[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the neurometabolic patterns of brain injury in systemic lupus erythematosus with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (SLE-aPLS).
Forty-nine SLE patients (12 SLE-aPLS) and 23 control subjects were studied using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. N-Acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cre) and choline/Cre (Cho/Cre) were measured in normal-appearing tissue. IgG and IgM antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Stroke, epilepsy, and elevated IgG-aPL were more common in SLE-aPLS patients than in SLE patients (P<0.001). NAA/Cre was lower (P<0.05) and Cho/Cre higher (P<0.001) in SLE-aPLS patients than in SLE patients without aPLS. Regression models showed NAA/Cre was most related to injury seen by imaging (P<0.01), disease duration (P<0. 05), and prior neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) (P=0.07). Reduced NAA/Cre was more closely related to IgG-aPL (P<0.01) than the presence of stroke or aPLS. When adjusted for all factors, Cho/Cre was most associated with the presence of aPLS (P=0.05).
SLE and SLE-aPLS are actually a clinical continuum describing brain injury in SLE, with SLE-aPLS being characterized by increased aPL, NPSLE, stroke, epilepsy, and disturbed neurochemistry. An elevated IgG-aPL level is a potent risk factor for brain injury as measured by NAA/Cre in SLE that is independent of stroke and aPLS. However, thrombotic phenomena and the presence of aPL (aPLS) are most closely associated with increased Cho/Cre in SLE. These results suggest that aPLs exacerbate SLE, resulting in increased thrombotic and nonthrombotic brain injuries. Spectroscopy detects brain injury in SLE and may permit better understanding of the neurological consequences of SLE and SLE-aPLS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The significance and etiology of focal brain lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are unknown. Our purpose was to determine whether the neurochemistry of focal lesions and normal appearing brain tissues in SLE were consistent with neuronal loss, demyelination, or ischemia.
Patients with SLE (n = 14) and controls (n = 13) were studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopic imaging (SI) at 1.5 Tesla.
MRI detected fixed focal brain lesions (n = 16) and SI measured brain metabolites, including N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cre), choline (Cho), and lactate (Lac). NAA/Cre of normal appearing brain was decreased in patients with SLE compared to controls: grey matter (1.74 +/- 0.16 vs 1.92 +/- 0.18; p = 0.01), occipital white matter (1.98 +/- 0.22 vs 2.23 +/- 0.16; p = 0.004), and periventricular white matter (2.00 +/- 0.23 vs 2.33 +/- 0.23; p = 0.001). Lesions were characterized by markedly decreased NAA/Cre relative to normal appearing tissues in the same patient (1.67 +/- 0.22 vs 1.88 +/- 0.14; p = 0.0002). Elevated Cho/Cre was observed in 25% of focal lesions and 21% of normal appearing tissues. No elevation of lactate was observed in lesions or normal appearing tissues.
SI detects focal and generalized brain abnormalities in SLE characterized by decreased NAA, elevated choline, and normal lactate. These findings are consistent with widespread neuronal injury and demyelination, but are not consistent with anaerobic metabolism.
The Journal of Rheumatology 01/1998; 24(12):2323-9. · 3.19 Impact Factor