ABSTRACT: To investigate neuroprotective effects of three major anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-glucoside) isolated from the black soybean (Glycine max L.) cv. Cheongja 3 seed coat against H(2)O(2)-induced cell death of human brain neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells.
Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, production and expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and inactivation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades were determined by MTT assay, 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) assay, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and western blotting, respectively.
Pretreatment with anthocyanins reduced the cytotoxicity of H(2)O(2) on SK-N-SH cells, dose-dependently reduced the intracellular ROS level and inactivated apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK1, Thr845), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) proteins. The HO-1 and Neu1 mRNA levels were increased by H(2)O(2) (25 μM) and further elevated by the pretreatment with anthocyanins. Sialic acids added to the culture plates not only attenuated the cytotoxicity of H(2)O(2) (25 μM) but also reduced intracellular ROS level. These results suggest that Cheongja 3 black soybean seed coat anthocyanins have brain neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress (H(2)O(2)) by inhibiting the activation of ASK1-JNK/p38 pathways, scavenging ROS, stimulating the expression of HO-1 and, more interestingly, recruiting cellular free sialic acids through up-regulation of Neu1 sialidase gene expression.
This is the first report indicating potent health benefits of black soybean seed coat anthocyanins in neuroprotection by triggering mobilization of cellular free sialic acid and utilizing it as an additional biological antioxidant in brain neural cells.
Life sciences 04/2012; 90(21-22):874-82. · 2.56 Impact Factor