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Publications (3)12.05 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess whether acute findings of cerebral arteriopathy, large infarct, and acutely elevated plasma D-dimer levels are independently prognostic of poor long-term neurologic outcome as measured at ≥1 year postevent in children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-one patients with childhood-onset (ie, >28 days of life) AIS were enrolled in a single-institution cohort study at Children's Hospital Colorado between February 2006 and June 2011. Data on demographic and diagnostic characteristics, antithrombotic treatments, and outcomes were systematically collected. RESULTS: Cerebral arteriopathy and D-dimer levels >500 ng/mL (a measure of coagulation activation) were identified acutely in 41% and 31% of the cohort, respectively. Anticoagulation was administered in the acute period postevent in 40% of the children, in the subacute period in 43%, and in the chronic period in 28%. When not receiving anticoagulation, patients were routinely treated with aspirin 2-5 mg/kg once daily for a minimum of 1 year. Death, major bleeding (including intracranial hemorrhage), and recurrent AIS were infrequent. The Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure at 1 year demonstrated poor outcome in 54% of the children. Acute cerebral arteriopathy and elevated D-dimer level were identified as putative prognostic factors for poor outcome; after adjustment for D-dimer, arteriopathy was an independent prognostic indicator (OR, 19.0; 95% CI, 1.6-229.8; P = .02). CONCLUSION: Arteriopathy and coagulation activation are highly prevalent in the acute period of childhood AIS. Although recurrent AIS and intracranial hemorrhage were infrequent in our cohort, one-half of children experienced a poor neurologic outcome at 1 year, the risk of which was increased by acute arteriopathy. Substantiation of these findings in multi-institutional cohort studies is warranted, toward risk stratification in childhood-onset AIS.
    The Journal of pediatrics 12/2012; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the course and management of thrombotic storm in 8 children. Clinical data were collected and analyzed for consecutive children diagnosed with thrombotic storm, aged 6 months to 21 years inclusive, in the context of a single-institution prospective inception cohort study. Thrombotic storm was defined as newly diagnosed multisite venous thromboembolism (VTE) with acute thrombus progression despite conventional or higher than conventional dosing of heparin or low molecular weight heparin. All evaluations and therapies were ordered by the treating physicians in the context of clinical decision making. Eight of the 178 children with VTE enrolled in the cohort between March 2006 and November 2009 were diagnosed with thrombotic storm. Antiphospholipid antibodies were acutely positive in 6 children, of whom heparin-induced thrombocytopenia was confirmed by serotonin release assay in 2 and atypical in 1. One child died. Five children received a direct thrombin inhibitor, titrated to achieve normalization of markedly elevated D-dimer levels. All children were transitioned to fondaparinux or enoxaparin before receiving extended anticoagulation with warfarin. Immunomodulatory therapy was instituted in all children. During follow-up (median duration, 3 years; range, 2-6 years), 3 of the 7 surviving children experienced recurrent VTE, and 4 children had clinically significant postthrombotic syndrome. Thrombotic storm is an infrequent but potentially fatal presentation of VTE in children. Administration of direct thrombin inhibitors and immune modulation can achieve quiescence, although long-term adverse outcomes are common.
    The Journal of pediatrics 05/2012; 161(4):682-688.e1. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that acute elevations of biomarkers of hypercoagulability and inflammation are common in children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), particularly among etiologic subtypes that carry an increased risk of recurrent stroke. In this prospective/retrospective institutional-based cohort study of acute childhood-onset AIS (n = 50) conducted between 2005 and 2009, D-dimer, factor VIII (FVIII) activity, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were serially evaluated at the time of clinical blood sampling. Patients were classified by stroke subtype as cardioembolic, moyamoya, non-moyamoya arteriopathy, or other. Both D-dimer and CRP were frequently elevated in acute childhood-onset AIS and exhibited a decreasing trend with time. Acute D-dimer levels were significantly higher in cardioembolic AIS compared with noncardioembolic AIS (median, 2.04 microg/mL [range 0.54-4.54 microg/mL] vs 0.32 microg/mL [0.22-3.18 microg/mL]; P = .002). At an optimal threshold of > or = 0.50 microg/mL, the sensitivity and specificity of D-dimer for cardioembolic subtype were 78% and 79%, respectively. Our findings identify D-dimer and CRP as candidate biomarkers for etiology and prognosis in childhood-onset AIS. Further studies should investigate the role of these and other biomarkers of hypercoagulability and inflammation in childhood-onset AIS.
    The Journal of pediatrics 12/2009; 156(4):651-6. · 4.02 Impact Factor