Robert P Heaney

University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, Nebraska, United States

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Publications (372)1883.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The amount of dietary protein needed to prevent deficiency in most individuals is defined in the United States and Canada by the Recommended Dietary Allowance and is currently set at 0.8 g protein · kg(-1) · d(-1) for adults. To meet this protein recommendation, the intake of a variety of protein food sources is advised. The goal of this article is to show that commonly consumed food sources of protein are more than just protein but also significant sources of essential nutrients. Commonly consumed sources of dietary protein frequently contribute substantially to intakes of nutrients such as calcium, vitamin D, potassium, dietary fiber, iron, and folate, which have been identified as nutrients of "concern" (i.e., intakes are often lower than recommended). Despite this, dietary recommendations to reduce intakes of saturated fat and solid fats may result in dietary guidance to reduce intakes of commonly consumed food sources of protein, in particular animal-based protein. We propose that following such dietary guidance would make it difficult to meet recommended intakes for a number of nutrients, at least without marked changes in dietary consumption patterns. These apparently conflicting pieces of dietary guidance are hard to reconcile; however, we view it as prudent to advise the intake of high-quality dietary protein to ensure adequate intakes of a number of nutrients, particularly nutrients of concern. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.3945/ajcn.114.084079 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently Veugelers and Ekwaru published data [1] indicating that, in its dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) had made a serious calculation error [2]. Using the same data set as had the IOM panel, these investigators showed that the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin D had been underestimated by an order of magnitude. Veugelers and Ekwaru, using the IOM's data, calculated an RDA of 8895 IU per day. They noted that there was some uncertainty in that estimate, inasmuch as this value required an extrapolation from the available data, which did not include individuals receiving daily vitamin D inputs above 2400 IU/day.[...].
    Nutrients 03/2015; 7(3):1688-1690. DOI:10.3390/nu7031688 · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • R. P. Heaney, L. A. G. Armas
    Nutrition Reviews 12/2014; 73(1):51-67. DOI:10.1093/nutrit/nuu004 · 5.54 Impact Factor
  • Robert P Heaney, Laura A.G. Armas
    Annals of internal medicine 11/2014; 162(2). DOI:10.7326/M14-2573 · 16.10 Impact Factor
  • R P Heaney
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 10/2014; 37(11). DOI:10.1007/s40618-014-0190-6 · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the Neurological Sciences 10/2014; 347(1-2):391-392. DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2014.10.003 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 2013 Santa Fe Bone Symposium included plenary sessions on new developments in the fields of osteoporosis and metabolic bone disease, oral presentations of abstracts, and faculty panel discussions of common clinical conundrums: scenarios of perplexing circumstances where treatment decisions are not clearly defined by current medical evidence and clinical practice guidelines. Controversial issues in the care of osteoporosis were reviewed and discussed by faculty and participants. This is a review of the proceedings of the Santa Fe Bone Symposium, constituting in its entirety an update of advances in the understanding of selected bone disease topics of interest and the implications for managing patients in clinical practice. Topics included the associations of diabetes and obesity with skeletal fragility, the complexities and pitfalls in assessing the benefits and potential adverse effects of nutrients for treatment of osteoporosis, uses of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry beyond measurement of bone mineral density, challenges in the care of osteoporosis in the very elderly, new findings on the role of osteocytes in regulating bone remodeling, and current concepts on the use of bone turnover markers in managing patients with chronic kidney disease who are at high risk for fracture.
    Journal of Clinical Densitometry 07/2014; 17(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jocd.2013.11.006 · 1.60 Impact Factor
  • Robert P Heaney
    JAMA Pediatrics 07/2014; 168(7):682-683. DOI:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.172 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and all-cause mortality. We searched biomedical databases for articles that assessed 2 or more categories of 25(OH)D from January 1, 1966, to January 15, 2013. We identified 32 studies and pooled the data. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality comparing the lowest (0-9 nanograms per milliliter [ng/mL]) to the highest (> 30 ng/mL) category of 25(OH)D was 1.9 (95% confidence interval = 1.6, 2.2; P < .001). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations less than or equal to 30 ng/mL were associated with higher all-cause mortality than concentrations greater than 30 ng/mL (P < .01). Our findings agree with a National Academy of Sciences report, except the cutoff point for all-cause mortality reduction in this analysis was greater than 30 ng/mL rather than greater than 20 ng/mL. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print June 12, 2014: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302034).
    American Journal of Public Health 06/2014; 104(8):e1-e8. DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302034 · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • Robert P Heaney
    Nutrition Reviews 04/2014; DOI:10.1111/nure.12118 · 5.54 Impact Factor
  • Robert P Heaney
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    ABSTRACT: Presented here is a system to standardize clinical studies of nutrient effects, using nutrient-specific physiological criteria. These guidelines are based mainly on analysis of the typical sigmoid curve of biological response to nutrients and are intended for design, interpretation, and pooling of studies of nutrient effects. Five rules have been articulated for individual studies of nutrients, and six for systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses.
    Nutrition Reviews 12/2013; DOI:10.1111/nure.12090 · 5.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unsupplemented vitamin D status is determined by cutaneous synthesis and food inputs; however, their relative magnitudes are largely unknown. In a cohort of 780 non-supplement-taking adults with a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] of 33 (±14) ng/ml we assessed the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and non-food environmental variables. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was adjusted for seasonal influence (which removed 2% of the total variance) and these adjusted values were regressed against factors involved in cutaneous synthesis. Indoor tanning use, sun exposure, and percent of work performed outdoors were significantly positively associated and body mass index (BMI) was significantly negatively associated with 25(OH)D values (P<0.03 for each). Latitude, gender, and age were not significantly correlated (P>0.10). Season and non-food predictors together explained 13% of the total variance in serum 25(OH)D concentration. Non-traditional food sources need to be investigated as possible vitamin D inputs.
    The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 10/2013; 144. DOI:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2013.10.014 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. Increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels can prevent a wide range of diseases. There is a concern about increasing kidney stone risk with vitamin D supplementation. We used GrassrootsHealth data to examine the relationship between vitamin D status and kidney stone incidence. Methods. The study included 2012 participants followed prospectively for a median of 19 months. Thirteen individuals self-reported kidney stones during the study period. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the association between vitamin D status and kidney stones. Results. We found no statistically significant association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and kidney stones (P = .42). Body mass index was significantly associated with kidney stone risk (odds ratio = 3.5; 95% confidence interval = 1.1, 11.3). Conclusions. We concluded that a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 20 to 100 nanograms per milliliter has no significant association with kidney stone incidence. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 17, 2013: e1-e5. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301368).
    American Journal of Public Health 10/2013; 104(9). DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301368 · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • Robert P Heaney
    American Journal of Hypertension 10/2013; 26(10):1194-7. DOI:10.1093/ajh/hpt130 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context:Guidelines have suggested that obese adults need two to three times more vitamin D than lean adults to treat vitamin D deficiency, but few studies have evaluated the vitamin D dose response in obese subjects.Objective:The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of 25(OH)D response to 3 different doses of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in a group of obese subjects and to quantify the 25(OH)D dose response relationship.Design, Setting, Intervention, Patients:This was a randomized, single blind study of 3 doses of oral vitamin D3 (1,000 IU, 5,000 IU, or 10,000 IU) given daily to 67 obese subjects for 21 weeks during the winter months.Main Outcome Measures:Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured at baseline and after vitamin D replacement, and 25(OH)D pharmacokinetic parameters were determined, fitting the 25(OH)D concentrations to an exponential model.Results:Mean measured increments in 25(OH)D at week 21 were: 12.4- (SD 9.7) ng/ml in the 1,000 IU/d group, 27.8 (SD10.2) ng/mL in the 5,000 IU/d group, and 48.1(SD 19.6) ng/ml in the 10,000 IU/d group. Steady state increments computed from the model were 20.6 (SD 17.1) ng/ml, 35.2 (SD 14.6) ng/ml, and 51.3 (SD 22.0) ng/ml, respectively. There were no hypercalcuria or hypercalcemia events during the study.Conclusion:Our data show that in obese people the 25(OH)D response to vitamin D3 is directly related to dose and body size with 2.5 IU/kg required for every unit increment in 25(OH)D (ng/ml).
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 09/2013; 98(12). DOI:10.1210/jc.2012-4103 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D status has been implicated in insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, but the range of vitamin D status values over which the association can be found is unknown. Our objective was to define this range in a cohort of nondiabetic adult Canadians. We used a regression modeling strategy, first adjusting insulin-response variables and systolic and diastolic blood pressure for BMI, waist circumference, weight, age, and sex. The resulting residuals were regressed against serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration using successive 40% data blocks ranging from the 0th to the 60th percentile of 25(OH)D values. All of the predictor variables were significantly associated with each of the dependent variables, with BMI and waist circumference accounting for >98% of the explained variance. The vitamin D association was localized to the serum 25(OH)D range extending from ∼40 to ∼90 nmol/L (16-36 μg/L). We conclude that vitamin D status is inversely associated with insulin responsiveness and blood pressure. Consistent with the threshold response characteristic typical of nutrients, the association was strongest in a circumscribed region of the range of 25(OH)D values. There was no association at 25(OH)D values >80-90 nmol/L (32-36 μg/L), indicating that the vitamin D association applied principally to values below that level. The differences observed, if they can be further confirmed in prospective studies, are of a magnitude that would be clinically important.
    Advances in Nutrition 05/2013; 4(3):303-310. DOI:10.3945/an.113.003731 · 3.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

20k Citations
1,883.82 Total Impact Points


  • 1991–2014
    • University of Nebraska at Omaha
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
  • 1985–2014
    • Creighton University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Osteoporisis Research Center
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      • • Division of General Internal Medicine
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
  • 2011
    • University of California, San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2007
    • New Mexico Clinical Research and Osteoporosis Center
      Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
  • 2006
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      • Department of Chemical Biology
      New Brunswick, NJ, United States
  • 1992–1999
    • Purdue University
      • Department of Statistics
      West Lafayette, Indiana, United States
    • Columbus University
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 1994
    • The Ohio State University
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 1990
    • University of Adelaide
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 1989
    • Procter & Gamble
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States