J Socha

Warsaw University Of Life Sciences, Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (302)264.61 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent updates of the European, American and Polish nutritional recommendations require updates of the nutritional norm for children. We present the Polish Expert Group statement (2012) on the intake of selected nutrients (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamin D and E) essential for nutrition in children aged 1–3 years. For this purpose the Expert Group reviewed available scientific data consisting of the recent guidelines, nutritional norms and recommendations, systematic reviews and expert opinions as well as original publications, in relation to the specific requirements for the Polish population.
    Pediatria polska 02/2013; 88(1):97–102.
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    ABSTRACT: Updating of the nutritional guidelines for the Polish population requires updates of the nutritional norms for children. We present the Polish Expert Group statement (2012) on intake of selected nutrients (protein, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamin D and E) essential in nutrition of children aged 1-3 years. For this purpose the Expert Group reviewed available scientific data: the recent guidelines, nutritional norms and recommendations, systematic reviews and expert opinions as well as original publications, in relation to the specific requirements of the Polish population.
    Medycyna wieku rozwojowego 01/2013; 17(1):90-102.
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    ABSTRACT: Bone disorders are common in children with end-stage liver diseases, especially those associated with cholestasis. Abnormal hepatocyte function, disordered vitamin D metabolism and calcium-phosphorous homeostasis, malnutrition, and immunosuppressive treatment are potential risk factors of bone tissue pathology before and after transplantation. The aim of the study was to analyze the long-term effect of successful living-related liver transplantation (LRLTx) on skeletal status and bone metabolism in cholestatic children. Eighteen cholestatic children (1.4±0.5yr old; 12 females [F]/6 males [M]) qualified for LRLTx were analyzed; 16 (5F/11M) of them participated in long-term observation (V4). Serum levels of osteocalcin (OC), procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), cross-linked telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-I binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) were assayed before (V0) and 6mo (V1), 12mo (V2), 18mo (V3), and 4.4yr (V4) after LRLTx. Total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) and total body bone mineral density (TBBMD) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the same pattern. Before LRLTx, the OC, P1NP, CTx, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 levels as well as TBBMC and TBBMD were decreased compared with age-matched control group. The mean serum levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D were within reference ranges from V0 to V4. After LRLTx, the OC, P1NP, CTx, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 as well as TBBMC and TBBMD reached the age-matched reference values. At V4, the level of P1NP decreased below and the PTH increased above the reference range that coincided with reduced Z-scores of both TBBMC (-1.11±1.24) and TBBMD (-1.00±1.19). P1NP and CTx, both measured at V3, correlated with IGF-I at V2 (R=0.86, p=0.014 and R=0.78, p=0.021, respectively) and PTH at V3 for P1NP and V1 for CTx (R=0.64, p=0.048 and R=0.54, p=0.038, respectively). The TBBMC changes between V0 and V4 correlated with IGF-I (R=0.68, p=0.015) and 1,25(OH)(2)D (R=0.54, p=0.025), both assayed at V1. The change of TBBMC Z-scores between V0 and V4 correlated with P1NP at V1 (R=0.69, p=0.002). The TBBMD changes between V0 and V4 correlated with CTx at V1 (R=0.54, p=0.027) and P1NP change between V0 and V1 (R=0.51, p=0.038). In short-term observation, successful LRLTx led to bone metabolism normalization triggered by probable anabolic action of IGF-I and PTH and manifested by TBBMC and TBBMD increases. In long-term horizon, moderately impaired DXA assessed bone status coincided with disturbances in bone metabolism. Bone metabolism markers, especially P1NP and CTx, appeared to be good predictors of changes in bone status evaluated by DXA.
    Journal of Clinical Densitometry 12/2011; 15(2):233-40. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An adverse food reaction is defined as clinical symptoms occurring in children, adolescents or adults after ingestion of a food or chemical food additives. This reaction does not occur in healthy subjects. In certain individuals is a manifestation of the body hypersensitivity, i.e. qualitatively altered response to the consumed food. The disease symptoms observed after ingestion of the food can be triggered by two pathogenetic mechanisms; this allows adverse food reactions to be divided into allergic and non-allergic food hypersensitivity (food intolerance). Food allergy is defined as an abnormal immune response to ingested food (humoral, cellular or mixed). Non-immunological mechanisms (metabolic, pharmacological, microbiological or other) are responsible for clinical symptoms after food ingestion which occur in non-allergic hypersensitivity (food intolerance). Food allergy is considered a serious health problem in modern society. The prevalence of this disorder is varied and depends, among other factors, on the study population, its age, dietary habits, ethnic differences, and the degree of economic development of a given country. It is estimated that food allergy occurs most often among the youngest children (about 6-8% in infancy); the prevalence is lower among adolescents (approximately 3-4%) and adults (about 1-3%). The most common, age-dependent cause of hypersensitivity, expressed as sensitization or allergic disease (food allergy), are food allergens (trophoallergens). These are glycoproteins of animal or plant origine contained in: cow’s milk, chicken egg, soybean, cereals, meat and fish, nuts, fruits, vegetables, molluscs, shellfish and other food products. Some of these allergens can cause cross-reactions, occurring as a result of concurrent hypersensitivity to food, inhaled or contact allergens. The development of an allergic process is a consequence of adverse health effects on the human body of different factors: genetic, environmental and supportive. In people predisposed (genetically) to atopy or allergy, the development of food allergy is determined by four allergic-immunological mechanisms, which were classified and described by Gell-Coombs. It is estimated that in approximately 48-50% of patients, allergic symptoms are caused only by type I reaction, the IgEmediated (immediate) mechanism. In the remaining patients, symptoms of food hypersensitivity are the result of other pathogenetic mechanisms, non-IgE mediated (delayed, late) or mixed (IgE mediated, non-IgE mediated). Clinical symptomatology of food allergy varies individually and depends on the type of food induced pathogenetic mechanism responsible for their occurrence. They relate to the organ or system in which the allergic reaction has occurred (the effector organ). Most commonly the symptoms involve many systems (gastrointestinal tract, skin, respiratory system, other organs), and approximately 10% of patients have isolated symptoms. The time of symptoms onset after eating the causative food is varied and determined by the pathogenetic mechanism of the allergic immune reaction (immediate, delayed or late symptoms). In the youngest patients, the main cause of food reactions is allergy to cow’s milk. In developmental age, the clinical picture of food allergy can change, as reflected in the so-called allergic march, which is the result of anatomical and functional maturation of the effector organs, affected by various harmful allergens (ingested, inhaled, contact allergens and allergic cross-reactions). The diagnosis of food allergy is a complex, long-term and time-consuming process, involving analysis of the allergic history (personal and in the family), a thorough evaluation of clinical signs, as well as correctly planned allergic and immune tests. The underlying cause of diagnostic difficulties in food allergy is the lack of a single universal laboratory test to identify both IgE-mediated and non-IgE mediated as well as mixed pathogenetic mechanisms of allergic reactions triggered by harmful food allergens. In food allergy diagnostics is only possible to identify an IgE-mediated allergic process (skin prick tests with food allergens, levels of specific IgE antibodies to food allergens). This allows one to confirm the diagnosis in patients whose symptoms are triggered in this pathogenetic mechanism (about 50% of patients). The method allowing one to conclude on the presence or absence of food hypersensitivity and its cause is a food challenge test (open, blinded, placebo-controlled). The occurrence of clinical symptoms after the administration of food allergen confirms the cause of food allergy (positive test) whereas the time elapsing between the triggering dose ingestion and the occurrence of clinical symptoms indicate the pathogenetic mechanisms of food allergy (immediate, delayed, late). The mainstay of causal treatment is temporary removal of harmful food from the patient’s diet, with the introduction of substitute ingredients with the nutritional value equivalent to the eliminated food. The duration of dietary treatment should be determined individually, and the measures of the effectiveness of the therapeutic elimination diet should include the absence or relief of allergic symptoms as well as normal physical and psychomotor development of the treated child. A variant alternative for dietary treatment of food allergy is specific induction of food tolerance by intended contact of the patient with the native or thermally processed harmful allergen (oral immunotherapy). This method has been used in the treatment of IgE-mediated allergy (to cow’s milk protein, egg protein, peanut allergens). The obtained effect of tolerance is usually temporary. In order to avoid unnecessary prolongation of treatment in a child treated with an elimination diet, it is recommended to perform a food challenge test at least once a year. This test allows one to assess the body’s current ability to acquire immune or clinical tolerance. A negative result of the test makes it possible to return to a normal diet, whereas a positive test is an indication for continued dietary treatment (persistent food allergy). Approximately 80% of children diagnosed with food allergy in infancy “grow out” of the disease before the age of 4-5 years. In children with non-IgE mediated food allergy the acquisition of food tolerance is faster and occurs in a higher percentage of treated patients compared to children with IgE-mediated food allergy. Pharmacological treatment is a necessary adjunct to dietary treatment in food allergy. It is used to control the rapidly increasing allergic symptoms (temporarily) or to achieve remission and to prevent relapses (long-term treatment). Preventive measures (primary prevention of allergies) are recommended for children born in a “high risk” group for the disease. These are comprehensive measures aimed at preventing sensitization of the body (an appropriate way of feeding the child, avoiding exposure to some allergens and adverse environmental factors). First of all, the infants should be breast-fed during the first 4-6 months of life, and solid foods (non milk products, including those containing gluten) should be introduced no earlier than 4 months of age, but no later than 6 months of age. An elimination diet is not recommended for pregnant women (prevention of intrauterine sensitization of the fetus and unborn child). The merits of introducing an elimination diet in mothers of exclusively breast-fed infants, when the child responds with allergic symptoms to the specific diet of the mother, are disputable. Secondary prevention focuses on preventing the recurrence of already diagnosed allergic disease; tertiary prevention is the fight against organ disability resulting from the chronicity and recurrences of an allergic disease process. Food allergy can adversely affect the physical development and the psycho-emotional condition of a sick child, and significantly interfere with his social contacts with peers. A long-term disease process, recurrence of clinical symptoms, and difficult course of elimination diet therapy are factors that impair the quality of life of a sick child and his family. The economic costs generated by food allergies affect both the patient’s family budget (in the household), and the overall financial resources allocated to health care (at the state level). The adverse socio-economic effects of food allergy can be reduced by educational activities in the patient’s environment and dissemination of knowledge about the disease in the society.
    Postepy Dermatologii I Alergologii 11/2011; 28(5):331–367. · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibiotic therapy in the cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse model has been shown to result in reduced bacterial load of the intestine and significant body mass gain. The effect was suggested to be linked to the improvement of intestinal digestion and absorption. Therefore, we aimed to assess the influence of routinely applied antibiotic therapy in CF patients on fat assimilation. Twenty-four CF patients aged 6 to 30 years entered the study. Inclusion criteria comprised confirmed exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and bronchopulmonary exacerbation demanding antibiotic therapy. Exclusion criteria comprised: antibiotic therapy six weeks prior to the test, liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, oxygen dependency, the use of systemic corticosteroids. In all enrolled CF subjects, (13)C-labelled mixed triglyceride breath test ((13)C MTG-BT) was performed to assess lipid digestion and absorption, before and after antibiotic therapy. Sixteen subjects were treated intravenously with ceftazidime and amikacin, eight patients orally with ciprofloxacin. Cumulative percentage dose recovery (CPDR) was considered to reflect digestion and absorption of lipids. The values are expressed as means (medians). The values of CPDR before and after antibiotic therapy did not differ in the whole studied group [4.6(3.3) % vs. 5.7(5.3) %, p = 0.100] as well as in the subgroup receiving them intravenously [4.6(3.2) % vs. 5.7(5.3) %, p = 0.327] or in that with oral drug administration [4.6(3.4) % vs. 5.7(5.4) %, p = 0.167]. In conclusion, antibiotic therapy applied routinely in the course of pulmonary exacerbation in CF patients does not seem to result in an improvement of fat digestion and absorption.
    Acta biochimica Polonica 07/2011; 58(3):345-7. · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D status in infants depends on supplementation. We examined the vitamin D status in relation to supplementation dose and scheme in infants. One hundred thirty-four infants age 6 months and 98 infants age 12 months (drop out 27%) were investigated. Vitamin D intake (diet, supplements), anthropometry, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) serum concentration at the 6th and 12th months were assessed. Vitamin D intake of 1062 ± 694 IU at the 6th month was not different from that at the 12th month (937 ± 618 IU). Vitamin D intake expressed in international units per kilogram of body weight decreased from 141 ± 80 IU/kg at the 6th month to 93 ± 62 IU/kg at the 12th month (P < 0.0001), which was associated with a reduction in 25-OHD from 43 ± 20 ng/mL to 29 ± 12 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.0001). In the subgroup of everyday supplemented infants (n = 43), vitamin D intake decreased from 143 ± 88 IU/kg at the 6th month to 118 ± 60 IU/kg at the 12th month (P < 0.05), which coincided with a reduction of 25-OHD from 40 ± 19 ng/mL to 32 ± 13 ng/mL (P < 0.01). In the subgroup with variable supplementation habits (n = 32), vitamin D intake decreased from 146 ± 79 IU/kg to 77 ± 56 IU/kg (P < 0.001), which was associated with a reduction of 25-OHD from 42 ± 21 ng/mL to 25 ± 8 ng/mL (P < 0.0001). 25-OHD concentration change between the 6th and the 12th months negatively correlated with the 25-OHD level assessed at the 6th month (r = -0.82; P < 0.0001). Vitamin D supplementation of infants should consider their rapid body weight increment. We postulate vitamin D daily dose close to 100 IU/kg body weight as favorable for infants up to age 12 months.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 07/2011; 53(1):93-9. · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2011; 140(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported postpartum depression to be associated with both positive and negative effects on early infant growth. This study examined the hypothesis that maternal postnatal depression may be a risk factor for later child growth faltering or overweight. A total of 929 women and their children participating in a European multicenter study were included at a median age of 14 days. Mothers completed the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) at 2, 3 and 6 months after delivery. EPDS scores of 13 and above at any time were defined as maternal depression. Weight, length, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses were measured, and body mass index (BMI) were calculated when the children were two years old and converted to standard deviation scores based on the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS). Z-scores for weight-for-length at inclusion of infants of mothers with high EPDS scores (-0.55, SD 0.74) were lower than of those with normal scores (-0.36, SD 0.74; p = 0.013). BMI at age 24 months did not differ in the high (16.3 kg/m2, SD 1.3) and in the normal EPDS groups (16.2 kg/m2, SD 1.3; p = 0.48). All other anthropometric indices also did not differ between groups, with no change by multivariate adjustment. We conclude that a high maternal postnatal depression score does not have any major effects on offspring growth in high income countries.
    BMC Pediatrics 03/2010; 10:14. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Appropriate state procurement system for vitamin D is important not only for the proper functioning of the skeletal, maintaining calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, but also for a number of other organs and tissues in our body. In connection with the change in lifestyle including dietary habits change, the widespread use of UV filters and less outdoor activity, observed an increase in the percentage of vitamin D deficiency, both in population and developmental age and adults. Based on the results of recent scientific research team of experts provides recommendations for preventive Polish supply of vitamin D in infants, children, adolescents and adults, including pregnant women and nursing mothers.
    Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 02/2010; 28(164):130-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Adequate vitamin D intake and its status are important not only for bone health and Ca-P metabolism, but for optimal function of many organs and tissues throughout the body. Due to documented changes in dietary habits and physical activity level, both observed in growing children and adults, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency is continuously increasing. Basing on current literature review and opinions of National Consultants and experts in the field, polish recommendations for prophylactic vitamin D supplementation in infants, toddlers, children and adolescents as well as in adults, including pregnant and lactating women have been established.
    Ginekologia polska 02/2010; 81(2):149-53. · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adequate vitamin D intake and its status as well outdoor physical activity are important not only for normal bone development and Ca-P metabolism, but for optimal function of many organs and tissues throughout the body. Due to documented changes in dietary habits and physical activity level, both observed in growing children and adults, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency is continuously increasing. National Consultants and experts in this field established the Polish recommendations for prophylactic vitamin D supplementation in infants, toddlers, children and adolescents as well as in adults, including pregnant and lactating women based on current literature review. Taking into consideration pleyotropic vitamin D action and safety aspects serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) level of 20-60 ng/ml (50-750 nmol/l) in children and 30-80 ng/ml (75-200 nmol/I) in adults is considered as optimal. Sunlight exposure inducing vitamin D production in the skin is main endogen source of vitamin D in the body but sunscreens may reduce skin synthesis by 90%. In Poland, skin synthesis is effective only from April to September so other sources of vitamin D such as diet and supplements play an important role. All newborns should be supplemented with 400 IU/d of vitamin D beginning from the first few days of life and continue during infancy. In formula fed infants vitamin D intake from the diet should be taken into account. In preterm infants higher total vitamin D intake (400-800 IU/day) is recommended till 40 weeks post conception. Total vitamin D intake in children and adolescents required from all sources (diet and/or supplements) should be 400 IU/d between October and March and throughout the whole year in case of inadequate vitamin D skin synthesis during the summer months. In overweight/obese children supplementation with higher dosage of vitamin D up to 800-1000 IU/d should be considered. Adults require 800-1000 IU/d of vitamin D. In pregnant and lactating women such supplementation is recommended in case of inadequate intake from diet and/or skin synthesis supplementation. Monitoring of serum 25-OHD level to define optimal dosage should be considered.
    Medycyna wieku rozwojowego 01/2010; 14(2):218-23.
  • Gastroenterology 01/2010; 138(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Nutrition Supplements 01/2010; 5(2):43-43.
  • Journal of Cystic Fibrosis - J CYST FIBROS. 01/2010; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: To study if infant crying is associated with maternal postnatal depression. Data from 1015 mothers and their children participating in a prospective European multicentre study were analysed. Infantile colic and prolonged crying were defined as excessive crying as reported by the mothers 2 and 6 months after delivery, and at the same time the mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). In cross-sectional analyses, infant crying was associated with high EPDS scores both 2 (OR: 4.4; 95% CI: 2.4-8.2) and 6 months postpartum (OR: 10.8; 95% CI: 4.3-26.9). More than one-third of the others of infants with prolonged crying had high EPDS scores 6 months postpartum. Longitudinal analyses showed that mothers of infants with colic had increased odds of having high EPDS scores 6 months after delivery even if crying had resolved (OR: 3.7; 95% CI: 1.4-10.1). Both infantile colic and prolonged crying were associated with high maternal depression scores. Most noteworthy, infantile colic at 2 months of age was associated with high maternal depression scores 4 months later.
    Acta Paediatrica 05/2009; 98(8):1344-8. · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland: 1960) 01/2009; 62(3):204-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Background The paper presents the results of the survey conducted in the pediatric hepatology centers in Poland within PEGAZ program in 2007. Aim The aim of the survey was to collect the information on the equipment, experience and the standard of care provided by the hepatology centers to children with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Results 18 centers distributed all over Poland responded to the survey. Most centers have satisfactory equipment and access to diagnostic laboratory except for alfa-1-antytripsin, Wilson disease laboratory tests and PCR for HBV and HCV infections that are available in approximately half of the sites. Important differences in the method of liver biopsy evaluation among the centers were noted. It was estimated that there are 250–300 children with AIH in Poland. The incidence of AIH in Polish children is 3–4/100 thousands children. Most subjects with AIH are female and the mean age is 11 years. The centers reported 6 deaths and 11 liver transplantations for end stage AIH related liver disease. Most children are registered in the reference hepatology and transplantology center. Conclusions The data collected in the survey show that there is a system of pediatric hepatology care within Poland. The introduction of common standards can improve this system.
    Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology - J EXP MAR BIOL ECOL. 01/2008; 83(3):235-239.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Complementary feeding is a process of passing from exclusive breastfeeding to a more varied family diet. Current recommendations advise introduction of safe complementary food after 6th month of age with a mandatory maintenance of breastfeeding products be introduced between 6/7 and 18–24 months of age. Objective The objective was to assess the practical realization of the recommendations regarding introduction of complementary foods into the diet of infants. Material and methods The study was part of a prospective multicentre observational research project “Dietary habits and nutritional status of infants” carried out in the years 2003–2005. A questionnaire method was used to evaluate food intake and frequency. All children involved in the study met the inclusion/exclusion criteria according to the designed research protocol. Results A cohort of 134 infants aged 6 months was studied of which 89 (73%) participated in stage 2 of the study at the age 12 months. The analysis of the diet showed that only 3.7% of infants were exclusively breastfed at the age of 6 months, while 86.6% were already given complementary foods. Modified milk was the first most commonly introduced food other than mother's milk. The mean timing of introduction of complementary foods was 3.95 months of age; maternal smoking was a significant factor associated with an early (<4 months of age) introduction of complementary foods (p = 0.048). Complementary nondairy foods were introduced on average at 4.8 months of age; 8.2% of children received these products before 4th month of life. Fruit (apple) and vegetables (carrot) were most frequently prevalent food introduced. Apart from the precocious diet extension, other malpractices regarding the recommendations concerning complementary diet included: inappropriate timing of introduction of various food products (e.g. gluten), inadequate preparation of meat-vegetable meals at home (use of salt, sugar, no fat), consumption of large amounts of juice, supply of sweets and sugar-containing foods and drinks, or too frequent feeding. On the other hand, the number of complementary meals and the amount of energy provided therewith were consistent with the WHO guidelines. Conclusions The analysis of dietary habits showed discrepancies between the recommendations and their realization in everyday practice. A comprehensive strategy and education in primary care services is needed to implement good and safe nutritional practice during early childhood.
    Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology - J EXP MAR BIOL ECOL. 01/2008; 83(2):136-149.
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the most severe form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of our study was to highlight NASH as a rare but possible problem in children. We present a case of 13-yr-boy with a well-established diagnosis of liver cirrhosis secondary to NASH, who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) at the age of 13 years. Six months after transplantation recurrence of NASH in the graft was diagnosed. In the treatment metformin was used with good effect.
    Pediatric Transplantation 12/2007; 11(7):796-8. · 1.50 Impact Factor
  • Pediatria polska 09/2007; 82(9):746–748.

Publication Stats

659 Citations
264.61 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • Warsaw University Of Life Sciences
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
    • Medical University of Warsaw
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 1996–2011
    • Children's Memorial Health Institute
      • Department of Medical Genetics
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2006–2007
    • Poznan University of Medical Sciences
      Posen, Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland
  • 1996–2001
    • University of Helsinki
      • Department of Medical Genetics
      Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland
  • 2000
    • National Food and Nutrition Institute
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 1997–1999
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Department of Paediatrics
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1991–1996
    • Centro Nacional De Investigaciones En Salud Materno Infantil (Cenismi)
      Santo Domingo Pueblo, New Mexico, United States
  • 1982
    • University of Agriculture in Krakow
      Cracovia, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland