[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate distinction of clear cell carcinoma (CCC) from endometrioid carcinoma (EC) has important clinical implications, but, not infrequently, EC demonstrates clear cell change (EC-CC), mimicking CCC. We examined whether a panel of immunomarkers can help distinguish between these tumors. Sixty-four CCCs (40 ovarian and 24 uterine), 34 ECs (21 ovarian and 13 uterine), and 34 EC-CCs (6 ovarian and 28 uterine) were stained for HNF1β, BAF250a, Napsin A, ER, and PR. Intensity and extent of immunoreactivity was assessed. Fifty-seven of 64 (89%) CCCs, 14/34 (41%) EC-CCs, and 16/34 (47%) ECs expressed HNF1β, and 56/64 (88%) CCCs, 4/34 (12%) EC-CCs, and 1/34 (3%) ECs stained for Napsin A. Most CCCs demonstrated at least moderate and diffuse staining for both markers, whereas only focal and weak expression was identified in most EC-CC/EC. Compared to HNF1β, Napsin A showed increased specificity (93.0% vs. 55.9%, P<0.0001) and similar sensitivity (87.5% vs. 89.1%) in distinguishing CCC from EC-CC/EC. Thirteen of 64 (20%) CCCs, 6/34 (18%) EC-CCs, and 2/34 (6%) ECs showed loss of BAF250a. ER was expressed by 10/64 (16%) CCCs, 30/34 (88%) EC-CCs, and 33/34 (97%) ECs, whereas PR positivity was identified in 9/64 (14%) CCCs, 26/34 (77%) EC-CCs, and 33/34 (97%) ECs. The majority of EC and EC-CC demonstrated diffuse staining for ER/PR, whereas most CCCs showed very focal positivity. There is a statistically significant difference in HNF1β, Napsin A, ER, and PR immunoexpression between CCC and EC/EC-CC, with Napsin A being a more specific marker for CCC than HNF1β. Overall, the immunoprofile of EC-CC is more comparable to that of EC than CCC. The use of a panel of immunostains can help distinguish EC-CC from CCC.
The American journal of surgical pathology 04/2015; Publish Ahead of Print. DOI:10.1097/PAS.0000000000000436 · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimsThe carcinogenesis of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) has been hypothesized to comprise two different pathways: an adenofibroma-carcinoma sequence and an endometriosis-carcinoma sequence. However, the difference in the genetic basis of these two pathways remains unclear. Recent studies have suggested that an ARID1A mutation and the loss of the corresponding protein, BAF250a, are frequent events in CCC. Herein, we investigated the difference in the loss of BAF250a expression in adenofibroma-related CCC and endometriosis-related CCC.Methods and ResultsIn total, 93 cases of surgically treated CCC were evaluated. The presence of adenofibroma and endometriosis associated with carcinoma was determined by reviewing hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides for each case. BAF250a expression in carcinoma was examined immunohistochemically. The loss of BAF250a expression was detected in carcinomas in 50 of 93 (54%) cases, including 5/18 (28%) with adenofibroma alone, 30/45 (67%) with endometriosis alone, 8/18 (44%) with both conditions, and 7/12 (58%) with neither condition. The loss of BAF250a expression was significantly less frequent in CCC cases with adenofibroma than in cases with endometriosis (p = 0.01, Fisher's exact test).Conclusions
The action of ARID1A in carcinogenesis differs between adenofibroma-related CCC and endometriosis-related CCC.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An 8.5-year-old girl presented with breast development, irregular uterine bleeding, and a spurt in height during the previous 9 months. She also complained of rapid increase of abdominal girth and body weight (4 kg). No remarkable past history or family history was noted. Her height (143 cm), breast development (Tanner stage 3), and pubic hair (Tanner stage 2) were compatible with precocious puberty. Laboratory examinations showed microcytic hypochromic anemia (Hb 9.2 g/dL), and serum estradiol was 138 pg/mL. LH and FSH were in the undetectable level even after a LH-RH (100 μg) injection. Ovarian tumor markers including CEA, CA19-9, CA125, α-fetoprotein, and hCG were within the normal range. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a giant multilocular cystic tumor (25 × 14 × 10 cm) in the lower abdomen.Tumor resection was performed. The tumor originated from the right ovary and contained 3500 × mL of yellowish serous fluid. The left ovary was grossly normal. The resected right ovarian tumor was multilocular cystic, measuring 16.0 × cm in the greatest dimension, with occasional foci of whitish yellow elevated components in the cystic wall.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Metformin, an antidiabetic drug, decreases the incidence of various cancers in diabetic patients. Metformin-induced inhibition of cancer cell proliferation has been confirmed in vitro but not in humans. Because endometrial cancer is associated with insulin resistance, the authors investigated whether a diabetes-therapeutic metformin dose inhibits cancer cell growth in patients with endometrial cancer. METHODS: A dose of metaformin was administered (1500-2250 mg/day) to 31 patients with endometrial cancer preoperatively for 4 to 6 weeks. Cell proliferation was assessed in patient tissues using immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses and DNA synthesis was measured in serum using a thymidine uptake assay. All statistical tests were 2-sided. P values of <.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Preoperative metformin treatment decreased DNA synthesis in sera and significantly reduced the Ki-67 (mean proportional decrease, 44.2%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 35.4-53.0 [P<. 001]) and topoisomerase IIa (mean proportional decrease, 36.4%; 95% CI, 26.7-46.0 [P<. 001]) labeling indices. Levels of phospho-ribosomal protein S6 and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were found to be significantly decreased and phospho-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and p27 levels were significantly increased. Preoperative metformin use caused significant decreases in circulating factors, including insulin, glucose, insulin-like growth factor 1, and leptin. DNA synthesis-stimulating activity in patient sera was significantly decreased during metformin administration. CONCLUSIONS: An antidiabetic dose of metformin inhibited endometrial cancer cell growth in vivo, an effect likely due to its effect on humoral factor(s). This translational study provides considerable rationale to initiate large clinical trials. (C) 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.
Cancer 10/2014; 120(19). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28853 · 4.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy for reducing future cancer risk in women with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome is rarely performed in Japan; therefore, the cancer preventive effect of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome among the Japanese population remains unclear. Here, we report the first case of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma identified through a risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in a Japanese woman with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome and who had a deleterious germline mutation of E1214X in BRCA1, but not a BRCA2 mutation. A pre-operative examination revealed multiple uterine leiomyomas but no adnexal mass. Robotic-assisted bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy together with hysterectomy was performed. A pathological examination identified serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma in the right fallopian tube with no dissemination. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma is implicated as an origin of invasive cancer of the fallopian tube with peritoneal dissemination; prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy is currently the only method to identify this occult cancer. Our case demonstrated that risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy can detect occult cancers, including serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, thereby preventing future cancer development in the Japanese hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome population.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2014; 44(6). DOI:10.1093/jjco/hyu035 · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy or risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO)
to reduce future cancer risk in women with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer
syndrome (HBOC) is rarely performed in Japan; therefore, the cancer preventive effect
of RRSO for HBOC among the Japanese population remains unclear. Here, we report
the first case of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma identified through a RRSO in a
Japanese woman with HBOC and a deleterious germline mutation of E1214X in BRCA1,
but not a BRCA2 mutation. A preoperative examination revealed multiple uterine
leiomyomas but no adnexal mass. Robotic-assisted bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
together with hysterectomy was performed. A pathological examination identified
serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma in the right fallopian tube with no dissemination.
Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma is implicated as an origin of invasive cancer of
the fallopian tube with peritoneal dissemination, for which prophylactic
salpingo-oophorectomy is currently the only method to identify this occult cancer. Our
case demonstrated that RRSO can detect occult cancers, including serous tubal
intraepithelial carcinoma, thereby preventing future cancer development in the Japanese
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2014; · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been established that nuclear pseudostratification of the neural epithelium in vertebral embryos is caused by interkinetic nuclear migration, a cell cycle-dependent regulation of nuclear movement, during which the G2/M-phase nuclei move apically before returning basally in the G1/S phase. Here we demonstrate the cell cycle-related nuclear location characteristic of interkinetic nuclear migration in human neoplastic and non-neoplastic pseudostratified glands. Immunohistochemical analysis with phosphohistone H3 (a G2/M-phase marker) and Ki67 was performed on fetal tissues, proliferative-phase endometrium (5 cases), and colonic adenomas (12 cases). In all cases, G2/M nuclei were significantly located apically, whereas Ki67-positive nuclei were widely distributed along the basal-apical axis. In the proliferating zone of the normal colon mucosa, elongated nuclei in the G2/M phase were occasionally found on the apical side of the cells. These results suggest that the interkinetic nuclear migration occurs in association with cell proliferation in both neoplastic and non-neoplastic glands.
Medical Molecular Morphology 02/2013; 46(4). DOI:10.1007/s00795-013-0026-z · 1.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of prognostic factors in primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC). All cases of PFTC diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 were retrieved from the files of 6 academic centers. The cases were staged according to a modification of the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology staging system proposed by Alvarado-Cabrero et al (Gynecol Oncol 1999; 72: 367-379). One hundred twenty-seven PFTC cases were identified. The mean age of the patients was 64.2 years. Stage distribution was as follows: 72 (57%), stage I; 19 (15%), stage II; 28 (22%), stage III; and 8 (6.2%), stage IV. Depth of infiltration of the tubal wall was an independent prognostic factor in stage I cases (P < .001). Carcinomas located in the fimbriated end even without invasion had a worse prognosis than did carcinomas involving the tubal portion of the organ. The presence of vascular space invasion correlated with the depth of tubal wall invasion (P = .001) and the presence of lymph node metastases (P = .003). Tumor grade significantly correlated with survival (P < .0001), but histologic type was of marginal significance and only if it was grouped as nonserous/non-clear cell vs serous/clear cell (P = .04). The depth of invasion of the tubal wall and the presence of carcinoma in the fimbriated end even without invasion are important prognostic indicators. The modified International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology staging system should be used on a routine basis in all carcinomas of the fallopian tube.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant tumor of trophoblastic origin. Most cases occur in association with preceding gestational events. However, on very rare occasions, nongestational choriocarcinoma arises from germ cell or trophoblastic differentiation in different types of carcinoma. This article reports the case of a 58-year-old woman with primary nongestational choriocarcinoma of the uterus that developed 19 years after her final pregnancy and 4 years after menopause. A total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Histopathological examination showed choriocarcinoma of the uterus without components of other germ cell tumors. Karyotype analysis of the tumor cells demonstrated XX. We confirmed its nongestational origin by DNA polymorphism analysis at 15 short tandem repeat loci. After surgery, the patient was given four courses of combination chemotherapy. She is still alive and there has been no evidence of recurrence 3 years after surgery.
International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 05/2012; 31(4):364-8. DOI:10.1097/PGP.0b013e318241d556 · 1.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD147 is a membrane glycoprotein that is expressed in various cancer cells and is involved in tumor invasion and metastasis by inducing stromal fibroblastic cells to produce matrix metalloproteinases. This study was carried out to evaluate the correlation between CD147 expression and various clinicopathologic parameters, including histological grade and prognosis in a small sample set of human ovarian cancer patients.
Paraffin-embedded surgical tissue samples from 25 patients with ovarian serous and endometrioid adenocarcinoma were stained with anti-CD147 antibody (monoclonal antibody 12C3: MoAb 12C3) for immunohistochemical analysis.
CD147 protein was expressed in 84.0% (21 of 25 cases) of cancerous lesions, but not in normal lesions. CD147 expression by ovarian cancer cells was inversely correlated with overall survival. There was no correlation between CD147 expression and histological grade.
These results suggest that measurement of CD147 expression may enhance the understanding of the pathophysiology of epithelial ovarian cancer.
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 05/2012; 38(9):1211-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1447-0756.2012.01853.x · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of sex cord tumor with annular tubules featuring a giant multilocular cyst, grossly similar to cystadenoma, in the ovary of an 8.5 year old girl. Estrogen-related symptoms, including precocious puberty and irregular uterine bleeding, immediately improved after tumor resection.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 01/2012; 206(1):e14-6. DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2011.09.025 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the preoperative differential diagnosis and management of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH), a multicenter study was performed.
A total of 112 patients who underwent conization or a hysterectomy for suspected MDA were collected from 24 hospitals. The pathological diagnosis in each case was determined by a central pathological review board. The diagnostic significance of clinicopathologic findings including results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, and testing for gastric mucin was analyzed.
The central pathological review identified 37 cases of Nabothian cyst or tunnel cluster, 54 cases of LEGH, 6 cases of MDA, 11 cases of adenocarcinoma, and 4 cases of benign disease. Lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia was often associated with adenocarcinoma in situ, MDA, and mucinous adenocarcinoma. Three MDA patients had a recurrence, whereas none of LEGH patients had a recurrence irrespective of the type of surgery. On MRI, LEGH appeared as a characteristic multicystic lesion with an inner solid component, whereas MDA showed a predominantly solid pattern. A Pap smear or gastric mucin alone had limited diagnostic power. However, a combination of these findings is useful; that is, a cystic structure with inner solid components on MRI associated with mild glandular atypia and gastric mucin strongly suggested LEGH (24/26, 92%). A solid structure with atypical glandular cells was indicative of MDA or adenocarcinoma (5/5, 100%).
The combination of MRI, Pap smears, and gastric mucin will improve the accuracy of the preoperative diagnosis of MDA and LEGH. Patients suspected of having LEGH may need to be treated with less aggressive methods.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 06/2011; 21(7):1287-96. DOI:10.1097/IGC.0b013e31821f746c · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the findings of an early-stage primary mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma in the lower eyelid of a Japanese patient. The patient was a 73-year-old man who had had a nodule on the left lower eyelid for two years. He was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of a swollen chalazion. The clinical and histopathological records were reviewed and the mass was excised. Histopathological examination revealed a mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography excluded systemic metastases. After the histopathological findings, a complete surgical excision of the margins of the adenocarcinoma was performed, with histopathological confirmation of negative margins. After the final histopathological examination, the patient was diagnosed with a primary mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the left eyelid. Six months after the surgery, no recurrence has been observed. Because the appearance of mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the eyelid is quite variable, the final diagnosis can only be made by histopathological examination. A complete surgical excision is recommended.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endocervical adenocarcinomas of the usual type are etiologically related to infection with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs). These tumors are typically diffusely positive for p16 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) immunostains. The goal of our study was to determine the HPV status and immunohistochemical profiles of unusual histologic subtypes of endocervical adenocarcinoma.
The study consisted of a total of 26 cases of unusual subtypes including clear cell carcinoma (CCC, n=9), gastric-type adenocarcinoma (GAS, n=11), minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA, n=3), mesonephric adenocarcinoma (MSN, n=1), serous adenocarcinoma (SER, n=1), and malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (n=1). In addition, 5 cases of usual-type endocervical adenocarcinoma (UEA) were included in the study as a control group. The cases were tested for HPV using SPF-10 PCR and LiPA assays, and immunostained for p16, HIK1083, hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-β, p53, CEA, estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR).
HPV DNA was not detected in any of the unusual adenocarcinoma subtypes, with the exception of a single case of SER in which HPV16 was detected. p16 positivity did not correlate with HPV status, as 42% of HPV-negative tumors showed patchy/diffuse p16 overexpression; however, p16 positivity was uncommon in GAS/MDA. HIK1083 positivity was limited to GAS and MDA, indicating relative specificity for tumors with gastric mucin expression. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-β was positive in the majority of CCCs and also in other tumor variants and in some UEA as well, indicating a lack of specificity for clear cell differentiation. CEA was consistently negative in CCCs and in a single MSN, but positive in GAS, MDA, SER, and UEA, suggesting that it may serve as a negative marker of clear cell differentiation. p53 was diffusely positive in almost half of the GAS cases, whereas UEA showed mostly negative staining and other variants showed focal staining. PR was negative in all variant cases and in all UEA. ER expression, although mostly negative, showed focal staining in a few variant cases and UEA.
Unusual variants of endocervical adenocarcinoma are not related to HPV infection, with only rare exceptions, and p16 overexpression in non-UEA does not correlate with HPV status. Negative staining for PR and ER may serve as a general marker of endocervical neoplasia. GAS/MDA may be differentiated from all other adenocarcinomas with either positive HIK1083 stain or negative/focal p16 stain. Positive CEA stain differentiates GAS/MDA from CCC and negative PR and ER stains differentiate GAS/MDA from benign endocervical glands. CCC may be distinguished from all other adenocarcinomas, except MSN, with a negative CEA stain. Strong and diffuse p53 positivity in SER may be useful in differentiation from UEA. MSN may be identified with negative CEA, ER, and PR stains.
The American journal of surgical pathology 05/2011; 35(5):633-46. DOI:10.1097/PAS.0b013e31821534b9 · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A subset of endocervical-type mucinous adenocarcinomas (ACs) of the uterine cervix exhibit a gastric phenotype and morphology, as reported in cases of minimal deviation AC in which the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been rarely detected. To investigate the HPV-independent pathway of carcinogenesis in cases of gastric-type AC, we investigated the common high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) status in 52 nonsquamous cell carcinomas, using a PCR-based typing method and immunohistochemistry of p16INK4a (a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that is overexpressed in both cancerous and precancerous cervical tissue, making it an ideal biomarker for cervical cancer cases). Using novel morphological criteria, seven of 52 (13.5%) carcinomas were designated as gastric-type ACs, all of which were negative for both hr-HPV DNA and p16INK4a. Nongastric-type ACs were frequently positive for both hr-HPV DNA (90%, 28/31) and p16INK4a (94%, 29/31) with adenosquamous and neuroendocrine carcinomas demonstrating the presence of hr-HPV DNA in 86% (6/7) and 83% (5/6) of cases, respectively. In these two types of carcinoma, 86% (6/7) and 100% (6/6) were positive for p16INK4a, respectively. Our data suggests that gastric-type AC appears to represent an oncogenic hr-HPV-independent neoplasm and therefore is a potential pitfall of HPV DNA testing and vaccination.
American Journal Of Pathology 11/2010; 177(5):2169-75. DOI:10.2353/ajpath.2010.100323 · 4.60 Impact Factor