[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have highlighted important features of the nucleocytoplasmic transport of mRNAs and proteins. Nuclear RNA export factor 3 (NXF3) is a member of the nuclear RNA export factor family that plays a role in mediating the export of cellular mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm for translation. However, little is known about the clinical significance of NXF3 in human tumors. To evaluate the prognostic significance of NXF3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the expression levels of NXF3 in a cohort of 112 patients with primary HCC who had undergone hepatectomy for histologically confirmed HCC were assessed by immunohistochemistry. It was identified that the expression levels of NXF3 were higher in the primary HCC tissues compared with those in paired peritumoral liver tissues. The overexpression of NXF3 in the HCC tissues was correlated with decreased survival time [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.954, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.034-3.695, P=0.039] and earlier tumor recurrence (HR = 2.101, 95% CI = 1.186-3.722, P=0.011) in postoperative patients with HCC. Notably, overexpression of NXF3 was correlated with a poor survival time and increased recurrence following HCC resection in male patients (P=0.020 and P=0.007, respectively) but not in female patients (P=0.916 and P=0.821, respectively). In conclusion, the findings provide evidence that implicates NXF3 as a prospective predictor of HCC prognosis as well as a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Virus-induced hepatocarcinogenesis involves a series of histological developmental processes with the step-wise acquisition of several genetic changes that are necessary for the malignant transformation of hepatocytes. Although genetic alterations are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), little is known about the contributions of specific genes to this process. To gain insight into the genetic alterations involved in the neoplastic evolution from chronic hepatitis B virus infection to dysplastic nodules (DN) to HCC, we captured and sequenced the exomes of four DNA samples: one DN sample, two HCC samples and one control peripheral blood sample from a single HCC patient. Mutations in the UBE3C gene (encoding ubiquitin ligase E3C) were observed in both tumor tissues. Then, we resequenced the UBE3C gene in a cohort of 105 HCC patients and identified mutations in 17 out of total 106 (16.0%) HCC patients. The subsequent experiments showed that UBE3C promoted HCC progression by regulating HCC cells epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Clinically, a tissue microarray study of a cohort containing 323 HCC patients revealed that the overexpression of UBE3C in primary HCC tissues correlated with decreased survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.657, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.220-2.251, P = 0.001) and early tumor recurrence (HR = 1.653, 95% CI = 1.227-2.228, P = 0.001) in postoperative HCC patients. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that UBE3C is a candidate oncogene involved in tumor development and progression and therefore a potential therapeutic target in applicable HCC patients. (Hepatology 2014;).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most serious health problems worldwide. As in many other diseases, environment and genetic factors are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of HCC. Numerous epidemiologic investigations including case-control and cohort studies have suggested the association of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genetic polymorphisms and HCC risk. However, some studies have produced conflicting results. Therefore, we performed an updated meta-analysis to clarify this inconsistency and to establish a comprehensive picture of the association of the polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 with HCC susceptibility. We searched PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI databases to identify eligible studies meeting the inclusion criteria up to August 30, 2013. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association. Finally, there were a total of 33 studies with 4,232 cases and 6,601 controls included in this meta-analysis. In the pooled analysis, significantly increased HCC risks were found for null genotype of GSTM1 (OR = 1.31, 95 % CI = 1.07-1.61, P = 0.010, P heterogeneity < 10(-5)) and GSTT1 (OR = 1.47, 95 % CI = 1.25-1.74, P < 10(-5), P heterogeneity < 10(-5)). Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored by subgroup analysis based on ethnicity, sample size, and source of control. Significant results were found among East Asians and Indians when stratified by ethnicity, while no evidence of significant associations was observed among Caucasian and African populations. In the gene-gene interaction analysis, a statistically significant increased risk for HCC was detected for individuals with combined deletion mutations in both genes compared to those with wild genotypes (OR = 1.88, 95 % CI = 1.41-2.50, P < 10(-4), P heterogeneity = 0.004). The present meta-analysis demonstrated that the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype may be associated with an increased risk of HCC and that individuals having the combination of both defective GST genotypes may be more susceptible to developing HCC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GATA family of transcription factors are critical for organ development and associated with progression of various cancer types. However, their expression patterns and prognostic values for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still largely unknown.
Expression of GATA transcription factors in HCC cell lines and tissues (n = 240) were evaluated by RT-qPCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Cellular proliferation, migration and invasion of HepG2 was evaluated by CCK-8 kit, scratch wound assay and transwell matrigel invasion assay, respectively.
GATA2 expression was decreased in HCC cell lines (p = 0.056 for mRNA, p = 0.040 for protein) and tissues (p = 1.27E-25) compared with normal hepatocytes. Decreased expression of intratumoral GATA2 protein significantly correlated with elevated alpha feto-protein (p = 2.7E-05), tumor size >5 cm (p = 0.049), absence of tumor capsule (p = 0.002), poor differentiation (p = 0.005), presence of tumor thrombi (p = 0.005) and advanced TNM stage (p = 0.001) and was associated with increased recurrence rate and decreased overall survival rate by univariate (p = 1.6E-04 for TTR, p = 1.7E-04 for OS) and multivariate analyses (HR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.43-0.90, p = 0.012 for TTR; HR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.47-0.95, p = 0.026 for OS). RNAi-mediated knockdown of GATA2 expression significantly enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion of HepG2 cell in vitro.
Decreased expression of hematopoietic factor GATA2 was associated with poor prognosis of HCC following resection.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87505. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: TCR- gamma-delta + T cells (γδ T cells) are non-conventional T lymphocytes that can recognize and eradicate tumor cells. Our previous studies showed that infiltration and function of γδT cells were substantially attenuated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, their prognostic value was not clarified. Methods: The association between γδ T cells and the clinical outcomes was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a HCC patient cohort (n = 342). Results:Immunohistochemistry showed decreased infiltration of γδ T cells in tumoral tissues compared with paired peritumoral tissues. The counts of γδ T cells in peritumoral tissues were negatively correlated with tumor size (P = 0.005). Survival analysis showed that the levels of peritumoral γδ T cells were related to both time to recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0.010 and P = 0.036, respectively) in univariate analysis, and related to TTR in multivariate analysis (P = 0.014, H.R. [95% CI] = 0.682 [0.502-0.927]). Furthermore, the level of peritumoral γδ T cells showed independent prognostic value for TTR in Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage A patients (P = 0.038, H.R. [95% CI] = 0.727 [0.537-0.984]). However, tumoral γδ T cells did not show independent prognostic value for either TTR or OS in HCC patients. Conclusions: Low counts of γδ T cells in peritumoral liver tissue are related to a higher incidence of recurrence in HCC and can predict postoperative recurrence, especially in those with early-stage HCC.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2014; 15(2):775-80. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background & Aims
Pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the second-most common hepatic cancer, is a poorly understood and its incidence is increasing worldwide. We searched for mutations in human ICC tumor samples and investigated how they affect ICC cell function.
We performed whole-exome sequencing of 7 paired ICCs and their surrounding, non-tumor tissues to detect somatic alterations. We then screened 124 pairs of ICC and non-tumor samples for these mutations, including 7 exomes. We compared mutations in PTPN3 with tumor recurrence in 124 patients, and PTPN3 expression levels with recurrence in 322 patients (the combination of both in 86 patients). The functional effects of PTPN3 variations were determined by RNA interference and transgenic expression in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (RBE, HCCC-9810, and Huh28).
Based on exome sequencing, pathways that regulate protein phosphorylation were among the most frequently altered in ICC samples, and genes encoding protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) were among the most frequently mutated. We identified mutations in 9 genes encoding PTPs in 4/7 ICC exomes. In the prevalence screen of 124 paired samples, 51.6% of ICCs contained somatic mutations in at least 1/9 PTP genes; 41.1% had mutations in PTPN3.Transgenic expression of PTPN3 in cell lines increased cell proliferation, colony formation, and migration. PTPN3L232R and PTPN3L384H, which were frequently detected in ICC samples, were found to be gain-of-function mutations; their expression in cell lines further increased cell proliferation, colony formation, and migration. ICC-associated variants of PTPN3 had altered phosphatase activity. Patients whose tumors contained activating mutations or higher levels of PTPN3 protein than non-tumor tissues had higher rates of disease recurrence than patients without.
Using whole-exome sequencing of ICC samples from patients, we found that more than 40% contain somatic mutations in PTPN3. Activating mutations in and high expression levels of PTPN3 were associated with tumor recurrence in patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic epidemiological data in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pedigrees indicate a pattern of X-linked recessive inheritance of HCC susceptibility genes. This study is designed to test the hypothesis that there are genes conferring susceptibility to HCC located on the X-chromosome.
An X-chromosomal association study was conducted among Chinese men recruited from an area with a high prevalence of HCC. The candidate gene was further investigated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
By analyzing 5454 X-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 50 HCC patients and 50 controls, we found two promising regions in which the associated SNPs clustered, located at Xq22.1 and Xq26.2. We further selected 35 tag SNPs (tSNPs) from these two regions for additional genotyping analysis in another independent set of 290 cases and 242 controls. Notably, SNP rs5945919 at Xq22.1 exhibited a significant association with HBV-related HCC (odds ratio [OR]=2.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.15-4.30, P=0.016). The expressions of the three genes near the rs5945919 locus, RAB40AL, BEX1, and NXF3, were analyzed by qRT-PCR between another 24 HCC tissues and paired peritumoral liver tissues. The results indicated that NXF3, rather than RAB40AL and BEX1, mRNA level was found to be more abundant in HCC tissue than in peritumoral liver tissue.
Our findings implicated Xq22.1 as a novel susceptibility locus for HCC and NXF3 as a candidate risk factor for relevant HCC.
Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 10/2013; · 0.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgical resections remain the primary curative interventions for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, lack of real-time intraoperative image guidance confines surgeons to subjective visual assessment of the surgical bed, leading to poor visualization of small positive nodules and the extension of diffuse HCC. To address this problem, we developed a wearable fluorescence imaging and display system (fluorescence goggle) for intraoperative imaging of HCCs in human patients. In this pilot study, both intravenous (IV) and transarterial hepatic (TAH) delivery of indocyanine green (ICG) were explored to facilitate fluorescence goggle-mediated HCC imaging. The results show that all primary tumors in patients (n = 4) who received TAH delivery of ICG were identified successfully by the fluorescence goggle. In addition, 6 satellite tumors were also detected by the goggle, 5 of which were neither identifiable via preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) nor by visual inspection and palpation. In the group (n = 5) that received ICG intravenously, only 2 of 6 tumors visible by preoperative MRI or CT were identified with the fluorescence goggle, demonstrating the limitation of this delivery route for a nontumor selective imaging agent. Comparative analysis shows that the HCC-to-liver florescence contrast detected by the goggle was significantly greater in patients that received TAH than IV delivery of ICG (P = 0.013). This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of using the fluorescence goggle to identify multifocal lesions and small tumor deposits using TAH ICG delivery in HCC patients.
Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine. 06/2013;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Peritumoral activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are versatile myofibroblast-like cells closely related with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. So far, comprehensive comparison of gene expression of human HSCs during hepatocarcinogenesis is scanty. Therefore, we identified the phenotypic and genomic characteristics of peritumoral HSCs to explore the valuable information on the prognosis and therapeutic targets of HBV related HCC. METHODS: A tissue microarray containing 224 HBV related HCC patients was used to evaluate the expression of phenotype markers of HSCs including alpha-SMA, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), desmin, vinculin and vimentin. HSCs and cancer associated myofibroblasts (CAMFs) were isolated from normal, peritumoral human livers and cancer tissues, respectively. Flow cytometry and gene microarray analysis were performed to evaluate the phenotypic changes and gene expression in HCC, respectively. RESULTS: Peritumoral alpha-SMA positive HSCs showed the prognostic value in time to recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS) of HCC patients, especially in early recurrence and AFP-normal HCC patients. Expression of GFAP positive HSCs cell lines LX-2 was significantly decreased after stimulation with tumor conditioned medium. Compared with quiescent HSCs, peritumoral HSCs and intratumoral CAMFs expressed considerable up- and down-regulated genes associated with biological process, cellular component, molecular function and signaling pathways involved in fibrogenesis, inflammation and progress of cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Peritumoral activated HSCs displayed prognostic value in HBV related-HCC, and their genomic characteristics could present rational biomarkers for HCC risk and promising therapeutic targets.
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 04/2013; 32(1):22. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal DNA methylation is one of the important characteristics in tumor cells. Apoptosis plays an essential role in cell survival and processing. It is not clear whether DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) change in apoptosis and how DNMTs are regulated in apoptosis. In this study, we found that SMMC-7721 or BEL-7404 cells were induced to apoptosis by STS, meanwhile the DNMT3B protein and mRNA level were decreased. To explore the mechanism of DNMT3B down-regulation, we found that the mRNA decay was not changed and core promoter activity of DNMT3B gene was decreased in STS-induced apoptosis. In order to figure out the signal molecule involved in transcriptional regulation of DNMT3B gene by STS, p-JNK, p-ERK, and p-p38 were examined. In STS-induced apoptosis p-JNK level was increased, and p-ERK and p-p38 were decreased. Furthermore, the inhibitor of p-JNK significantly alleviated the decline of DNMT3B protein. We also found that the siRNA of DNMT3B strengthened the cleavage of PARP and pro-caspase-3 as well as up-regulated the p16 gene expression in STS-treated cells. We concluded here that STS-regulated DNMT3B gene expression via p-JNK and down-regulation of DNMT3B-mediated STS-induced apoptosis through the up-regulation p16 expression.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 02/2013; · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: We combined gene expression and metabolic profiling analyses to identify factors associated with outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We compared metabolic and gene expression patterns between paired tumor and non-tumor tissues from 30 patients with HCC, and validated the results using samples from 356 patients with HCC. A total of 469 metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Metabolic and genomic data were integrated, and Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to associate specific patterns with patient outcomes. Associated factors were evaluated for their effects on cancer cells in vitro and tumor formation in nude mice. RESULTS: We identified 28 metabolites and 169 genes associated with aggressive HCC. Lipid metabolites of stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (SCD) activity were associated with aberrant palmitate signaling in aggressive HCC samples. Expression of gene products associated with these metabolites, including SCD, were independently associated with survival times and tumor recurrence in the test and validation sets. Combined expression of SCD and α-fetoprotein were associated with outcomes of patients with early-stage HCC. Levels of MUPA (monounsaturated palmitic acid), the product of SCD activity, were increased in aggressive HCCs; MUPA increased migration and invasion of cultured HCC cells and colony formation by HCC cells. HCC cells that expressed small interfering RNA against SCD had decreased cell migration and colony formation in culture and reduced tumorigenicity in mice. CONCLUSIONS: Using a combination of gene expression and metabolotic profile analysis, we identified a lipogenic network that involves SCD and palmitate signaling and was associated with HCC progression and patient outcomes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a typical malignancy in a background of chronic inflammation. Th17 cells (a major source of IL-17) constitute crucial components of infiltrating inflammatory/immune cells in HCC and can amplify inflammatory response via binding to interleukin-17 receptor (IL-17R). Thus, we investigated the expression and clinical significance of IL-17 and IL-17 receptor family cytokines in HCC. METHODS: The expression and prognostic value of IL-17 and IL-17R (A-E) were examined in 300 HCC patients after resection. Six Th17 associated cytokines in serum (n = 111) were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Phenotypic features of IL-17+ CD4+ T cells were determined by flow cytometry analysis. RESULTS: High expression of intratumoral IL-17 and IL-17RE were significantly associated with poorer survival (p = 0.016 and <0.001, respectively) and increased recurrence (both P < 0.001) of HCC patients. Moreover, intratumoral IL-17, individually or synergistically with IL-17RE, could predict HCC early recurrence and late recurrence. Also, peritumoral IL-17RE showed the prognostic ability in HCC (P < 0.001 for OS/TTR). Furthermore, expression levels of Th17 associated cytokines including IL-6, -22, -17R and TNF-alpha were increased in serum of HCC patients compared to haemangioma patients. Importantly, activated human hepatic stellate cells induced in vitro expansion of IL-17+ CD4+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS: High expression of IL-17 and IL-17RE were promising predictors for poor outcome of HCC patients. The protumor power of IL-17 producing CD4+ T cells was probably involved in the crosstalk with different types of inflammatory/immune cells in HCC.
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 01/2013; 32(1):3. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The biology underlying bone-specific metastasis (BM) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood. The goal of the present study is to further elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying HCC with BM. METHODS: The expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and interleukin-11 (IL-11) in RNA extracted from 127 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded HCC specimens was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. A cellular hypoxic model was established in vitro to investigate CTGF and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression and roles in hypoxia-induced tumor aggressiveness. RESULTS: The mean CTGF expression in BM versus non-metastatic samples was 3.63-times higher, and IL-11 expression was detected in 62.5 % (10/16) of BM samples versus only in 18.9 % (21/111) of the non-metastatic ones. Highly metastatic HCC cell lines tended to show strong expression of CTGF and IL-11, but low expression of OPG. Hypoxic stimulation of HCC 97L cells increased the level of CTGF mRNA by 2.80-fold within 1.5 h, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α mRNA levels in these cells could be increased by stimulation with recombinant CTGF protein. Furthermore, OPG and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 levels were also induced under hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Expression levels of intratumoral CTGF or IL-11 were independent prognostic factors for the development of BM in HCC patients. Tumor hypoxia enhanced the expression of CTGF, which initiates the invasive angiogenesis cascade and enhances expression of many hypoxia-associated genes. Cellular release of OPG may play a role in tumor cell survival. The hypoxia-induced cascade in HCC cells may contribute to invasion and metastasis in vivo.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 01/2013; · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous study has found that the abundance of peritumoral CD68(+) macrophages was associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after resection. However, CD68 staining could not discriminate the protumoral or tumoricidal subpopulations from pan-macrophages. CD163 is a marker of alternatively activated macrophages. In this study, the clinical significance of CD163(+) cells in tumors and peritumoral liver tissues was evaluated in a cohort of 295 patients with HCC after curative resection. We found that the density of CD163(+) cells was well correlated with that of CD68(+) cells in both tumors and peritumoral liver tissues but was much more. Immunostaining on consecutive sections and flow cytometry assay on surgical resected specimens further supported the findings that the CD163(+) cells was more abundant than CD68(+) cells. The density of peritumoral CD68(+) cells was associated with poor recurrence-free survival (RFS) and poor overall survival (OS) (P = 0.004 and P = 0.001, respectively), whereas the CD163(+) cells have no prognostic values either in tumors or in peritumoral liver tissues. In another cohort of 107 HCC patients, preoperative plasma concentration of soluble form of CD163 (sCD163) was associated with active hepatitis-related factors but not associated with the markers of tumor invasion. In conclusion, both the CD163(+) cells local infiltration and plasma sCD163 were of limited significance in HCC, and they were more likely markers related to active hepatitis rather than tumor progression.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e59771. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sensitive and specific detection of liver cirrhosis is an urgent need for optimal individualized management of disease activity. Substantial studies have identified circulation miRNAs as biomarkers for diverse diseases including chronic liver diseases. In this study, we investigated the plasma miRNA signature to serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker for silent liver cirrhosis.
A genome-wide miRNA microarray was first performed in 80 plasma specimens. Six candidate miRNAs were selected and then trained in CHB-related cirrhosis and controls by qPCR. A classifier, miR-106b and miR-181b, was validated finally in two independent cohorts including CHB-related silent cirrhosis and controls, as well as non-CHB-related cirrhosis and controls as validation sets, respectively.
A profile of 2 miRNAs (miR-106b and miR-181b) was identified as liver cirrhosis biomarkers irrespective of etiology. The classifier constructed by the two miRNAs provided a high diagnostic accuracy for cirrhosis (AUC = 0.882 for CHB-related cirrhosis in the training set, 0.774 for CHB-related silent cirrhosis in one validation set, and 0.915 for non-CHB-related cirrhosis in another validation set).
Our study demonstrated that the combined detection of miR-106b and miR-181b has a considerable clinical value to diagnose patients with liver cirrhosis, especially those at early stage.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e66577. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUD: RNA interference (RNAi) has recently emerged as a potential treatment modality for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy, but the lack of cellular targets and sustained efficacy limits its application. The purpose of this study is to develop an HCC tissue-specific RNAi system and investigate its possibility for HCC treatment.
Two different HCC-specific RNAi systems in which therapeutic miRNA or shRNA against target gene (Beclin 1) was directly or indirectly driven by alpha-fetoprotein promoter (AFP-miRNA and AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA) were constructed. Human HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B and HCCLM3) and non-HCC cell lines (L-02, Hela and SW1116) were infected with the systems. The effectiveness and tissue-specificity of the systems were examined by Q-PCR and western blot analysis. The efficacy of the systems was further tested in mouse model of HCC by intravenous or intratumoral administration. The feasibility of the system for HCC treatment was evaluated by applying the system as adjuvant therapy to enhance sorafenib treatment. An AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system targeting Atg5 gene (AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA-Atg5) was constructed and its efficacy in sensitizing HCC cells (MHCC97L/PLC) to sorafenib treatment was examined by apoptosis assay and tumorigenesis assay .
The AFP-miRNA system could silence target gene (Beclin 1) but required a high titer which was lethal to target cells. The AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system could efficiently knockdown target gene while maintain high HCC specificity. Intratumoral injection of the AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system could efficiently silence target gene (Beclin 1) while intravenous administration could not. The AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system target Atg5 gene could significantly sensitize MHCC97L/PLC cells to sorafenib-induced apoptosis and tumor growth suppression .
An efficient HCC tissue-specific RNAi system (AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA) was successfully established. The system provides a usable tool for HCC-specific RNAi therapy, which may serve as a new treatment modality for HCC.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e53072. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calpain small subunit 1 (Capn4) has been shown to correlate with the metastasis/invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma. This study aimed to investigate the role of Capn4 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC).
Capn4 expression was measured in 33 ICC tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The role of Capn4 in the migration, invasion and proliferation of ICC cells and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) expression were assessed after Capn4 depletion by specific small interfering RNA. Capn4 expression was further examined by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray consisting of 140 ICC patients and 13 normal liver tissues, and the prognostic role of Capn4 in ICC was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses.
Capn4 expression was significantly higher in the ICC tissues compared to the peritumor tissues. Capn4 down-regulation impaired the migration/invasion ability of HCCC-9810 and QBC939 cells in vitro and decreased MMP2 expression. Capn4 overexpression significantly correlated with the presence of lymphatic metastasis of ICC (p = 0.026) and the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (p = 0.009). The postoperative 2- and 5-year overall survivals in patients with Capn4(low) were higher than those in the Capn4(high) group. The cumulative recurrence rate in patients with Capn4(low) was much lower than in the Capn4(high) group. Multivariate analysis showed that Capn4 overexpression was an independent prognostic marker in ICC.
Capn4 overexpression was implicated in ICC metastasis/invasion, and Capn4 overexpression may be used as a molecular therapeutic target for ICC.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54619. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the prognostic value of intratumoral invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection.
Expression of TRAV10, encoding the Vα24 domain of iNKT cells, and IFN-γ mRNA were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in tumor from 224 HCC patients undergoing curative resection. The prognostic value of these two and other clinicopathologic factors was evaluated.
Either intratumoral iNKT cells and IFN-γ alone or their combination was an independent prognostic factor for OS (P = 0.001) and RFS (P = 0.001) by multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. Patients with concurrent low levels of iNKT cells and IFN-γ had a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.784 for OS and 2.673 for RFS. The areas under the curve of iNKT cells, IFN-γand their combination were 0.618 vs 0.608 vs 0.654 for death and 0.591 vs 0.604 vs 0.633 for recurrence respectively by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The prognosis was the worst for HCC patients with concurrent low levels of iNKT cells and IFN-γ, which might be related with more advanced pTNM stage and more vascular invasion.
Combination of intratumoral iNKT cells and IFN-γ is a promising independent predictor for recurrence and survival in HCC, which has a better power to predict HCC patients' outcome compared with intratumoral iNKT cells or IFN-γ alone.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e70345. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Frequent deletions of the kinesin-like protein gene 1B (KIF1B) have been reported in neural tumors. Recently, a genome-wide association study revealed an association between polymorphisms in the KIF1B gene and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and several case-control studies have further investigated this relationship. However, these studies have yielded controversial results. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of the association between the KIF1B gene polymorphisms and HCC risk. METHODOLOGYPRINCIPAL FINDING: PubMed, EMBASE, the ISI Web of Science and the CNKI databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. A total of 5 studies containing 13 cohorts with 5,773 cases and 6,404 controls were included. Odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the associations. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on ethnicities, sample sizes and quality scores. Overall, the G allele at rs17401966 of the KIF1B gene was associated with a significantly decreased risk for HCC (OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.70-0.93; P = 0.003). Furthermore, subgroup analyses showed that the G allele at rs17401966 of the KIF1B gene significantly reduced the risk for HCC in Chinese cohorts (OR = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.64-0.90; P = 0.002), large-sample-size cohorts (OR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.73-0.88, P<0.01) and high-quality cohorts (OR = 0.78, 95%CI: 0.71-0.87, P<0.01). However, no significant associations were found in small-sample-size cohorts, studies with low-quality scores and when excluding the cohorts from the study reporting the original discovery. CONCLUSIONSIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that the presence of the G allele at rs17401966 of the KIF1B gene may decrease the risk for HCC and suggest that KIF1B may play a critical role in the development of HCC. High-quality studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnic populations will be of great value to further confirm these findings.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e62571. · 3.73 Impact Factor