[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast conservation therapy (BCS) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) can improve patients' quality of life. Currently used intraoperative examination for negative margins may not be sufficient to detect microresidual foci, which are a risk factor for local recurrence. This study was conducted to investigate the shrinking pattern of breast cancer and residual tumors as a risk factor for BCS after NCT.
Ninety women with stage II or III invasive ductal carcinoma who achieved partial response after NCT with paclitaxel and epirubicin were enrolled. All patients had undergone modified radical mastectomy. One-half of the surgical specimens were subjected to subserial sectioning. Pathological changes of tumor bed and pericancerous tissues were examined with an optical microscope. The levels of estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and HER2 were analyzed by immnohistochemical staining.
The residual tumors were classified into three types according to their microscopic morphology: solitary lesion, multifocal and patchlike lesions, and main residual tumor with satellite lesions. Type I residual tumors were found in 55 patients (61%), type II in 30 patients (33%) and type III in 5 patients (6%). Types II and III were often associated with larger primary tumors. The types of residual tumors were not correlated with the status of hormone receptors or HER2.
Three types of residual tumors were observed after NCT. The solitary residual tumor is most common, but main residual tumors with satellite lesions are most likely to cause local recurrence after BCS. Subserial sectioning would improve the identification of microfoci and patient survival after BCS.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 07/2013; 11(1):166. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Mature B cells (BC) express CD23 and B cell receptors. Whether activation of CD23 and B cell receptors has different effects on BC's activities is unclear. This study aims to investigate the mechanism by which the specific antigen immunotherapy regulate the activation of BCs in the skewed Th2 responses. Methods: Mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA). The specific antigen vaccination (SAV) at graded doses was employed to modulate the activities of BCs in which the expression of IL-10, IgE, metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), CD23 and serum soluble CD23 by BCs was evaluated. The immune regulatory effect of BCs primed by lower or higher SAV doses was observed with an adoptive transfer mouse experiment. Results: SAV activated CD23 to produce IL-10 in BCs at lower doses. The higher doses of SAV increased the expression of MMP9 in BCs that reduced the amounts of CD23 in BCs and increased the serum levels of soluble CD23, which was abrogated by the pretreatment with MMP9 inhibitor. Adoptively transfer with BCs primed by lower doses of SAV inhibited the ongoing antigen specific Th2 responses while the BCs primed by higher doses of SAV exacerbated the ongoing Th2 responses. Conclusions: Exposure to specific antigens at optimal doses can activate BCs to produce IL-10 to suppress the skewed antigen specific Th2 responses. The antigen doses of SAV higher than the optimal doses may promote the production of soluble CD23 to exacerbate the ongoing immune responses.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background & objectives: With improvement in the early diagnosis of breast cancer, breast conserving therapy (BCT) is being increasingly used. Precise preoperative evaluation of the incision margin is, therefore, very important. Utilizing three dimentional (3D) images in a preoperative evaluation for breast conserving surgery has considerable significance, but the currently 3D CT scan reconstruction commonly used has problems in accurately displaying breast cancer. Thin slice 3D reconstruction is also widely used now to delineate organs and tissues of breast cancers. This study was aimed to compare 3D CT with thin slice 3D reconstruction in breast cancer patients to find a better technique for accurate evaluation of breast cancer. Methods: A total of 16-slice spiral CT scans and 3D reconstructions were performed on 15 breast cancer patients. All patients had been treated with modified radical mastectomy; 2D and 3D images of breast and tumours were obtained. The specimens were fixed and sliced at 2 mm thickness to obtain serial thin slice images, and reconstructed using 3D DOCTOR software to gain 3D images. Results: Compared with 2D CT images, thin slice images showed more clearly the morphological characteristics of tumour, breast tissues and the margins of different tissues in each slice. After 3D reconstruction, the tumour shapes obtained by the two reconstruction methods were basically the same, but the thin slice 3D reconstruction showed the tumour margins more clearly. Interpretation & conclusions: Compared with 3D CT reconstruction, thin slice 3D reconstruction of breast tumour gave clearer images, which could provide guidance for the observation and application of CT 3D reconstructed images and contribute to the accurate evaluation of tumours using CT imaging technology.
The Indian journal of medical research 01/2013; 137(1):57-62. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours (IMTs), also known as inflammatory pseudotumours, include a diverse group of lesions characterised by inflammatory cell infiltration and variable fibrotic responses. Their occurrence in the breast is unusual. We present a case of an IMT of the breast in a 46-year-old woman who complained of a breast mass with palpable axillary lymph node. The initial clinical diagnosis was breast cancer, and the patient underwent a conservative excision with apparently negative margins and an axillary lymph node excisional biopsy. A histopathological examination showed the presence of myofibroblastic spindle cells with mixed inflammatory infiltrates, and the pathological diagnosis was IMT. Significantly, the case we present here is unique in showing anaplastic lymphoma kinase 1 (ALK1) overexpression and ALK1 gene amplification in IMT of the breast. Therefore, our case suggests that ALK1 gene amplification in IMT of the breast has important diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims: B memory cells (Bmem) express CD23 and B cell receptors. Whether activation of CD23 and B cell receptors has different effects on Bmem activities is unclear. This study aims to investigate the activation of antigen specific Bmems in the regulation of skewed Th2 responses. Methods: Mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) to generate the antigen specific Bmems. The specific antigen vaccination (SAV) at graded doses was employed to modulate the activities of Bmems in which the expression of IL-10, IgE, metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), CD23 and serum soluble CD23 by Bmems was evaluated. The immune regulatory effect of Bmems primed by lower or higher SAV doses was observed with an adoptive transfer mouse experiment. Results: SAV at lower doses, but not at higher doses, activated CD23 to produce IL-10 in Bmems. The higher doses of SAV increased the expression of MMP9 in Bmems that reduced the amounts of CD23 in Bmems and increased the serum levels of soluble CD23, which was abrogated by pretreatment with MMP9 inhibitor. Adoptively transfer with antigen specific Bmems primed by lower doses of SAV inhibited the ongoing antigen specific Th2 responses while the antigen specific Bmems primed by higher doses of SAV exacerbated the ongoing Th2 responses. Conclusions: Exposure to specific antigens at suitable doses can activate antigen specific Bmems to produce IL-10 to suppress the skewed antigen specific Th2 responses. Higher doses of specific antigens may promote the production of soluble CD23 to exacerbate the ongoing immune responses.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nickel plating graphite nanosheets (Ni/GNs) were successfully prepared by electroless plating method. Polypyrrole/nickel plating graphite nanosheets (PPy/Ni/GNs) composites were synthesized by oxidative polymerization of pyrrole (Py) monomer in the presence of Ni/GNs. The microstructures of Ni/GNs and the PPy/Ni/GNs composites were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that a layer of continuous Ni layer was coated on the surface of GNs and Ni/GNs were homogeneously dispersed in PPy matrix. Electrical conductivity measurements indicated that the percolation threshold of the PPy/Ni/GNs composites was as low as 0.30 vol%. When the content of Ni/GNs was 0.50 vol%, the electrical conductivity of the PPy/Ni/GNs composites reached to the value of 5.0 × 104 S/m. From the thermogravimetric analysis (TG), the PPy/Ni/GNs composites exhibited good thermal stability.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic thyroidectomy has been widely accepted by surgeons and patients for less postoperative pain, faster postoperative recovery, and excellent cosmetic effect. However, there still existed some limitations. Here, we reported a woman who suffered local implantation metastasis at sternocleidomastoid and chest wall after endoscopic thyroid carcinoma surgery. Although the implantation after endoscopic surgery is uncommon, this case reminds us to use endoscopic surgery for thyroid diseases with caution, especially for thyroid cancer. Following strict endoscopic surgery indications, comprehensive preoperative evaluation, meticulous intraoperative surgical handling, and effective protective measures, the incidence of locoregional implantation or recurrence might be dramatically reduced.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) in breast cancer and the relationship between WT1 expression and clinicopathological factors, molecular subtypes and prognosis of breast cancer patients have not been clarified to date. We used publicly available microarray datasets of 266 early breast cancer patients to perform bioinformatics analysis on the relationship between WT1 mRNA expression and breast cancer. Results showed that WT1 mRNA expression was correlated with higher histological grades, ER-negative and basal-like and ERBB2 molecular subtypes in breast cancer. With regard to disease-free survival analysis, the WT1 high expression group showed worse prognosis than the low expression group in univariate analysis, and WT1 was demonstrated to be an independent prognostic indicator in multivariate analysis. This study confirms an oncogenic role of WT1 and demonstrates a possible relation between WT1 and progression of breast cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work, a novel nanocomposite consisting of bismaleimide resin (BMI) and amino group-terminated multi-wall carbon nanotubes (NH2-MWNTs) have been discussed. The fluorinating MWNTs (F-MWNTs) were synthesized by solid-phase method and the NH2-MWNTs were prepared by interaction of the F-MWNTs with 1,2-diaminoethane. The NH2-MWNTs/BMI nanocomposites have been prepared by solution blend method. Their morphology and properties were characterized by transmission electron microscope, fourier transmission infrared, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, etc. The results showed that impurities in the MWNTs were removed after the purification treatment and amine groups have been successfully attached to the purified MWNTs. The impact strength of the NH2-MWNTs/BMI nanocomposites increased firstly as the NH2-MWNTs increased and then decreased. When the content of the NH2-MWNTs is 0.6 wt%, the impact strength of nanocomposites is optimal (about 12.57 kJ/m2) which increase by 58.51% compared with the neat BMI resin.
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 07/2012; 31(13):915-923. · 0.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The concordance of hormone receptors (HR) status identified by core needle biopsy (CNB) compared with excisional biopsy (EB) has been widely reported, but results were extremely variable and underpowered. To derive a more precise estimation of assessment accuracy of CNB for HR in breast cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of all eligible studies comparing concordance or disconcordance between CNB and EB for HR status. Eligible articles were identified by search of databases including PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Chinese Biomedical Literature database for the period up to November 2011, and the reference lists of identified studies, relevant reviews, meta-analyses, and abstracts from recent conference proceedings were reviewed as a augmented searching. Finally, a total of 21 articles involving 2,450 patients for estrogen receptor (ER) and 2,448 patients for progesterone receptor (PR) were included and analyzed in this analysis. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies checklist. The overall aggrement between CNB and EB were 92.8 % for ER (κ = 0.78) and 85.2 % for PR (κ = 0.66), indicating a good agreement in PR and a better result in ER. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 97.3 % (95 % CI 96.0-98.2) and 82.0 % (95 % CI 68.2-90.6) for ER, and the corresponding values for PR were 92.3 % (95 % CI 88.2-95.1) and 76.5 % (95 % CI 64.6-85.3), respectively. The pooled positive likelihood ratios was 5.39 % (95 % CI 2.92-9.97) and the negative likelihood ratios was 0.03 % (95 % CI 0.02-0.05) for ER, the corresponding values for PR were 3.93 % (95 % CI 2.53-6.11) and 0.10 % (95 % CI 0.07-0.16), respectively. In summary, although a good agreement was observed between CNB and EB for both ER and PR, we still suggest that negative HR testing results should be interpreted with caution or repeated on EB.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 04/2012; 135(2):325-34. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of tetramethylpyrazine isolated from Ligusticum chuanxiong, a traditional Chinese medicine, on diabetic nephropathy in a rat model, and to explore the possible mechanism involved in a protective function.
Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of 70mg/kg of streptozotocin. One week later, 200mg/kg/day of tetramethylpyrazine was administered intragastric gavage daily for 8 weeks. Renal functions and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor were examined at 4 and 8 weeks after tetramethylpyrazine administration.
Blood glucose and renal function were significantly improved in the tetramethylpyrazine-treated group compared to the untreated diabetic rats. Diabetic nephropathy resulted in an increase in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, while tetramethylpyrazine administration greatly decreased the expression.
Our results suggest that administration of tetramethylpyrazine may reduce kidney damage caused by diabetes. This protective effect may be mediated, in part, by downregulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the kidney.
Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 06/2011; 18(13):1148-52. · 2.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poland’s syndrome is a rare congenital development malformation characterized by unilateral chest wall hypoplasia and ipsilateral hand abnormalities. It is also known to be associated with some malignant diseases. We herein report a case of Poland’s syndrome associated with invasive ductal carcinoma of breast, and review the literatures to investigate the clinical characteristics of breast cancer with Poland’s syndrome.
The Breast Journal 02/2011; 17(2):196 - 200. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silver plating graphite nanosheet (Ag plating NanoG) is an effective approach to obtain the conductive filler with high electrical conductivity and moderate cost. Ag plating NanoG was prepared by electroless plating method using graphite nanosheet (NanoG) from expanded graphite (EG). Then a novel electrically conductive adhesive (ECA), comprising acrylate resin and Ag plating NanoG as conductive filler, was studied. The microstructures of Ag plating NanoG and ECA were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transmission infrared (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results showed that the Ag plating NanoG was successfully developed and it was homogeneously dispersed in the acrylate resin. The electrical conductivity of the ECA increased to 2.60×10−2S/cm and the 180° peel strength and shear strength remained at a high level when the content of the conductive filler was 40wt%. From the thermogravimetric analysis, the ECA exhibited good thermal stability.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nickel plating graphite nanosheets (Ni/GNs) were prepared by electroless plating method using graphite nanosheets (GNs). Then a novel polymer magnetic composites based on acrylate pressure-sensitive adhesive (acrylate PSA) filled with Ni/GNs were fabricated by solution blend method. The Ni/GNs and acrylate PSA/Ni/GNs composites were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). All results showed that relatively uniform and compact Ni layer is successfully coated onto GNs under the given conditions, furthermore, Ni/GNs are homogeneously dispersed in acrylate PSA. The VSM results showed that the saturation magnetization of acrylate PSA/Ni/GNs composites increases with an increasing content of Ni/GNs while the coercivity decreases with an increasing content of Ni/GNs. When the content of GNs is 20wt%, acrylate PSA/Ni/GNs composites exhibites good mechanical properties.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk has been widely reported, but results were inconsistent and underpowered. To clarify the effects of MTHFR polymorphisms on the risk of breast cancer, an updated meta-analysis of all available studies relating C677T and/or A1298C polymorphisms of MTHFR gene to the risk of breast cancer was conducted. Eligible articles were identified by search of databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) for the period up to January 2010. Finally, a total of 41 studies with 16,480 cases and 22,388 controls were included, all for C677T polymorphism and 20 with 12,170 cases and 15,865 controls for A1298C polymorphism. The pooled ORs were performed for the allele contrasts, additive genetic model, dominant genetic model, and recessive genetic model, respectively. Subgroup analyses were also performed by ethnicity and menopausal status. With respect to C677T polymorphism, significantly elevated breast cancer risk was found in overall analysis (T vs. C: OR = 1.041, 95% CI = 1.009-1.073; TT vs. CC: OR = 1.132, 95% CI = 1.019-1.259; TT vs. CC + CT: OR = 1.119, 95% CI = 1.014-1.236); in the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significantly increased risk was found in East Asian population (T vs. C: OR = 1.121, 95% CI = 1.016-1.237; TT vs. CC: OR = 1.331, 95% CI = 1.073-1.650; TT vs. CC + CT: OR = 1.265, 95% CI = 1.058-1.513) but not in Caucasian population; in the subgroup analysis by menopausal status, no statistically significant association was found. With respect to A1298C polymorphism, no significant association with breast cancer risk was demonstrated in overall, ethnicity- and menopausal status-based population. It can be concluded that potentially functional MTHFR C677T polymorphism may play a low penetrance role in the development of breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 02/2010; 123(2):499-506. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk has been widely reported,
but results were somewhat controversial and underpowered. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between
TGF-β1 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of all available case–control studies relating the
T869C and/or C-509T polymorphisms of the TGF-β1 gene to the risk of developing breast cancer. Eligible articles were identified
by search of databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM)
for the period up to March 2010. Finally, a total of 17 articles involving 27 case–control studies were identified, 25 with
20,022 cases and 24,423 controls for T869C polymorphism and eight with 10,633 cases and 13,648 controls for C-509T polymorphism.
The pooled ORs were performed for the allele contrasts, additive genetic model, dominant genetic model and recessive genetic
model, respectively. Subgroup analysis was also performed by ethnicity for T869C polymorphism. With respect to T869C polymorphism,
no association was found in overall analysis (C vs. T: OR = 1.033, 95% CI = 0.996–1.072). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity,
significantly increased risk was found in Caucasian population (C vs. T: OR = 1.051, 95% CI = 1.018–1.085; CC vs. TT + TC:
OR = 1.083, 95% CI = 1.019–1.151), but not in Asian population (C vs. T: OR = 1.054, 95% CI = 0.983–1.130). With respect to
C-509T polymorphism, no significant association with breast cancer risk was demonstrated in overall analysis (T vs. C: OR = 0.986,
95% CI = 0.936–1.039). It can be concluded that potentially functional TGF-Β1 T869C polymorphism may play a low penetrance
role in breast cancer susceptibility in an ethnicity-specific manner.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 01/2010; 122(1):273-279. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast conserving surgery (BCS) has been the standard surgical procedure for the treatment of early breast cancer. Endoscopic subcutaneous mastectomy (ESM) plus immediate reconstruction with implants is an emerging procedure. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of these two surgical procedures in our clinical setting.
From March 2004 to October 2007, 43 patients with breast cancer underwent ESM plus axillary lymph node dissection and immediate reconstruction with implants, while 54 patients underwent BCS. The clinical and pathological characteristics, surgical safety, and therapeutic effects were compared between the two groups.
There were no significant differences in the age, clinical stage, histopathologic type of tumor, operative blood loss, postoperative drainage time, and postoperative complications between the two groups (P > 0.05). The postoperative complications were partial necrosis of the nipple and superficial skin flap in the ESM patients, and hydrops in the axilla and residual cavity in the BCS patients. There was no significant difference in the rate of satisfactory postoperative cosmetic outcomes between the ESM (88.4%, 38/43) and BCS (92.6%, 50/54) patients (P > 0.05). During follow-up of 6 months to 4 years, all patients treated with ESM were disease-free, but 3 patients who underwent BCS had metastasis or recurrence -one of these patients died of multiple organ metastasis.
After considering the wide indications for use, high surgical safety, and favorable cosmetic outcomes, we conclude that ESM plus axillary lymph node dissection and immediate reconstruction with implants - the new surgery of choice for breast cancer - warrants serious consideration as the prospective next standard surgical procedure.
Chinese medical journal 12/2009; 122(24):2945-50. · 0.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to introduce the endoscopic subcutaneous mastectomy without skin excision as the standard surgical technique for grade IIB and III gynecomastia. Endoscopic subcutaneous mastectomy was performed successfully in 125 breasts of 65 patients with Simon's grade IIB and III gynecomastia. The volume of gland resected in the 125 breasts was 80 to 300 mL, with the mean of 146 mL. The operation time was 65 to 155 minutes, with the mean of 82 minutes. There were a few operative complications, including partial nipple necrosis in 2 cases and subcutaneous hydrops in 1 case; but no complete nipple necrosis, subcutaneous emphysema, postoperative active bleeding, local skin necrosis, or operation-side infection occurred. Satisfactory chest contour was gained in all cases without any abnormality, skin redundancy, or recurrence during the follow-up of 3 to 36 months. Endoscopic subcutaneous mastectomy is distinctive and practicable in manipulation as well as safe and can get esthetic effect. It is a new choice for the treatment of gynecomastia.