Sidney Shaw

Universität Bern, Bern, BE, Switzerland

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Publications (6)12.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Lower extremity ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI)-prolonged ischemia and the subsequent restoration of circulation-may result from thrombotic occlusion, embolism, trauma, or tourniquet application in surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of low-molecular-weight dextran sulfate (DXS) on skeletal muscle IRI. Rats were subjected to 3 h of ischemia and 2 or 24 h of reperfusion. To induce ischemia the femoral artery was clamped and a tourniquet placed under the maintenance of the venous return. DXS was injected systemically 10 min before reperfusion. Muscle and lung tissue samples were analyzed for deposition of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, C1q, C3b/c, fibrin, and expression of vascular endothelial-cadherin and bradykinin receptors b1 and b2. Antibody deposition in reperfused legs was reduced by DXS after 2 h (P < 0.001, IgM and IgG) and 24 h (P < 0.001, IgM), C3b/c deposition was reduced in muscle and lung tissue (P < 0.001), whereas C1q deposition was reduced only in muscle (P < 0.05). DXS reduced fibrin deposits in contralateral legs after 24 h of reperfusion but did not reduce edema in muscle and lung tissue or improve muscle viability. Bradykinin receptor b1 and vascular endothelial-cadherin expression were increased in lung tissue after 24 h of reperfusion in DXS-treated and non-treated rats but bradykinin receptor b2 was not affected by IRI. In contrast to studies in myocardial infarction, DXS did not reduce IRI in this model. Neither edema formation nor viability was improved, whereas deposition of complement and coagulation components was significantly reduced. Our data suggest that skeletal muscle IRI may not be caused by the complement or coagulation alone, but the kinin system may play an important role.
    Journal of Surgical Research 10/2013; · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relevance of tissue oxygenation in the pathogenesis of organ dysfunction during sepsis is controversial. We compared oxygen transport, lactate metabolism, and mitochondrial function in pigs with septic shock, cardiogenic shock, or hypoxic hypoxia. Thirty-two anaesthetized, ventilated pigs were randomized to faecal peritonitis (P), cardiac tamponade (CT), hypoxic hypoxia (HH) or controls. Systemic and regional blood flows, lactate, mitochondrial respiration, and tissue hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) were measured for 24 h. Mortality was 50% in each intervention group. While systemic oxygen consumption (VO(2) ) was maintained in all groups, hepatic VO(2) tended to decrease in CT [0.84 (0.5-1.3) vs. 0.42 (0.06-0.8)/ml/min/kg; P = 0.06]. In P, fractional hepatic, celiac trunk, and portal vein blood flows, and especially renal blood flow [by 46 (14-91)%; P = 0.001] decreased. In CT, renal blood flow [by 50.4 (23-81)%; P = 0.004] and in HH, superior mesenteric blood flow decreased [by 38.9 (16-100)%, P = 0.009]. Hepatic lactate influx increased > 100% in P and HH, and > 200% in CT (all P < 0.02). Hepatic lactate uptake remained unchanged in P and HH and converted to release in CT. Mitochondrial respiration remained normal. Muscle adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations decreased in P (5.9 ± 1.4 μmol/g wt vs. 2.8 ± 2.7 μmol/g wt, P = 0.04). HIF-1α expression was not detectable in any group. We conclude that despite shock and renal hypoperfusion, tissue hypoxia is not a major pathophysiological issue in early and established faecal peritonitis. The reasons for reduced skeletal muscle tissue ATP levels in the presence of well-preserved in-vitro muscle mitochondrial respiration should be further investigated.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 05/2012; 56(7):846-59. · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Pneumologie 01/2010; 64.
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    ABSTRACT: Contact of blood with artificial surfaces and air as well as ischemia/reperfusion injury to the heart and lungs mediate systemic and local inflammation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Activation of complement and coagulation cascades leads to and accompanies endothelial cell damage. Therefore, endothelial-targeted cytoprotection with the complement inhibitor and endothelial protectant dextran sulfate (DXS, MW 5000) may attenuate CBP-associated myocardial and pulmonary injury. Eighteen pigs (DXS, n=10; phosphate buffered saline [PBS], n=8) underwent standard cardiopulmonary bypass. After aortic cross-clamping, cardiac arrest was initiated with modified Buckberg blood cardioplegia (BCP), repeated after 30 and 60 min with BCP containing either DXS (300 mg/10 ml, equivalent to 5mg/kg) or 10 ml of PBS. Following 30 min reperfusion, pigs were weaned from CPB. During 2h of observation, cardiac function was monitored by echocardiography and invasive pressure measurements. Inflammatory and coagulation markers were assessed regularly. Animals were then sacrificed and heart and lungs analyzed. DXS significantly reduced CK-MB levels (43.4+/-14.8 ng/ml PBS, 35.9+/-11.1 ng/ml DXS, p=0.042) and significantly diminished cytokine release: TNFalpha (1507.6+/-269.2 pg/ml PBS, 222.1+/-125.6 pg/ml DXS, p=0.0071), IL1beta (1081.8+/-203.0 pg/ml PBS, 110.7+/-79.4 pg/ml DXS, p=0.0071), IL-6 (173.0+/-91.5 pg/ml PBS, 40.8+/-19.4 pg/ml DXS, p=0.002) and IL-8 (304.6+/-81.3 pg/ml PBS, 25.4+/-14.2 pg/ml DXS, p=0.0071). Tissue endothelin-1 levels were significantly reduced (6.29+/-1.90 pg/100mg PBS, 3.55+/-1.15 pg/100mg DXS p=0.030) as well as thrombin-anti-thrombin formation (20.7+/-1.0 microg/ml PBS, 12.8+/-4.1 microg/ml DXS, p=0.043). Also DXS reduced cardiac and pulmonary complement deposition, neutrophil infiltration, hemorrhage and pulmonary edema (measured as lung water content, 81+/-3% vs 78+/-3%, p=0.047), indicative of attenuated myocardial and pulmonary CPB-injury. Diastolic left ventricular function (measured as dp/dt(min)), pulmonary artery pressure (21+/-3 mmHg PBS, 19+/-3 mmHg DXS, p=0.002) and right ventricular pressure (21+/-1 mmHg PBS, 19+/-3 mmHg DXS p=0.021) were significantly improved with the use of DXS. Addition of DXS to the BCP solution ameliorates post-CPB injury and to a certain extent improves cardiopulmonary function. Endothelial protection in addition to myocyte protection may improve post-CPB outcome and recovery.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 07/2008; 34(3):653-60. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Membrane-targeted application of complement inhibitors may ameliorate ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by directly targeting damaged cells. We investigated whether Mirococept, a membrane-targeted, myristoylated peptidyl construct derived from complement receptor 1 (CR1) could attenuate I/R injury following acute myocardial infarction in pigs. In a closed-chest pig model of acute myocardial infarction, Mirococept, the non-tailed derivative APT154, or vehicle was administered intracoronarily into the area at risk 5 min pre-reperfusion. Infarct size, cardiac function and inflammatory status were evaluated. Mirococept targeted damaged vasculature and myocardium, significantly decreasing infarct size compared to vehicle, whereas APT154 had no effect. Cardioprotection correlated with reduced serum troponin I and was paralleled by attenuated local myocardial complement deposition and tissue factor expression. Myocardial apoptosis (TUNEL-positivity) was also reduced with the use of Mirococept. Local modulation of the pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant phenotype translated to improved left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, ejection fraction and regional wall motion post-reperfusion. Local modification of a pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant environment after regional I/R injury by site-specific application of a membrane-targeted complement regulatory protein may offer novel possibilities and insights into potential treatment strategies of reperfusion-induced injury.
    Cardiovascular research 01/2008; 76(3):482-93. · 5.80 Impact Factor
  • Molecular Immunology - MOL IMMUNOL. 01/2007; 44(1):154-154.