[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TRAF4 is one of six identified members of the family of TNFR-associated factors. While the other family members have been found to play important roles in the development and maintenance of a normal immune system, the importance of TRAF4 has remained unclear. To address this issue, we have generated TRAF4-deficient mice. Despite widespread expression of TRAF4 in the developing embryo, as well as in the adult, lack of TRAF4 expression results in a localized, developmental defect of the upper respiratory tract. TRAF4-deficient mice are born with a constricted upper trachea at the site of the tracheal junction with the larynx. This narrowing of the proximal end of the trachea results in respiratory air flow abnormalities and increases rates of pulmonary inflammation. These data demonstrate that TRAF4 is required to regulate the anastomosis of the upper and lower respiratory systems during development.
American Journal Of Pathology 09/2000; 157(2):679-88. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that the pan CD28/cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTL)A-4 antagonist CTLA4 immunoglobulin (Ig) inhibits eosinophilic airway inflammation in Schistosoma mansoni-sensitized and airway-challenged mice. In the present study, the importance of CD28 as well as the individual roles of CD80 and CD86 were examined in this system using wild-type and CD28 knockout (KO) mice. Unlike wild-type controls, CD28KO mice did not produce systemic IgE or eosinophilic airway inflammation after antigen challenge. However, a lymphocytic infiltrate and continued production of interferon-gamma was observed in these animals. Thus, CD28 is not essential for the initial recruitment of lymphocytes into antigen-challenged airways but critically regulates the allergic T-helper 2 phenotype. We next determined by polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry that CD80 and CD86 molecules are constitutively expressed in the naive murine lung and on eosinophils in the allergic lung, suggesting a potential important role for both ligands in the development of asthma. Combined anti-CD80/anti-CD86 treatment throughout the antigen challenge period fully blocked the development of allergic airways, whereas a partial reduction was observed in mice treated with either anti-CD80 or anti-CD86 antibody alone. However, only anti-CD86 blocked systemic IgE production. Therefore, signaling through either CD80 or CD86 is sufficient to generate a partial local allergic response, whereas CD86 costimulation is essential to induce systemic allergic (IgE) reactions. Finally, combined anti-B7 monoclonal antibody treatment after sensitization reduced airway eosinophilia and interleukin (IL)-4/IL-5 cytokine secretion consistent with an ongoing role for CD28/B7 interactions in the effector phase of the disease. These results emphasize the importance of differential B7 expression on different cells and in different organs on subsequent CD28/B7-mediated immune events, including the potential for CD28/B7 blockade in the treatment of atopic airway disease in people.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 11/1999; 21(4):498-509. · 4.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is the second most prevalent chronic illness of children. Investigation of the treatment of IDDM is hindered by the lack of a reproducible and easily maintained non-human primate model of this disorder.
We induced IDDM in 11 juvenile cynomolgus monkeys after a single (150 mg/kg) intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ). All diabetic monkeys were treated with insulin twice daily, based on a sliding scale. Subcutaneous vascular access ports were surgically placed in each monkey to facilitate serial blood sampling and drug administration. Allogeneic pancreatic islet cells from unrelated donors were subsequently transplanted into the mesenteric circulation of all STZ-treated monkeys.
Mild, transient nausea and vomiting occurred in all animals after STZ injection; however, no additional signs of toxicity occurred. Within 36 hr, all monkeys required twice daily administration of exogenous insulin to maintain a non-ketotic state. Serum C-peptide levels decreased from >1.2 ng/ml before STZ, to between 0.0 and 0.9 ng/ml after STZ, confirming islet cell destruction. Animals were maintained in an insulin-dependent state for up to 147 days without any observable clinical complications. Subcutaneous vascular access port patency was maintained up to 136 days with a single incidence of local infection. Islet cell transplantation resulted in normoglycemia within 24 hr. Serum C-peptide levels increased (range: 2-8 ng/ml) for 6 - 8 days in immune competent animals, and for 39-98 days after transplant in immunosuppressed monkeys.
IDDM can be consistently induced and safely treated in juvenile cynomolgus monkeys. Chronic vascular access can be maintained with minimal supervision and complications. This model is appropriate for studies investigating potential treatments for IDDM including islet cell transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After myocardial necrosis and fibrosis was observed in five rabbits which had been anesthetized a variable number of times, the potential relationship of these lesions and anesthesia was evaluated in 35 other rabbits.
Anesthesia was induced by intramuscular administration of ketamine and xylazine followed by infusion of lactated Ringer's solution also containing ketamine and xylazine. Group A rabbits (n = 9) were subjected to multiple anesthesias and were evaluated by echocardiography, thoracic radiography, electrocardiography, determination of serum coronavirus titer, vitamin E concentration, and complete necropsy. Prior to a single acute procedure followed by necropsy, group B rabbits (n = 11) were evaluated by echocardiography only. Group C rabbits (n = 10) had never been anesthetized and were necropsied after euthanasia. Group D rabbits (n = 5) had intermediate anesthesia exposure history and were evaluated by echocardiography only. Myocardial fibrosis was scored semi-quantitatively on a scale of 0 to 4.
Canine coronavirus test results were negative; hypovitaminosis E was evident, and fibrosis scores were significantly increased in group A, compared with group B or group C, rabbits.
Etiologic differentials included alpha2-agonist-mediated coronary vasoconstriction with associated myocardial hypoperfusion, hypovitaminosis E and free radical injury, and other anesthetic-induced physiologic trespass.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the effects of an anti-interleukin (IL)-5 monoclonal antibody (TRFK-5) or dexamethasone (DEX) to reverse already established airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and tissue eosinophilia in a Schistosoma mansoni antigen-sensitized and airway-challenged mouse model of chronic asthma. In this model at 4 d after antigen challenge there is dramatic bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) eosinophilia, AHR to intravenous methacholine (MCh), and histologic evidence of peribronchial eosinophilic infiltration and mucoid cell hyperplasia. These changes persist for up to 2 wk after antigen challenge. Treatment with DEX from Days 4 through 10 significantly reduced established airway eosinophilia compared with animals sham-treated with saline from Days 4 -10 (120 +/- 29 eosinophils/microl BAL for DEX-treated mice versus 382 +/- 60 eosinophils/microl BAL for sham-treated animals, p < 0.01). DEX-treated mice also had dramatically reduced mucoid cell hyperplasia, and airway responsiveness returned to normal. In contrast, TRFK-5 given during the same time period reduced airway eosinophilia (86 +/- 32 eosinophils/microl BAL versus 382 +/- 60 eosinophils/microl BAL, p < 0.01) but did not reduce goblet cell hyperplasia or reverse already established AHR. Treatment with DEX but not TRFK-5 also inhibited interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) content of BAL fluid (0.49 +/- 0.09 ng/ml BAL fluid for DEX versus 1.50 +/- 0.24 ng/ml BAL fluid and 1.36 +/- 0.13 ng/ml BAL fluid for TRFK-5 and sham-treated mice, respectively, both p < 0.001 versus DEX). Thus, treatment with DEX reduces established eosinophilic airway inflammation and AHR in S. mansoni-sensitized and airway-challenged mice but treatment with TRFK-5 reversed established eosinophilia without ameliorating established AHR. Together, these data suggest that once airway inflammation develops, neutralizing the effects of IL-5 or reducing eosinophilia alone may not result in inhibiting established AHR in atopic asthma.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 03/1999; 159(2):580-7. · 11.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis, proliferative typhlitis, and colitis were characterized in young adult and older SCID/NCr mice naturally infected with Helicobacter hepaticus. Liver lesions consisted of Kupffer, Ito, and oval cell hyperplasia along with multifocal to coalescing coagulative hepatocyte necrosis. Numerous Warthin-Starry-positive bacteria were observed in the parenchyma, and there were minimal to mild accumulations of monocytic cells and neutrophils. Proliferative typhlitis was characterized by moderate to marked mucosal epithelial cell hyperplasia with mild monocytic and neutrophilic infiltration. Minimal to mild colitis with mucosal epithelial cell hyperplasia of the colon was most marked in older mice. Comparable gastrointestinal lesions were not observed in uninfected control SCID/NCr mice. H. hepaticus was cultured from fetal viscera of 2 of 11 pups sampled late in gestation from infected SCID/NCr females, suggesting transplacental infection of H. hepaticus. As expected, most of the naturally infected SCID/NCr mice had no serum immunoglobulin G response against H. hepaticus. These findings contrast with those in infected immunocompetent A/JCr mice, which develop a significant immune response to H. hepaticus associated with prominent multifocal mononuclear cell infiltrates in the liver, with only rare bacteria observable at the periphery of inflammatory foci or in the biliary canaliculi. The results demonstrate that chronic inflammatory and proliferative lesions simultaneously affecting the liver, cecum, and colon are associated with natural infection of SCID/NCr mice with H. hepaticus and that lesions are progressive with age. Concurrent infection with H. hepaticus may confound studies that have been attributed to similar lesions due to other experimental manipulations of SCID/NCr mice.
Infection and Immunity 12/1998; 66(11):5477-84. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal motility disorders are of considerable clinical importance in humans and animals. Abnormalities of smooth muscle and the enteric nervous system have been described. We have identified and characterized a new mutant stock of rats that develops severe megacecum and colon with pseudo-obstruction, Familial Megacecum and Colon (FMC). The inheritance pattern of FMC was characterized by selective breeding. Gastrointestinal motility was evaluated radiographically. Complete pathologic evaluations, including ultrastructural examination and staining of colonic segments for acetylcholinesterase, peripherin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance P, nitric oxide synthase, and somatostatin, were performed. Spontaneous contractility and contractile force in isolated colonic muscle strips were examined. Familial megacecum and colon is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. The markedly dilated cecum and proximal portion of the colon are followed by a short, funnel-shaped segment and distal portion of the colon with normal or slightly reduced lumen. Although clinical features and gross anatomic changes of the colon resemble those of Hirschsprung's disease in humans and animals, aganglionosis is not a feature of FMC. An increase in somatostatin staining was observed in dilated regions of bowel. The spontaneous contractile frequency and contractile force were diminished in the affected colon. Familial megacecum and colon is a new mutant, distinct from previously described hereditary and targeted mutant rodent models that develop megacecum and colon as a result of distal colonic dysfunction. The functional or morphologic defect(s) that result in colonic dysfunction in rats with FMC was not determined. The disease may result from an absence or overexpression of a single or group of neurotransmitters or their respective neurons, receptor abnormalities, or defects in the intestinal pacemaker system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine incidence of neoplastic disease in ferrets.
574 ferrets with neoplastic disease.
Medical records from the Veterinary Medical Data Base at Purdue University from 1968 to May 1997 were reviewed to identify ferrets with neoplastic disease. Data on tumor type, organ or system affected, sex, age, geographic location of affected ferrets, participating institution, and year of diagnosis were retrieved.
639 tumors of various types were diagnosed in 574 of 4,774 (12%) ferrets in the database. Sixty-one ferrets had multiple tumor types. Primary tumors were found in every system; endocrine (254; 39.7%), hemolymphatic (97; 15.2%), integumentary (83; 12.9%), and digestive (54; 8.4%) systems were most commonly affected. The most common tumor types were pancreatic islet cell (139; 21.7%) and adrenocortical cell (107; 16.7%) tumors and lymphoma (76; 11.9%). Most (94.2%) pancreatic islet cell tumors were functional. Age of affected ferrets ranged from less than 1 month to more than 15 years old. Tumor incidence was highest in ferrets between 4 and 7 years old. A sex predilection was not found, although tumors were found more commonly in spayed females and castrated males than in sexually intact females and males, respectively. Number of tumors diagnosed increased as the number of ferrets examined increased. Neoplastic disease accounted for an increasingly greater percentage of diseases diagnosed in ferrets during the study period.
Ferrets have an incidence and spectrum of neoplastic disease similar to other mammalian species.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 06/1998; 212(9):1402-6. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complete T-cell activation requires two distinct signals, one delivered via the T-cell receptor, and the second "co-stimulatory" signal through CD28/B7 ligation. Previous studies showed that the blockade of CD28/B7 ligation alters differentiation of Th1/Th2 lymphocyte subsets in vitro and in vivo. The present study was designed to determine the effect of a CD28/B7 antagonist (CTLA4Ig) on Th1/Th2 development in Schistosoma mansoni-sensitized and airway-challenged mice. Treatment of mice with CTLA4Ig beginning 1 wk after sensitization abolished airway responsiveness to intravenous methacholine determined 96 h following antigen challenge. We also found a significant reduction in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophilia, and reduced peribronchial eosinophilic infiltration and mucoid-cell hyperplasia. Furthermore, CTLA4Ig treatment significantly decreased interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 content in BAL fluid in vivo, and the production of IL-5 by lung lymphocytes stimulated with soluble egg antigen (SEA) in vitro. In contrast, the content of interferon-gamma in BAL fluid and supernatant from SEA-stimulated lung lymphocytes from CTLA4Ig-treated mice was increased significantly compared with untreated animals. Thus, CTLA4Ig inhibits eosinophilic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in S. mansoni-sensitized and airway-challenged mice, most likely due to attenuated secretion of Th2-type cytokines and increased secretion of Th1-type cytokines.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 04/1998; 18(4):453-62. · 4.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric lymphoma resembling gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma linked with Helicobacter pylori infection in humans was observed in ferrets infected with H. mustelae. Four ferrets with ante- or postmortem evidence of primary gastric lymphoma were described. Lymphoma was diagnosed in the wall of the lesser curvature of the pyloric antrum, corresponding to the predominant focus of H. mustelae induced gastritis in ferrets. Two ferrets had low-grade small-cell lymphoma and two ferrets had high-grade large-cell lymphoma. Gastric lymphomas demonstrated characteristic lymphoepithelial lesions, and the lymphoid cells were IgG+ in all ferrets. Lymphoma was confirmed by light chain restriction, which contrasted with the 1.2:1 kappa lambda ratio observed in H. mustelae-associated chronic gastritis. H. mustelae infection in ferrets has been used as a model for gastritis, ulcerogenesis, and carcinogenesis. The ferret may provide an attractive model to study pathogenesis and treatment of gastric MALT lymphoma in humans.
American Journal Of Pathology 08/1997; 151(1):273-80. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helicobacter mustelae, like Helicobacter pylori, possesses two flagellin proteins, FlaA and FlaB. Isogenic mutant strains of H. mustelae have been constructed by disruption of the flaA or flaB gene with a kanamycin resistance cassette or by introduction of both a kanamycin and a chloramphenicol resistance gene to produce a double mutant. To determine whether one or both flagellin proteins are necessary for colonization and persistence of infection with H. mustelae, 19 ferrets, specific pathogen free for H. mustelae, were given either the HMF1 flaA::km (weakly motile), ATCC 43772 flaB::km (moderately motile), or HMF1 flaA::cat flaB::km (non-motile) mutant strain, the wild-type parent strains, or sterile broth. Gastric tissue samples were obtained during sequential gastric biopsies beginning at 3 weeks postinoculation and ending at necropsy at 3 months postinoculation. H. mustelae infection status was determined by culture, histology, and serology. The wild-type parent strains of H. mustelae infected all ferrets at all time points. The double-mutant strain was unable to colonize; the flaA and flaB single-mutant strains were able to initially colonize at a low level and establish persistent infection with increasing numbers of organisms over time. The severity of gastritis produced by infection with these strains of H. mustelae correlated with the number of organisms present in the gastric mucosa. Flagellar motility is an important virulence factor for colonization and pathogenesis in the H. mustelae ferret model.
Infection and Immunity 06/1997; 65(5):1962-6. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was motivated by the sporadic observation of epiphora in two male rabbits. The epiphora was unilateral and not associated with conjunctivitis or Pasteurella infection. To characterize the cause of epiphora, we studied 15 specific-pathogen-free New Zealand White rabbits. This study group was composed of the two affected males, four unaffected males, and nine unaffected females. Clinical evaluation consisted of bacterial culture of conjunctival specimens, examination of conjunctival scrapings for chlamydial inclusions, culture and cytologic examination of specimens from the nasolacrimal duct, plain and contrast radiography, latex casting, histologic examination, and the Schirmer tear test. Important differences found in the rabbits with epiphora included an opalescent, gritty, nasolacrimal duct flush fluid and marked unilateral dilatation of the duct proximal to a dorsal flexure at the caudal limit of the incisor tooth root. The flush solution from one affected rabbit cleared with ether, suggesting the presence of triglycerides or cholesterol. The organisms most commonly isolated from the conjunctiva were Moraxella sp., Oligella urethralis, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus sp., and Streptococcus viridans. The organisms most commonly isolated from the nasolacrimal duct flush fluid were Moraxella sp., S. viridans, and Neisseria sp. Culture of the nasolacrimal duct flush fluid yielded microorganisms more consistently than did culture of the conjunctival specimens. All microorganisms isolated from affected rabbits also were isolated from unaffected rabbits. There was no apparent contribution of microorganisms to the development of epiphora, and Schirmer tear test results for affected animals were within the range seen in unaffected animals. Occlusion of the nasolacrimal duct was presumed to be attributable to fat droplets. This study augments the existing literature and represents the first report of anomalous nasolacrimal duct anatomic features in the rabbit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retrospective study revealed intestinal plasmacytosis in 53 of 102 rabbits used in various experimental studies and as controls. The breeds affected included New Zealand white (n = 46), Dutch-belted (n = 6), and Watanabe (n = 1) rabbits. Sex predisposition was not found in any breed. The mean (+/-SD) ages were 3.1 +/- 1.4 years for New Zealand white rabbits, 1.3 +/- 1.1 for Dutch-belted rabbits, and 2 years for the Watanabe rabbit. The severity increased with animal age. The incidence was higher (P < 0.05) in rabbits used in antibody production and cholesterol studies. The lesions were characterized by multifocal to diffuse infiltration of well-differentiated plasma cells in the intestinal mucosa. Electron microscopic examination revealed typical plasma cell morphology of the infiltrating cells. Small intestine and cecum were the major sites affected. In severe cases, colon, rectum, trachea, esophagus, mesenteric lymph node, and spleen were also involved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helicobacter hepaticus has been associated with naturally occurring hepatitis in certain inbred strains of mice, and in A/JCr mice it has been linked to the development of hepatic adenomas and adenocarcinomas. H. hepaticus was orally inoculated into 30 axenic, outbred female mice, and the mice were studied longitudinally to fulfill Koch's postulates and to ascertain the pathogenic potential of the organism under defined germfree conditions. Ten cage contact mice were also housed in the same germfree isolator to study transmission patterns, and 10 germfree mice were maintained in separate isolators as controls. Mice serially euthanized from 3 weeks through 24 months postinoculation (p.i.) were surveyed by culture and PCR for H. hepaticus in liver and intestinal tissues. Tissues were analyzed for histopathological changes, and sera were assayed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibody to H. hepaticus and changes in the liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase. Inoculated mice and cage contact mice were persistently infected with H. hepaticus as identified by culture and PCR, in both the intestine and, less frequently, the liver, for the duration of the 2-year study. Animals developed persistent chronic hepatitis, and in some animals enterocolitis was noted. Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed in one H. hepaticus-infected mouse. The level of H. hepaticus serum antibody was highest in experimentally infected mice at 12 to 18 months p.i.; this corresponded in general to the time interval when the highest levels of alanine aminotransferase were recorded. Although cage contact mice became persistently infected with H. hepaticus, lesions were less severe and the levels of serological biomarkers utilized in the study were lower. The H. hepaticus-infected mouse will provide an ideal model to study putative bacterial virulence determinants and how they interact with the host to induce chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis.
Infection and Immunity 10/1996; 64(9):3673-81. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three cases of juvenile mediastinal lymphoma developed in a laboratory colony of ferrets. Two ferrets became acutely moribund, and one was found dead with no preceding signs of illness. Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and a large thoracic mass were the primary features in each case. All three ferrets had multiorgan metastasis of the tumor. Two ferrets were tested for feline leukemia virus and Aleutian disease virus with negative results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helicobacter hepaticus causes hepatitis in selected strains of mice and in A/JCr mice is linked to liver cancer. To analyze whether H. hepaticus persists in specified ecological niches, to determine whether biomarkers of infection exist, and to analyze the influence of H. hepaticus on hepatocyte proliferation, a longitudinal study of H. hepaticus-infected A/JCr mice was undertaken. A/JCr mice were serially euthanatized from 3 through 18 months and surveyed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; bacterial culture of liver, colon, and cecum; histology; electron microscopy; hepatocyte proliferation indices determined by using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine; and measurement of the liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase. In infected animals throughout the 18-month study, H. hepaticus was consistently isolated from the lower bowel but only sporadically from the liver. By electron microscopy, H. hepaticus was noted infrequently and only in bile canaliculi. Infected mice, particularly males, showed chronic inflammation; oval cell, Kupffer cell, and Ito cell hyperplasia; hepatocytomegaly; and bile duct proliferation. The inflammatory and necrotizing lesion was progressive and involved the hepatic parenchyma, portal triads, and intralobular venules. Hepatic adenomas were noted only in male mice, whereas 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine proliferation indices were markedly increased in both sexes, but especially in males, compared to control A/J mice. Infected mice also developed sustained anti-H. hepaticus serum immunoglobulin G antibody responses and elevated alanine aminotransferase levels. H. hepaticus, which persists in the lower bowels and livers of A/JCr mice, is associated with a chronic proliferative hepatitis, and hepatomas in selected male mice indicate that this novel bacterium may cause an increased risk of hepatic cancer induction in susceptible strains of mice. This murine model should prove useful in dissecting the molecular events operable in the development of neoplasms induced by bacteria belonging to this expanding genera of pathogenic Helicobacter species.
Infection and Immunity 06/1996; 64(5):1548-58. · 4.16 Impact Factor