013 re-processing of the DES SV data, the lessons learned, and plans for the future.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: From a volume limited sample of 45,542 galaxies and 6,000 groups with $z \leq 0.213$ we use an adapted minimal spanning tree algorithm to identify and classify large scale structures within the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Using galaxy groups, we identify 643 filaments across the three equatorial GAMA fields that span up to 200 $h^{-1}$ Mpc in length, each with an average of 8 groups within them. By analysing galaxies not belonging to groups we identify a secondary population of smaller coherent structures composed entirely of galaxies, dubbed `tendrils' that appear to link filaments together, or penetrate into voids, generally measuring around 10 $h^{-1}$ Mpc in length and containing on average 6 galaxies. Finally we are also able to identify a population of isolated void galaxies. By running this algorithm on GAMA mock galaxy catalogues we compare the characteristics of large scale structure between observed and mock data; finding that mock filaments reproduce observed ones extremely well. This provides a probe of higher order distribution statistics not captured by the popularly used two-point correlation function.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present evidence for stochastic star formation histories in low-mass (M* < 10^10 Msun) galaxies from observations within the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. For ~73,000 galaxies between 0.05<z<0.32, we calculate star formation rates (SFR) and specific star formation rates (SSFR = SFR/M*) from spectroscopic Halpha measurements and apply dust corrections derived from Balmer decrements. We find a dependence of SSFR on stellar mass, such that SSFRs decrease with increasing stellar mass for star-forming galaxies, and for the full sample, SSFRs decrease as a stronger function of stellar mass. We use simple parametrizations of exponentially declining star formation histories to investigate the dependence on stellar mass of the star formation timescale and the formation redshift. We find that parametrizations previously fit to samples of z~1 galaxies cannot recover the distributions of SSFRs and stellar masses observed in the GAMA sample between 0.05<z<0.32. In particular, a large number of low-mass (M* < 10^10 Msun) galaxies are observed to have much higher SSFRs than can be explained by these simple models over the redshift range of 0.05<z<0.32, even when invoking mass-dependent staged evolution. For such a large number of galaxies to maintain low stellar masses, yet harbour such high SSFRs, requires the late onset of a weak underlying exponentially declining SFH with stochastic bursts of star formation superimposed.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Distributed as an Instant Email Notice Supernovae Credential Certification: Masao Sako (masao@sas.upenn.edu) Subjects: Optical, Supernovae Referred to by ATel #: 4725, 4741, 4800, 4826 First SN Discoveries from the Dark Energy Survey The Dark Energy Survey (DES) report the discovery of the first set of supernovae (SN) from the project. Images were observed as part of the DES Science Verification phase using the newly-installed 570-Megapixel Dark Energy Camera on the CTIO Blanco 4-m telescope by observers J. Annis, E. Buckley-Geer, and H. Lin. SN observations are planned throughout the observing campaign on a regular cadence of 4-6 days in each of the ten 3-deg2 fields in the DES griz filters. The SN candidates are named according to the season and field in which they were discovered. We adopt the convention -- DES{season}{field}{index} -- where {season} is the year pertaining to the beginning of each observing season, {field} denotes one of the ten SN search fields (E1,E2,S1,S2,X1,X2,X3,C1,C2,C3) in Elais-S1 (E), Stripe 82 (S), XMM-LSS (X) and CDF-S (C), and {index} is one or more lower-case letters starting from a-z, then aa-az, and so on. The DES SN Survey strategy is described in Bernstein et al. (2012, ApJ, 753, 152). Spectroscopic classifications were performed by the OzDES collaboration from spectra (350-900 nm) obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope with AAOmega-2dF observed by C. Lidman, R. Sharp, and S. A. Uddin. Classifications were performed using Superfit (Howell et al 2002, BAAS, 34, 1256) or SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024). Redshifts measured from narrow galaxy lines are quoted to 3 significant figures. Those measured from broad SN features are quoted to 2 significant figures. SN phases are based on both the optical spectra and multi-band light curves at the time of the spectroscopic measurements. Name | RA(J2000) | Dec(J2000) | Discovery date (UT) | Discovery r mag| Spectrum date (UT) | redshift | type | phase DES12C1a | 03:38:54.5 | -27:32:28.2 | 2012 Dec 07 | 22.0 | 2012 Dec 13 | 0.303 | Ia | near max DES12C1b | 03:35:05.8 | -26:45:53.9 | 2012 Dec 07 | 20.9 | 2012 Dec 13 | 0.243 | Ia | near max DES12C2a | 03:41:13.1 | -28:59:37.9 | 2012 Dec 04 | 21.5 | 2012 Dec 14 | 0.21 | Ia | near max
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 12/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: SAMI (Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph) has the potential to revolutionise our understanding of galaxies, with spatially-resolved spectroscopy of large numbers of targets. It is the first on-sky application of innovative photonic imaging bundles called hexabundles, which will remove the aperture effects that have biased previous single-fibre multi-object astronomical surveys. The hexabundles have lightly-fused circular multi-mode cores with a covering fraction of 73%. The thirteen hexabundles in SAMI, each have 61 fibre cores, and feed into the AAOmega spectrograph at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). SAMI was installed at the AAT in July 2011 and the first commissioning results prove the effectiveness of hexabundles on sky. A galaxy survey of several thousand galaxies to z 0.1 will begin with SAMI in mid-2012.
    Proc SPIE 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a detailed investigation into the effects of galaxy environment on their star formation rates (SFR) using galaxies observed in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly Survey (GAMA). We use three independent volume-limited samples of galaxies within z < 0.2 and Mr < -17.8. We investigate the known SFR-density relationship and explore in detail the dependence of SFR on stellar mass and density. We show that the SFR-density trend is only visible when we include the passive galaxy population along with the star-forming population. This SFR-density relation is absent when we consider only the star-forming population of galaxies, consistent with previous work. While there is a strong dependence of the EWH?a on density we find, as in previous studies, that these trends are largely due to the passive galaxy population and this relationship is absent when considering a "star-forming" sample of galaxies. We find that stellar mass has the strongest influence on SFR and EWH?a with the environment having no significant effect on the star-formation properties of the star forming population. We also show that the SFR-density relationship is absent for both early and late-type star-forming galaxies. We conclude that the stellar mass has the largest impact on the current SFR of a galaxy, and any environmental effect is not detectable. The observation that the trends with density are due to the changing morphology fraction with density implies that the timescales must be very short for any quenching of the SFR in infalling galaxies. Alternatively galaxies may in fact undergo predominantly in-situ evolution where the infall and quenching of galaxies from the field into dense environments is not the dominant evolutionary mode.
    05/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of an extended narrow-band H{\alpha} study of the massive galaxy cluster XMMU J2235.3-2557 at z = 1.39. This paper represents a follow up study to our previous investigation of star-formation in the cluster centre, extending our analysis out to a projected cluster radius of 1.5 Mpc. Using the Near InfraRed Imager and Spectrograph (NIRI) on Gemini North we obtained deep H narrow-band imaging corresponding to the rest-frame wavelength of H{\alpha} at the cluster's redshift. We identify a total of 163 potential cluster members in both pointings, excluding stars based on their near-IR colours derived from VLT/HAWK-I imaging. Of these 163 objects 14 are spectroscopically confirmed cluster members, and 20% are excess line-emitters. We find no evidence of star formation activity within a radius of 200 kpc of the brightest cluster galaxy in the cluster core. Dust-corrected star formation rates (SFR) of excess emitters outside this cluster quenching radius, RQ \sim 200 kpc, are on average = 2.7 \pm 1.0 M\odot yr-1, but do not show evidence of increasing star-formation rates toward the extreme 1.5 Mpc radius of the cluster. No individual cluster galaxy exceeds an SFR of 6 M\odot yr-1 . Massive galaxies (log M\ast /M\odot > 10.75) all have low specific SFRs (SSFRs, i.e. SFR per unit stellar mass). At fixed stellar mass, galaxies in the cluster centre have lower SSFRs than the rest of the cluster galaxies, which in turn have lower SSFRs than field galaxies at the same redshift by a factor of a few to 10. For the first time we can demonstrate through measurements of individual SFRs that already at very early epochs (at an age of the Universe of \sim4.5 Gyr) the suppression of star-formation is an effect of the cluster environment which persists at fixed galaxy stellar mass. [Erratum added after the original paper]
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2012; 423(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the total major (> 1:4 by stellar mass) and minor (> 1:100 by stellar mass) merger history of a population of 80 massive (M_* > 10^11 M_sol) galaxies at high redshifts (z = 1.7 - 3). We utilize extremely deep and high resolution HST H-band imaging from the GOODS NICMOS Survey (GNS), which corresponds to rest-frame optical wavelengths at the redshifts probed. We find that massive galaxies at high redshifts are often morphologically disturbed, with a CAS deduced merger fraction f_m = 0.23 +/- 0.05 at z = 1.7 - 3. We find close accord between close pair methods (within 30 kpc apertures) and CAS methods for deducing major merger fractions at all redshifts. We deduce the total (minor + major) merger history of massive galaxies with M_* > 10^9 M_sol galaxies, and find that this scales roughly linearly with log-stellar-mass and magnitude range. We test our close pair methods by utilizing mock galaxy catalogs from the Millennium Simulation. We compute the total number of mergers to be (4.5 +/- 2.9) / <\tau_m> from z = 3 to the present, to a stellar mass sensitivity threshold of ~ 1:100 (where \tau_m is the merger timescale in Gyr which varies as a function of mass). This corresponds to an average mass increase of (3.4 +/- 2.2) x 10^11 M_sol over the past 11.5 Gyrs due to merging. We show that the size evolution observed for these galaxies may be mostly explained by this merging.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2011; 747(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We obtained observations of the XMMU J2235.3-2557 galaxy cluster with the Near InfraRed Imager and Spectrometer (NIRI) on Gemini North. The data presented in this paper originate from the Gemini programme GN-2007B-Q-79, observed in queue mode in the period from UT 2007 July 11 to UT 2007 September 30. (1 data file).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 11/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a near-infrared spectroscopic study of a stellar mass selected sample of galaxies at z~1 utilising the LIRIS multi-object spectrograph on the WHT. We detect continuum, and the H alpha line for our sample, which is one of the better direct tracers of star formation in external galaxies. We spectroscopically measure the H alpha emission from 41 massive (M_{*}>10^{10.5} Msol) galaxies taken from the POWIR Survey with spectroscopic redshifts 0.4<z_{spec}<1.4. We correct our H alpha fluxes for dust extinction by using multi-wavelength data, and investigate SFR trends with mass and colour. We find a drop in the fraction of massive galaxies with M_{*}>10^{11} Msol which are detected in H alpha emission at z<0.9. We furthermore find that the fraction of galaxies with H alpha emission drops steadily and significantly with redder (U-B) colours at z~1, and that the SSFR drops with increasing (U-B) colour for galaxies at all masses. By investigating the SFR-mass relation we find that the SFR is roughly constant with mass, in possible contrast to previous work, and that the specific star formation rate (SSFR) is lower in the most massive galaxies. The scatter in the SFR vs. mass relationship is very small for those systems with ongoing star formation which suggests that star formation in the most massive galaxies at z~1 shuts off rather abruptly over <1 Gyr, without an obvious gradual decline. We furthermore investigate the SFR as a function of (U-B) colour divided into different mass bins, revealing a tracer of the epoch of transition from star forming to passive, as a form of star formation "downsizing". This suggests that the shut off of star formation occurs before the change in a galaxy's colour. We find that galaxy stellar mass is the primary driving mechanisms behind the star formation history for these galaxies and discuss several possible mechanisms for regulating this process.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2011; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study the relationship between galaxy colour, stellar mass and local galaxy density in a deep near-infrared imaging survey up to a redshift of z∼ 3 using the GOODS (Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey) NICMOS (Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer) Survey (GNS). The GNS is a deep near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope survey imaging a total of 45 arcmin2 of the GOODS fields, reaching a stellar mass completeness limit of M*= 109.5 M⊙ at z= 3. Using these data, we measure galaxy local densities based on galaxy counts within a fixed aperture, as well as the distance to the third, fifth and seventh nearest neighbour. We compare the average rest-frame (U−B) colour and fraction of blue galaxies in different local densities and at different stellar masses. We find a strong correlation between colour and stellar mass at all redshifts up to z∼ 3. Massive red galaxies are already in place at z∼ 3 at the expected location of the red sequence in the colour–magnitude diagram, although they are star forming. We do not find a strong correlation between colour and local density; however, there may be evidence that the highest overdensities are populated by a higher fraction of blue galaxies than average or underdense areas. This could be indicating that the colour–density relation at high redshift is reversed with respect to lower redshifts (z < 1), where higher densities are found to have lower blue fractions. Our data suggest that the possible higher blue fraction at extreme overdensities might be due to a lack of massive red galaxies at the highest local densities.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2011; 412(4):2361 - 2375. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first results of a narrow-band photometric study of the massive galaxy cluster XMMU J2235.3−2557 at z= 1.39. We obtained deep H narrow-band imaging with the Near InfraRed Imager and Spectrometer on Gemini North, corresponding to Hα emission at the cluster's redshift. Our sample consists of 82 galaxies within a radius of ∼500 kpc, 10 of which are spectroscopically confirmed cluster members. 16 galaxies are identified as excess line-emitters. Among just the excess line-emitting galaxies, we find an average star formation rate (SFR) of 3.6 ± 1.3 M⊙ yr−1. For spectroscopically confirmed cluster members, we find a correlation between H broad-band magnitude and SFR such that brighter galaxies have lower SFRs. The probability that the SFR and magnitude of confirmed members are uncorrelated is 0.7 per cent. We also find a correlation between the SFR and distance from the cluster centre for both confirmed and excess line-emitting candidate members, with a probability of 5 per cent for there to be no correlation among confirmed members. All excess line-emitting candidate cluster members are located outside a radius of 200 kpc. We conclude that star formation is effectively shut off within the central 200 kpc radius (RQUENCH∼ 200 kpc) of this massive galaxy cluster at z= 1.39, when the Universe was only 4.5 Gyr old.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2011; 411(3):2009 - 2018. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use a sample of 8298 galaxies observed in the HST GOODS NICMOS Survey (GNS) to construct the galaxy stellar mass function as a function of both redshift and stellar mass up to z=3.5 and down to masses of Mstar=10^8.5 Msun at z~1. We discover that a significant fraction of all massive Mstar>10^11 Msun galaxies are in place up to the highest redshifts we probe, with a decreasing fraction of lower mass galaxies present at all redshifts. This is an example of `galaxy mass downsizing', and is the result of massive galaxies forming before lower mass ones, and not just simply ending their star formation earlier as in traditional downsizing scenarios. We find that the faint end slope is significantly steeper than what is found in previous investigations. We demonstrate that this steeper mass function better matches the stellar mass added due to star formation, thereby alleviating some of the mismatch between these two measures of the evolution of galaxy mass. We furthermore examine the stellar mass function divided into blue/red systems, as well as for star forming and non-star forming galaxies. We find a similar mass downsizing present for both blue/red and star-forming/non-star forming galaxies, and that the low mass galaxies are mostly all blue, and are therefore creating the steep mass functions. We furthermore show that, although there is a downsizing such that high mass galaxies are nearer their z=0 values at high redshift, this turns over at masses Mstar~10^10 Msun, such that the lowest mass galaxies are more common than galaxies at slight higher masses, creating a `dip' in the observed galaxy mass function. We argue that the galaxy assembly process may be driven by different mechanisms at low and high masses, and that the efficiency of the galaxy formation process is lowest at masses Mstar~10^10 Msun at 1<z<3. (Abridged)
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2011; 413. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first results of a narrow-band photometric study of the massive galaxy cluster XMMU J2235.3-2557 at z=1.39. We obtained deep $H$ narrow-band imaging with NIRI on Gemini North, corresponding to H-alpha emission at the cluster's redshift. Our sample consists of 82 galaxies within a radius of ~500 kpc, ten of which are spectroscopically confirmed cluster members. Sixteen galaxies are identified as excess line-emitters. Among just the excess line-emitting galaxies we find an average SFR of 3.6 +/- 1.3 Msun/yr. For spectroscopically confirmed cluster members we find a correlation between H broad-band magnitude and SFR such that brighter galaxies have lower SFRs. The probability that SFR and magnitude of confirmed members are uncorrelated is 0.7%. We also find a correlation between SFR and distance from the cluster centre for both confirmed and excess line-emitting candidate members, with a probability of 5% for there to be no correlation among confirmed members. All excess line-emitting candidate cluster members are located outside a radius of 200 kpc. We conclude that star formation is effectively shut off within the central 200 kpc radius (R_QUENCH ~ 200 kpc) of this massive galaxy cluster at z=1.39, when the universe was only 4.5 Gyr old.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2011; 411:2009-2018. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present measurements of the mean mid-infrared-to-submillimeter flux densities of massive (M\ast \approx 2 \times 10^11 Msun) galaxies at redshifts 1.7 < z < 2.9, obtained by stacking positions of known objects taken from the GOODS NICMOS Survey (GNS) catalog on maps: at 24 {\mu}m (Spitzer/MIPS); 70, 100, and 160{\mu}m (Herschel/PACS); 250, 350, 500{\mu}m (BLAST); and 870{\mu}m (LABOCA). A modified blackbody spectrum fit to the stacked flux densities indicates a median [interquartile] star-formation rate of SFR = 63 [48, 81] Msun yr^-1 . We note that not properly accounting for correlations between bands when fitting stacked data can significantly bias the result. The galaxies are divided into two groups, disk-like and spheroid-like, according to their Sersic indices, n. We find evidence that most of the star formation is occurring in n \leq 2 (disk-like) galaxies, with median [interquartile] SFR = 122 [100,150] Msun yr^-1, while there are indications that the n > 2 (spheroid-like) population may be forming stars at a median [interquartile] SFR = 14 [9,20] Msun yr^-1, if at all. Finally, we show that star formation is a plausible mechanism for size evolution in this population as a whole, but find only marginal evidence that it is what drives the expansion of the spheroid-like galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2010; 421(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the assembly of the most massive galaxies is one of the most important problems in astronomy today. It is now feasible to identify the most massive galaxies out to z 2.5, yet we have just begun to probe their evolution. To address this, we propose to obtain deep NIRI NIR long-slit spectroscopy of a sample of 15 ultra-massive galaxies (M_* > 10^11 M_0) at 1.8 < z < 2.6 with large MIPS 24 um and UV fluxes, for which we have unique, deep imaging with HST/NICMOS. With NIRI spectroscopy we will measure: H-alpha SFRs, combine SFRs with NICMOS-derived sizes to calculate the surface star formation density and to derive estimates of cold gas masses. This will be the first systematic study of these properties within ultra-massive galaxies at this redshift. With this new data, we will investigate how gas supplies, star formation activity, and AGN feedback mechanisms influence the early formation of massive galaxies at z 2.
    NOAO Proposal. 08/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: This article reports the results of radiation resistance tests of fully depleted p-channel Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for imaging applications in space. Several such devices were irradiated by 12 MeV protons at the tandem accelerator at the Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory at Yale University by doses up to 8 x 1010 protons/cm2. The equivalent dose at an orbit near L2 for a six year mission in space was estimated to be an equivalent 7.3 x 108 12.5 MeV protons/cm2. The performance of the CCDs was measured both before and after irradiation. The charge transfer efficiency CTE was degraded from 0.999999 before irradiation to 0.999996 after the expected six year dose. The dark current, which was 3 electrons/pixel/hour before irradiation, is degraded to an equilibrium rate of 15 electrons/pixel/hour in orbit. We conclude that the performance of these devices is quite acceptable for high precision imaging in a space mission.
    Proc SPIE 07/2010;

Publication Stats

696 Citations
112.17 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • Australian Astronomical Observatory
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    • Universidad de La Laguna
      • Departamento de Astrofísica
      La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
  • 2010
    • University of Nottingham
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2008
    • Yale University
      • Department of Physics
      New Haven, CT, United States
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2002–2007
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Physics
      Cincinnati, OH, United States
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States