Roman Guggenberger

University of Zurich, Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland

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Publications (32)96.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this ex vivo study was to assess the performance of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) reconstructions to reduce metal artefacts in bodies with orthopedic devices in comparison with standard single-energy CT (SECT) examinations in forensic imaging. Forensic and clinical impacts of this study are also discussed. Thirty metallic implants in 20 consecutive cadavers with metallic implants underwent both SECT and DECT with a clinically suitable scanning protocol. Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105, 120, and 130 keV and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimized image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. Image quality of the seven monoenergetic images and of the corresponding SECT image was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by visual rating and measurements of attenuation changes induced by streak artefact. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed statistically significant differences between monoenergetic DECT extrapolated images and SECT, with improvements in diagnostic assessment in monoenergetic DECT at higher monoenergies. The mean value of OPTkeV was 137.6 ± 4.9 with a range of 130 to 148 keV. This study demonstrates that monoenergetic DECT images extrapolated at high energy levels significantly reduce metallic artefacts from orthopedic implants and improve image quality compared to SECT examination in forensic imaging.
    Skeletal Radiology 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00256-015-2155-z · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether imaging of the trunk could be omitted in patients with inflammatory myopathies without losing diagnostic accuracy using a restricted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (rWB-MRI) protocol. After approval by the institutional review board, this study was performed in 63 patients (male/female, 13/50; median age, 52 years; range, 20-81 years) with new-onset myopathic symptoms (group 1, n = 41) or previously diagnosed inflammatory myopathy (group 2, n = 22). After performing whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) at 3.0 Tesla, myositis and fatty atrophy were evaluated in different muscles by two independent radiologists. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to evaluate inter-observer reliability. Acquisition time was 56:01 minutes for WB-MRI and 37:37 minutes (32.8 % shorter) for rWB-MRI. In group 1, 14 patients were diagnosed with inflammatory myopathy based on muscle biopsy. rWB-MRI and WB-MRI showed equal sensitivity (42.9 %) and specificity (100 %) for myositis, and showed equal sensitivity (71.4 %) and similar specificity (63.0 % and 48.1 %, respectively) for fatty atrophy. No myositis was found in the body trunk in any patient. Inter-observer reliability was between substantial and perfect (ICC, 0.77-1.00). rWB-MRI showed diagnostic accuracy similar to WB-MRI for inflammatory myopathy at markedly reduced overall acquisition time. • Whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) is a time-consuming imaging modality. • A shortened MRI protocol was evaluated for inflammatory myopathies. • The proposed protocol showed diagnostic accuracy similar to WB-MRI.
    European Radiology 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00330-015-3783-3 · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of accelerated diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of skeletal muscle using echo planar imaging (EPI) applying simultaneous multislice excitation with a blipped controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration unaliasing technique. After federal ethics board approval, the lower leg muscles of 8 healthy volunteers (mean [SD] age, 29.4 [2.9] years) were examined in a clinical 3-T magnetic resonance scanner using a 15-channel knee coil. The EPI was performed at a b value of 500 s/mm without slice acceleration (conventional DTI) as well as with 2-fold and 3-fold acceleration. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured in all 3 acquisitions. Fiber tracking performance was compared between the acquisitions regarding the number of tracks, average track length, and anatomical precision using multivariate analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests. Acquisition time was 7:24 minutes for conventional DTI, 3:53 minutes for 2-fold acceleration, and 2:38 minutes for 3-fold acceleration. Overall FA and MD values ranged from 0.220 to 0.378 and 1.595 to 1.829 mm/s, respectively. Two-fold acceleration yielded similar FA and MD values (P ≥ 0.901) and similar fiber tracking performance compared with conventional DTI. Three-fold acceleration resulted in comparable MD (P = 0.199) but higher FA values (P = 0.006) and significantly impaired fiber tracking in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles (number of tracks, P < 0.001; anatomical precision, P ≤ 0.005). Simultaneous multislice EPI with blipped controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration can remarkably reduce acquisition time in DTI of skeletal muscle with similar image quality and quantification accuracy of diffusion parameters. This may increase the clinical applicability of muscle anisotropy measurements.
    Investigative radiology 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000151 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we investigated the potential prognostic role of morphological and quantitative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in patients with brainstem cavernoma (BSC) in terms of post-operative outcome. In this retrospective study of 14 brainstem cavernoma patients we analyzed pre- and postoperative DTI data. White matter tractography (WMT) of corticospinal tracts (CSTs) was performed using the Fiber Assignment by Continuous Tracking (FACT) algorithm and morphologic characteristics of CSTs were compared with clinically assessed motor strength. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured in ipsi- and contralesional regions of interest (ROIs) at the lesion level, as well as levels caudal and rostral to the lesion. Correlation analysis was performed between lateral index (LI) of ipsi-/contralateral FA and ADC values and patients' motor function. Preoperatively, normal morphological features of CSTs corresponded to normal motor function in 4 patients. The other 10 morphologically abnormal pre-operative CSTs didn't show corresponding motor impairment either in pre- or post-operative follow-up period. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values of WMT morphology on pre-operative motor function were 100%, 57.1%, 70% and 100% respectively. The corresponding values on follow-up motor function were 100%, 33.3%, 20% and 100% respectively. The mean FA at lesion level was significantly lower than the corresponding FA at the contralateral hemisphere (P=0.009). In areas caudal to the lesion the same trend yet without statistic significance was observed (P=0.23). There was no significant laterality difference of mean FAs rostral to the level of the lesion. No correlation in LI of FA or ADC in the three anatomic levels with simultaneous and long-term follow up motor function was observed. Restoration of the morphology of the affected CST postoperatively was associated with a trend for decreasing ADC compared to the pre-operative measurements. Intact CST morphology in DTI predicts a favorable postoperative outcome in patients with BSC. Interrupted CSTs and decreased FA-values correlate well within BSC lesion level, nevertheless morphologic characteristics and diffusion parameter changes cannot predict poor prognosis. Caudal and rostral diffusion parameters can provide more information of the integrity of CSTs compared with morphological study alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    World Neurosurgery 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2015.01.045 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of intravoxel incoherent motion imaging (IVIM) for non-invasive quantification of perfusion and diffusion effects in skeletal muscle at rest and following exercise. After IRB approval, eight healthy volunteers underwent diffusion-weighted MRI of the forearm at 3 T and eight different b values between 0 and 500 s/mm(2) with a temporal resolution of 57 s per dataset. Dynamic images were acquired before and after a standardized handgrip exercise. Diffusion (D) and pseudodiffusion (D*) coefficients as well as the perfusion fraction (FP ) were measured in regions of interest in the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus (FDS/FDP), brachioradialis, and extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis muscles by using a multi-step bi-exponential analysis in MATLAB. Parametrical maps were calculated voxel-wise. Differences in D, D*, and FP between muscle groups and between time points were calculated using a repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc Bonferroni tests. Mean values and standard deviations at rest were the following: D*, 28.5 ± 11.4 × 10(-3) mm(2) /s; FP , 0.03 ± 0.01; D, 1.45 ± 0.09 × 10(-3) mm(2) /s. Changes of IVIM parameters were clearly visible on the parametrical maps. In the FDS/FDP, D* increased by 289 ± 236% (p < 0.029), FP by 138 ± 58% (p < 0.01), and D by 17 ± 9% (p < 0.01). A significant increase of IVIM parameters could also be detected in the brachioradialis muscle, which however was significantly lower than in the FDS/FDP. After 20 min, all parameters were still significantly elevated in the FDS/FDP but not in the brachioradialis muscle compared with the resting state. The IVIM approach allows simultaneous quantification of muscle perfusion and diffusion effects at rest and following exercise. It may thus provide a useful alternative to other non-invasive methods such as arterial spin labeling. Possible fields of interest for this technique include perfusion-related muscle diseases, such as peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    NMR in Biomedicine 02/2015; 28(2). DOI:10.1002/nbm.3245 · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To investigate the technical feasibility of whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging. Materials and Methods Whole-body MR images of eight healthy volunteers were acquired at 3T using a spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with eight b-values. Coronal parametrical whole-body maps of diffusion (D), pseudodiffusion (D*), and the perfusion fraction (Fp) were calculated. Image quality was rated qualitatively by two independent radiologists, and inter-reader reliability was tested with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed in the brain, liver, kidney, and erector spinae muscle. Results Depiction of anatomic structures was rated as good on D maps and good to fair on D* and Fp maps. Exemplary mean D (10−3 mm2/s), D* (10−3 mm2/s) and Fp (%) values (± standard deviation) of the renal cortex were as follows: 1.7 ± 0.2; 15.6 ± 6.5; 20.9 ± 4.4. Inter-observer agreement was “substantial” to “almost perfect” (ICC = 0.80 – 0.92). The coefficient of variation of D* was significantly lower with the proposed algorithm compared to the conventional algorithm (p Conclusion The proposed IVIM protocol allows computation of parametrical maps with good to fair image quality. Potential future clinical applications may include characterization of widespread disease such as metastatic tumours or inflammatory myopathies. Key Points • IVIM imaging allows estimation of tissue perfusion based on diffusion-weighted MRI. • In this study, a clinically suitable whole-body IVIM algorithm is presented. • Coronal parametrical whole-body maps showed good depiction of anatomic details. • Potential future applications include detection of widespread metastatic or inflammatory disease.
    European Radiology 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00330-014-3577-z · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate metal artifacts induced by biodegradable magnesium-a new class of degradable biomaterial that is beginning to enter the orthopedic routine-on CT and MRI compared to standard titanium and steel controls. Different pins made of titanium, stainless steel, and biodegradable magnesium alloys were scanned using a second-generation dual-energy multidetector CT and a 1.5-T MR scanner. In CT, quantitative assessment of artifacts was performed by two independent readers by measuring the noise in standardized regions of interest close to the pins. In MRI, the artifact diameter was measured. Interobserver agreement was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients. Artifacts were compared using Mann Whitney U tests. In comparison to stainless steel, biodegradable magnesium alloys induced significantly fewer artifacts in both 1.5-T MRI (p = 0.019-0.021) and CT (p = 0.003-0.006). Compared to titanium, magnesium induced significantly less artifact-related noise in CT (p = 0.003-0.008). Although artifacts were less on MRI for biodegradable magnesium compared to titanium, this result was not statistically significant. Biodegradable magnesium alloys induce substantially fewer artifacts in CT compared to standard titanium and stainless steel, and fewer artifacts in MRI for the comparison with stainless steel.
    Skeletal Radiology 11/2014; 44(6). DOI:10.1007/s00256-014-2057-5 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate a prototype correction algorithm to reduce metal artefacts in flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) of scaphoid fixation screws. FDCT has gained interest in imaging small anatomic structures of the appendicular skeleton. Angiographic C-arm systems with flat detectors allow fluoroscopy and FDCT imaging in a one-stop procedure emphasizing their role as an ideal intraoperative imaging tool. However, FDCT imaging can be significantly impaired by artefacts induced by fixation screws.
    Skeletal Radiology 08/2014; 43(12). DOI:10.1007/s00256-014-1986-3 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To assess the diagnostic performance of quantitative and qualitative image parameters in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for diagnosis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). Materials and methods A BRONJ (22 patients, mean age 70.0 years) group was age and gender matched to a healthy control group (22 patients, mean age 68.0 years). On CBCT images two independent readers performed quantitative bone density value (BDV) measurements with region and volume-of-interest (ROI and VOI) based approaches and qualitative scoring of BRONJ-associated necrosis, sclerosis and periosteal thickening (1 = not present to 5 = definitely present). Intraoperative and clinical findings served as standard of reference. Interreader agreements and diagnostic performance were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), kappa-statistics and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results Twenty-three regions in 22 patients were affected by BRONJ. ICC values for mean BDV VOI and mean BDV ROI were 0.864 and 0.968, respectively (p Conclusions BRONJ can be effectively diagnosed with CBCT. Qualitative image parameters yield a higher diagnostic performance than quantitative parameters, and ROI-based attenuation measurements were more accurate than VOI-based measurements.
    Skeletal Radiology 07/2014; 43(12). DOI:10.1007/s00256-014-1951-1 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare image quality and extent of artifacts from scaphoid fracture fixation screws using different computed tomography (CT) modalities and radiation dose protocols. Imaging of 6 cadaveric wrists with artificial scaphoid fractures and different fixation screws was performed in 2 screw positions (45° and 90° orientation in relation to the x/y-axis) using multidetector CT (MDCT) and 2 flat-panel CT modalities, C-arm flat-panel CT (FPCT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT), the latter 2 with low and standard radiation dose protocols. Mean cartilage attenuation and metal artifact-induced absolute Hounsfield unit changes (= artifact extent) were measured. Two independent radiologists evaluated different image quality criteria using a 5-point Likert-scale. Interreader agreements (Cohen κ) were calculated. Mean absolute Hounsfield unit changes and quality ratings were compared using Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Artifact extent was significantly smaller for MDCT and standard-dose FPCT compared with CBCT low- and standard-dose acquisitions (all P < 0.05). No significant differences in artifact extent among different screw types and scanning positions were noted (P > 0.05). Both MDCT and FPCT standard-dose protocols showed equal ratings for screw bone interface, fracture line, and trabecular bone evaluation (P = 0.06, 0.2, and 0.2, respectively) and performed significantly better than FPCT low- and CBCT low- and standard-dose acquisitions (all P < 0.05). Good interreader agreement was found for image quality comparisons (Cohen κ = 0.76-0.78). Both MDCT and FPCT standard-dose acquisition showed comparatively less metal-induced artifacts and better overall image quality compared with FPCT low-dose and both CBCT acquisitions. Flat-panel CT may provide sufficient image quality to serve as a versatile CT alternative for postoperative imaging of internally fixated wrist fractures.
    Investigative radiology 03/2014; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000052 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the value of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and an iterative frequency split-normalized metal artefact reduction (IFS-MAR) algorithm compared to filtered back projections (FBP) from single-energy CT (SECT) for artefact reduction in internally fixated humeral fractures. Six internally fixated cadaveric humeri were examined using SECT and DECT. Data were reconstructed using FBP, IFS-MAR, and mono-energetic DECT extrapolations. Image analysis included radiodensity values and qualitative evaluation of artefacts, image quality, and level of confidence for localizing screw tips. Radiodensity values of streak artefacts were significantly different (p < 0.05) between FBP (-104 ± 222) and IFS-MAR (73 ± 122), and between FBP and DECT (32 ± 151), without differences between IFS-MAR and DECT (p < 0.553). Compared to FBP, qualitative artefacts were significantly reduced using IFS-MAR (p < 0.001) and DECT (p < 0.05), without significant differences between IFS-MAR and DECT (p < 0.219). Image quality significantly (p = 0.016) improved for IFS-MAR and DECT compared to FBP, without significant differences between IFS-MAR and DECT (p < 0.553). The level of confidence for screw tip localization was assessed as best for DECT in all cases. Both IFS-MAR in SECT and mono-energetic DECT produce improved image quality and a reduction of metal artefacts. Screw tip positions can be most confidently assessed using DECT.
    Clinical Radiology 02/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.crad.2013.12.011 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to compare lower limb length and alignment measurements on supine CT, upright full-length radiography, and 3D models based on upright biplanar linear radiography. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. This study involved 51 consecutive patients (22 men and 29 women; mean age, 68.8 years; range, 43-92 years) who were scheduled for total knee replacement. Lower limb length and alignment angle were measured on CT, upright full-length radiography, and 3D models based on biplanar linear radiography with standard and composed leg methods by two independent readers. Descriptive statistics of each modality were calculated. Measurements of different modalities were compared by paired Student t tests. Agreement between readers and modalities was assessed by Bland-Altman analyses. RESULTS. Mean (± SD) limb lengths were 783 ± 56.1 mm (range, 639-927 mm), 785 ± 53.0 mm (range, 655-924 mm), 780 ± 55.4 mm (range, 633-921 mm), and 783 ± 55.9 mm (range, 636-924 mm) for CT, upright full-length radiography, and 3D models based on biplanar linear radiography standard and composed leg measurements, respectively. Mean alignment angles were 2.3° ± 5.5° (range, -12° to 20°) for CT, 2.5° ± 6.7° (range, -17° to 18°) for upright full-length radiography, and 3.4° ± 6.6° (range, -14° to 18°) for 3D models based on biplanar linear radiography. No significant differences among modalities for mean limb length were found when using composed leg measurements in biplanar linear radiography. Very small but significant mean differences in angle measurements were seen for CT (-1.1° ± 2.5) and upright full-length radiography (-0.9° ± 3.1) compared with biplanar linear radiography. Bland-Altman analyses showed no significant differences between readers, with the highest agreement for biplanar linear radiography length measurements. CONCLUSION. Measurements on 3D models based on upright biplanar linear radiographs allow lower limb length and alignment angle measurements that are interchangeable with supine CT scans and upright full-length radiographs but with superior interreader agreement.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 02/2014; 202(2):W161-7. DOI:10.2214/AJR.13.10782 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE To assess the value of monoenergetic extrapolations from dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and standard filtered back projections (FBP) from single-energy computed tomography (SECT) compared to a new iterative frequency split-normalized (IFS) metal artifact reconstruction (MAR) algorithm for artifact reduction in internally fixated humeral fractures. METHOD AND MATERIALS In this cadaveric study, artifacts in seven internally fixated human proximal humeral fractures of five subjects were examined with SECT and DECT. Postprocessing included routinely used FBP algorithm, a new IFS-MAR algorithm, and monoenergetic extrapolation of DECT images. Image analysis included quantitative assessment of image artifacts (HU measurements) as well as evaluation of image quality and osteosynthesis material and visualization of screw position in FBP, IFS-MAR, and DECT using a five-point Likert scale. RESULTS HU values of streak artifacts were significantly (P < .05) different between FBP (115.7±222.4) and IFS-MAR (68.7±106.3), and between FBP and monoenergetic DECT (10.1±146.1). Between IFS-MAR and DECT no significant differences were detected (P = .30). Artifact scores improved significantly from FBP (3.9) to IFS-MAR (2.0; P < .001) and DECT (2.6; P < .05), whereas no significant differences were seen between IFS-MAR and DECT (P = .10). Visualization scores of osteosynthesis material differed significantly (P < .05) between FBP (2.9) and IFS-MAR (2.3) and between IFS-MAR and DECT (1.4). Screw position of 57/57 screws was identically rated in FBP and IFS-MAR, but different between IFS-MAR and DECT in 11 cases, with a subjectively better visualization in DECT. CONCLUSION IFS-MAR algorithm in SECT as well as monoenergetic extrapolations from DECT allow for an improved image quality, a reduction of artifacts and better assessment of screw-position compared to standard FBP in SECT. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/APPLICATION Both, dual-energy CT and a newly applied iterative frequency split-normalized metal artifact reconstruction algorithm for CT are promising techniques for metal artifact reduction in internally fixated
    Radiological Society of North America 2013 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting; 12/2013
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    ABSTRACT: The lumbosacral plexus comprises a network of nerves that provide motor and sensory innervation to most structures of the pelvis and lower extremities. It is susceptible to various traumatic, inflammatory, metabolic, and neoplastic processes that may lead to lumbrosacral plexopathy, a serious and often disabling condition whose course and prognosis largely depend on the identification and cure of the causative condition. Whereas diagnosis of lumbrosacral plexopathy has traditionally relied on patients' medical history, clinical examination, and electrodiagnostic tests, magnetic resonance (MR) neurography plays an increasingly prominent role in noninvasive characterization of the type, location, and extent of lumbrosacral plexus involvement and is developing into a useful diagnostic tool that substantially affects disease management. With use of 3-T MR imagers, improved coils, and advanced imaging sequences, which provide exquisite spatial resolution and soft-tissue contrast, MR neurography provides excellent depiction of the lumbrosacral plexus and its peripheral branches and may be used to confirm a diagnosis of lumbrosacral plexopathy with high accuracy or provide superior anatomic information should surgical intervention be necessary.
    Radiographics 07/2013; 33(4):967-987. DOI:10.1148/rg.334115761 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the agreement of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the median nerve on 3.0T MR scanners from different vendors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IRB approved study including 16 healthy volunteers (9 women; mean age 30.6±5.3 years). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the dominant wrist was performed on three 3.0T MR scanners (GE, Siemens, Philips) using similar imaging protocols and vendor-proprietary hard- and software. Intra-, inter-reader and inter-vendor agreements were assessed. RESULTS: ICCs for intra-/inter-reader agreements ranged from 0.843-0.970/0.846-0.956 for FA, and 0.840-0.940/0.726-0.929 for ADC, respectively. ANOVA analysis identified significant differences for FA/ADC measurements among vendors (p<0.001/p<0.01, respectively). Overall mean values for FA were 0.63 (SD±0.1) and 0.999x10(-3)mm(2)/s (SD±0.134x10(-3)) for ADC. A significant negative measurement bias was found for FA values from the GE scanner (-0.05 and -0.07) and for ADC values from the Siemens scanner (-0.053 and -0.063x10(-3)mm(2)/s) as compared to the remainder vendors CONCLUSION: FA and ADC values of the median nerve obtained on different 3.0T MR scanners differ significantly, but are in comparison to the standard deviation of absolute values small enough to not have an impact on larger group studies or when substantial diffusion changes can be expected. However, caution is warranted in an individual patient when interpreting diffusion values from different scanner acquisitions.
    European journal of radiology 06/2013; 82(10). DOI:10.1016/j.ejrad.2013.05.011 · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • Skeletal Radiology 04/2013; 42(6). DOI:10.1007/s00256-013-1606-7 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to analyze the spatial resolution of different reconstruction kernels and acquisition protocols, including a prototypic high-resolution protocol in flat-panel (FP) and multidetector (MD) computed tomography (CT), and to evaluate contrast and artificial cartilage depiction quality of in vitro FPCT and MDCT arthrography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An image-quality cone beam phantom was used to compare resolution and different reconstruction kernels of the standard MDCT (120 and 80 kV) and the standard binned (2 × 2) and prototypic high-resolution unbinned (1 × 1) FPCT protocols (5- and 20-second runs each). With the resulting FPCT kernel best matching the standard MDCT kernel (U90u), artificial joint phantoms with differently sized groups of cartilage defects (2, 1, 0.5, and 0.3 mm in width) were then scanned using intra-articular iodinated contrast at 50 mgI/mL. In these joint phantoms, CT numbers and noise in the iodinated contrast and artificial cartilage tissue were measured and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated. Depiction quality of artificial cartilage defects was qualitatively rated by 2 independent radiologists. RESULTS: A sharp reconstruction kernel for all FPCT protocols suited best for matched resolution to the standard MDCT kernel. High-resolution 20-second 1 × 1 binning FPCT showed comparable resolution with MDCT in the range of 0.4 to 1.6 line pairs (lp) per millimeter with superior resolution in higher frequencies than 1.6 lp per millimeter (P < 0.001). Flat-panel computed tomographic 5-second runs were associated with higher image noise than the 20-second runs were. The CNR differed significantly among the protocols (P < 0.01) and was the highest in the 20-second FPCT, followed by the 5-second FPCT 2 × 2 and MDCT protocols. Interreader agreement for the depiction quality of artificial cartilage defects was substantial and high in the joint phantoms (0.74 and 0.81, respectively; P < 0.001). The best ratings of the artificial cartilage defect depiction quality were seen in the FPCT 20-second, followed by the FPCT 5-second and MDCT acquisitions. The depiction quality of smaller cartilage defects (1.0 and 1.67 lp per millimeter) was rated worst in the MDCT acquisitions. CONCLUSIONS: In vitro FPCT arthrography offers superior CNR and artificial cartilage defect depiction quality to MDCT, and spatial resolution for small structures is higher when applying high-resolution acquisition protocols. Flat-panel computed tomography, thus, has the potential to improve workflow, and tailored high-resolution protocols may allow for advanced cartilage evaluation in CT arthrography.
    Investigative radiology 03/2013; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0b013e318289fa78 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Imaging of bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw is essential for surgical planning. We compared the extent of BONJ on contrast-enhanced MR imaging, [(18)F] fluoride PET/CT, and panoramic views derived from standard conebeam CT with clinical pre- and intraoperative examinations.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Between February 2011 and January 2012, ten subjects with written informed consent (9 women; mean, 69.6 years; range, 53-88 years) were included in this prospective ethics-board-approved study. Patients underwent CEMR imaging, [(18)F] fluoride PET/CT, and CBCT and were clinically examined pre- and intraoperatively. Surgery was performed, and BONJ was histologically confirmed in 9 patients. Location and extent of BONJ on different modalities/examinations were graphically compared (0 = no pathologic finding, 1 = smallest, 5 = largest extent of BONJ). Rank tests were used to assess overall and paired differences of ratings in 9 patients. A P value <.05 was considered statistically significant.RESULTS:Significant differences in BONJ extent among different modalities and examinations were found (P < .001). The highest median rank was seen in PET/CT (4 ± 1.12) and CEMR imaging (4 ± 1.01), followed by intraoperative examinations (3 ± 0.71), CBCT (2 ± 0.33), and preoperative examinations (1 ± 0). No significant differences were found between PET/CT and CEMR imaging (P = .23), except when comparing PET/CT to either CBCT, pre- and intraoperative examinations (all P < .05). Preoperative examinations showed significantly less extensive disease than all other modalities/examinations (all P < .05).CONCLUSIONS:[(18)F] fluoride PET/CT and CEMR imaging revealed more extensive involvement of BONJ compared with panoramic views from CBCT and clinical examinations.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 12/2012; 34(6). DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A3355 · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:To compare lumbar muscle fat-signal fractions derived from three-dimensional dual gradient-echo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and multiple gradient-echo MR imaging with fractions from single-voxel MR spectroscopy in patients with low back pain.Materials and Methods:This prospective study had institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. Fifty-six patients (32 women; mean age, 52 years ± 15 [standard deviation]; age range, 20-79 years) with low back pain underwent standard 1.5-T MR imaging, which was supplemented by dual-echo MR imaging, multi-echo MR imaging, and MR spectroscopy to quantify fatty degeneration of bilateral lumbar multifidus muscles in a region of interest at the intervertebral level of L4 through L5. Fat-signal fractions were determined from signal intensities on fat- and water-only images from both imaging data sets (dual-echo and multi-echo fat-signal fractions without T2* correction) or directly obtained, with additional T2* correction, from multi-echo MR imaging. The results were compared with MR spectroscopic fractions. The Student t test and Bland-Altman plots were used to quantify agreement between fat-signal fractions derived from imaging and from spectroscopy.Results:In total, 102 spectroscopic measurements were obtained bilaterally (46 of 56) or unilaterally (10 of 56). Mean spectroscopic fat-signal fraction was 19.6 ± 11.4 (range, 5.4-63.5). Correlation between spectroscopic and all imaging-based fat-signal fractions was statistically significant (R(2) = 0.87-0.92; all P < .001). Mean dual-echo fat-signal fractions not corrected for T2* and multi-echo fat-signal fractions corrected for T2* significantly differed from spectroscopic fractions (both P < .01), but mean multi-echo fractions not corrected for T2* did not (P = .11). There was a small measurement bias of 0.5% (95% limits of agreement: -6.0%, 7.2%) compared with spectroscopic fractions.Conclusion:Large-volume image-based (dual-echo and multi-echo MR imaging) and spectroscopic fat-signal fractions agree well, thus allowing fast and accurate quantification of muscle fat content in patients with low back pain.© RSNA, 2012.
    Radiology 11/2012; 266(2). DOI:10.1148/radiol.12120399 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interchangeability of femoral and tibial torsion measurements obtained with 3D models based on low-dose biplanar radiographs and standard CT measurements by testing the following two hypotheses: that there is excellent agreement between the two methods and that there is excellent interreader agreement. Two independent readers used 3D models based on low-dose simultaneous biplanar radiographs and axial CT images to measure femoral and tibial torsion in 35 patients (mean age, 65 years; range, 46-89 years) with osteoarthritis of the knee who were to undergo prosthesis insertion. The two measurements were compared by means of Bland-Altman plots and descriptive statistics. Interreader agreement was quantified with intraclass correlation coefficients. The average differences between readers on the CT measurements were 1.3° (range, 0°-11°) for the femur and 1.5° (range, 0°-12°) for the tibia. The average differences for the measurements obtained with the 3D model were 0.1° (range, 0°-9°) for the femur and 0.8° (range, 0°-10°) for the tibia. The average differences between the two methods were 0° (range, -5° to 7°) for the femoral measurements and 3° (range, -12° to 5°) for the tibial measurements. Bland-Altman plots showed no relevant differences between the results of the two measurement modalities. Except for one measurement of femoral torsion and one measurement of tibial torsion, all results based on the 3D models were within the 95% limit of agreement (mean ± 1.96 SD). Interreader agreement was statistically significant (p < 0.001) for all measurements with high intraclass correlation coefficients (> 0.9). Femoral and tibial torsion measurements obtained with 3D models based on biplanar radiographs are interchangeable with standard CT measurements in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 11/2012; 199(5):W607-12. DOI:10.2214/AJR.11.8295 · 2.74 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

134 Citations
96.43 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2015
    • University of Zurich
      • • Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics
      • • Center for Integrative Human Physiology
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2012
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States