[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genome sequence of the organohalide respiring bacterium Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T contains numerous loci annotated as reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdh) genes based on inferred protein sequence identity with functional dehalogenases of other bacterial species. Many of these genes are truncated, lack adjacent regulatory elements, or lack cognate genes coding for membrane anchoring proteins typical of the functionally characterized active reductive dehalogenases of organohalide-respiring bacteria. To investigate the expression patterns of the rdh genes in D. lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T, oligonucleotide primers were designed to uniquely target 25 rdh genes present in the genome as well as four putative regulatory genes. RNA extracts from cultures of strain BL-DC-9T actively dechlorinating three different electron acceptors, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane were reverse transcribed and subjected to PCR amplification using rdh-specific primers. Nineteen rdh gene transcripts, including 13 full-length rdhA genes, six truncated rdhA genes, and five rdhA genes having cognate rdhB genes were consistently detected during the dechlorination of all three of the polychlorinated alkanes tested. Transcripts from all four of the putative regulatory genes were also consistently detected. Results reported here expand the diversity of bacteria known to simultaneously transcribe multiple rdh genes and provide insights into the transcription factors associated with rdh gene expression.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large circular plasmid detected in Francisella novicida-like strain PA10-7858, designated pFNPA10, was sequenced completely and analyzed. This 41 013-bp plasmid showed no homology to any of the previously sequenced Francisella plasmids and was 8–10 times larger in size than them. A total of 57 ORFs were identified within pFNPA10 and at least 9 of them encoded putative proteins with homology to different conjugal transfer proteins. The presence of iteron-like direct repeats and an ORF encoding a putative replication protein within pFNPA10 suggested that it replicated by the theta mode. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that pFNPA10 had no near neighbors in the databases and that it may have originated within an environmental Francisella lineage. Based on its features, pFNPA10 appears to be a novel extra-chromosomal genetic element within the genus Francisella. The suitability of pFNPA10 as a vector for transformation of species of Francisella by conjugation remains to be explored.
Historical Journal Of Film Radio and Television 03/2014; 57(3). DOI:10.1139/gen-2013-0231
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Francisella tularensis is an intracellular pathogen that causes tularemia in humans and the public health importance of this bacterium has been well documented in recent history. Francisella philomiragia, a distant relative of F. tularensis, is thought to constitute an environmental lineage along with Francisella novicida. Nevertheless, both F. philomiragia and F. novicida have been associated with human disease, primarily in immune-compromised individuals. To understand the genetic relationships and evolutionary contexts among different lineages within the genus Francisella, the genome of Francisella spp. strain TX07-7308 was sequenced and compared to the genomes of F. philomiragia strains ATCC 25017 and 25015, F. novicida strain U112, and F. tularensis strain Schu S4.
The size of strain ATCC 25017 chromosome was 2,045,775 bp and contained 1,983 protein-coding genes. The size of strain TX07-7308 chromosome was 2,035,931 bp and contained 1,980 protein-coding genes. Pairwise BLAST comparisons indicated that strains TX07-7308 and ATCC 25017 contained 1,700 protein coding genes in common. NUCmer analyses revealed that the chromosomes of strains TX07-7308 and ATCC 25017 were mostly collinear except for a few gaps, translocations, and/or inversions. Using the genome sequence data and comparative analyses with other members of the genus Francisella (e.g., F. novicida strain U112 and F. tularensis strain Schu S4), several strain-specific genes were identified. Strains TX07-7308 and ATCC 25017 contained an operon with six open reading frames encoding proteins related to enzymes involved in thiamine biosynthesis that was absent in F. novicida strain U112 and F. tularensis strain Schu S4. Strain ATCC 25017 contained an operon putatively involved in lactose metabolism that was absent in strain TX07-7308, F. novicida strain U112, and F. tularensis strain Schu S4. In contrast, strain TX07-7308 contained an operon putatively involved in glucuronate metabolism that was absent in the genomes of strain ATCC 25017, F. novicida strain U112, and F. tularensis strain Schu S4. The polymorphic nature of polysaccharide biosynthesis/modification gene clusters among different Francisella strains was also evident from genome analyses.
From genome comparisons, it appeared that genes encoding novel functions have contributed to the metabolic enrichment of the environmental lineages within the genus Francisella. The inability to acquire new genes coupled with the loss of ancestral traits and the consequent reductive evolution may be a cause for, as well as an effect of, niche selection of F. tularensis. Sequencing and comparison of the genomes of more isolates are required to obtain further insights into the ecology and evolution of different species within the genus Francisella.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens is the type species of the genus Dehalogenimonas, which belongs to a deeply branching lineage within the phylum Chloroflexi. This strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, non spore-forming, Gram-negative staining bacterium was first isolated from chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater at a Superfund site located near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. D. lykanthroporepellens was of interest for genome sequencing for two reasons: (a) an unusual ability to couple growth with reductive dechlorination of environmentally important polychlorinated aliphatic alkanes and (b) a phylogenetic position that is distant from previously sequenced bacteria. The 1,686,510 bp circular chromosome of strain BL-DC-9(T) contains 1,720 predicted protein coding genes, 47 tRNA genes, a single large subunit rRNA (23S-5S) locus, and a single, orphan, small subunit rRNA (16S) locus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natrialba magadii is an aerobic chemoorganotrophic member of the Euryarchaeota and is a dual extremophile requiring alkaline conditions and hypersalinity for optimal growth. The genome sequence of Nab. magadii type strain ATCC 43099 was deciphered to obtain a comprehensive insight into the genetic content of this haloarchaeon and to understand the basis of some of the cellular functions necessary for its survival.
The genome of Nab. magadii consists of four replicons with a total sequence of 4,443,643 bp and encodes 4,212 putative proteins, some of which contain peptide repeats of various lengths. Comparative genome analyses facilitated the identification of genes encoding putative proteins involved in adaptation to hypersalinity, stress response, glycosylation, and polysaccharide biosynthesis. A proton-driven ATP synthase and a variety of putative cytochromes and other proteins supporting aerobic respiration and electron transfer were encoded by one or more of Nab. magadii replicons. The genome encodes a number of putative proteases/peptidases as well as protein secretion functions. Genes encoding putative transcriptional regulators, basal transcription factors, signal perception/transduction proteins, and chemotaxis/phototaxis proteins were abundant in the genome. Pathways for the biosynthesis of thiamine, riboflavin, heme, cobalamin, coenzyme F420 and other essential co-factors were deduced by in depth sequence analyses. However, approximately 36% of Nab. magadii protein coding genes could not be assigned a function based on Blast analysis and have been annotated as encoding hypothetical or conserved hypothetical proteins. Furthermore, despite extensive comparative genomic analyses, genes necessary for survival in alkaline conditions could not be identified in Nab. magadii.
Based on genomic analyses, Nab. magadii is predicted to be metabolically versatile and it could use different carbon and energy sources to sustain growth. Nab. magadii has the genetic potential to adapt to its milieu by intracellular accumulation of inorganic cations and/or neutral organic compounds. The identification of Nab. magadii genes involved in coenzyme biosynthesis is a necessary step toward further reconstruction of the metabolic pathways in halophilic archaea and other extremophiles. The knowledge gained from the genome sequence of this haloalkaliphilic archaeon is highly valuable in advancing the applications of extremophiles and their enzymes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pneumonia and myocarditis are the most commonly reported diseases due to Histophilus somni, an opportunistic pathogen of the reproductive and respiratory tracts of cattle. Thus far only a few genes involved in metabolic and virulence functions have been identified and characterized in H. somni using traditional methods. Analyses of the genome sequences of several Pasteurellaceae species have provided insights into their biology and evolution. In view of the economic and ecological importance of H. somni, the genome sequence of pneumonia strain 2336 has been determined and compared to that of commensal strain 129Pt and other members of the Pasteurellaceae.
The chromosome of strain 2336 (2,263,857 bp) contained 1,980 protein coding genes, whereas the chromosome of strain 129Pt (2,007,700 bp) contained only 1,792 protein coding genes. Although the chromosomes of the two strains differ in size, their average GC content, gene density (total number of genes predicted on the chromosome), and percentage of sequence (number of genes) that encodes proteins were similar. The chromosomes of these strains also contained a number of discrete prophage regions and genomic islands. One of the genomic islands in strain 2336 contained genes putatively involved in copper, zinc, and tetracycline resistance. Using the genome sequence data and comparative analyses with other members of the Pasteurellaceae, several H. somni genes that may encode proteins involved in virulence (e.g., filamentous haemaggutinins, adhesins, and polysaccharide biosynthesis/modification enzymes) were identified. The two strains contained a total of 17 ORFs that encode putative glycosyltransferases and some of these ORFs had characteristic simple sequence repeats within them. Most of the genes/loci common to both the strains were located in different regions of the two chromosomes and occurred in opposite orientations, indicating genome rearrangement since their divergence from a common ancestor.
Since the genome of strain 129Pt was ~256,000 bp smaller than that of strain 2336, these genomes provide yet another paradigm for studying evolutionary gene loss and/or gain in regard to virulence repertoire and pathogenic ability. Analyses of the complete genome sequences revealed that bacteriophage- and transposon-mediated horizontal gene transfer had occurred at several loci in the chromosomes of strains 2336 and 129Pt. It appears that these mobile genetic elements have played a major role in creating genomic diversity and phenotypic variability among the two H. somni strains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Francisella novicida is a close relative of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia. The genomes of F. novicida-like clinical isolates 3523 (Australian strain) and Fx1 (Texas strain) were sequenced and compared to F. novicida strain U112 and F. tularensis strain Schu S4. The strain 3523 chromosome is 1,945,310 bp and contains 1,854 protein-coding genes. The strain Fx1 chromosome
is 1,913,619 bp and contains 1,819 protein-coding genes. NUCmer analyses revealed that the genomes of strains Fx1 and U112
are mostly colinear, whereas the genome of strain 3523 has gaps, translocations, and/or inversions compared to genomes of
strains Fx1 and U112. Using the genome sequence data and comparative analyses with other members of the genus Francisella, several strain-specific genes that encode putative proteins involved in RTX toxin production, polysaccharide biosynthesis/modification,
thiamine biosynthesis, glucuronate utilization, and polyamine biosynthesis were identified. The RTX toxin synthesis and secretion
operon of strain 3523 contains four open reading frames (ORFs) and was named rtxCABD. Based on the alignment of conserved sequences upstream of operons involved in thiamine biosynthesis from various bacteria,
a putative THI box was identified in strain 3523. The glucuronate catabolism loci of strains 3523 and Fx1 contain a cluster
of nine ORFs oriented in the same direction that appear to constitute an operon. Strains U112 and Schu S4 appeared to have
lost the loci for RTX toxin production, thiamine biosynthesis, and glucuronate utilization as a consequence of host adaptation
and reductive evolution. In conclusion, comparative analyses provided insights into the common ancestry and novel genetic
traits of these strains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Succinate is produced petrochemically from maleic anhydride to satisfy a small specialty chemical market. If succinate could be produced fermentatively at a price competitive with that of maleic anhydride, though, it could replace maleic anhydride as the precursor of many bulk chemicals, transforming a multi-billion dollar petrochemical market into one based on renewable resources. Actinobacillus succinogenes naturally converts sugars and CO2 into high concentrations of succinic acid as part of a mixed-acid fermentation. Efforts are ongoing to maximize carbon flux to succinate to achieve an industrial process.
Described here is the 2.3 Mb A. succinogenes genome sequence with emphasis on A. succinogenes's potential for genetic engineering, its metabolic attributes and capabilities, and its lack of pathogenicity. The genome sequence contains 1,690 DNA uptake signal sequence repeats and a nearly complete set of natural competence proteins, suggesting that A. succinogenes is capable of natural transformation. A. succinogenes lacks a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle as well as a glyoxylate pathway, and it appears to be able to transport and degrade about twenty different carbohydrates. The genomes of A. succinogenes and its closest known relative, Mannheimia succiniciproducens, were compared for the presence of known Pasteurellaceae virulence factors. Both species appear to lack the virulence traits of toxin production, sialic acid and choline incorporation into lipopolysaccharide, and utilization of hemoglobin and transferrin as iron sources. Perspectives are also given on the conservation of A. succinogenes genomic features in other sequenced Pasteurellaceae.
Both A. succinogenes and M. succiniciproducens genome sequences lack many of the virulence genes used by their pathogenic Pasteurellaceae relatives. The lack of pathogenicity of these two succinogens is an exciting prospect, because comparisons with pathogenic Pasteurellaceae could lead to a better understanding of Pasteurellaceae virulence. The fact that the A. succinogenes genome encodes uptake and degradation pathways for a variety of carbohydrates reflects the variety of carbohydrate substrates available in the rumen, A. succinogenes's natural habitat. It also suggests that many different carbon sources can be used as feedstock for succinate production by A. succinogenes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemophilus somnus is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing pneumonia, septicemia, and other systemic infections in bovines. An H. somnus isolate from bovine abortion (strain 649) was found to carry a approximately 1.3 kb plasmid (pHS649) that contained partial homology to two previously sequenced Haemophilus/Histophilus plasmids by BLAST analyses. Sequence analysis of pHS649 identified a putative RepA protein with 48% similarity to the RepA protein of Escherichia coli plasmid pKL1. A approximately 5 kb plasmid (pHS129) from H. somnus preputial isolate 129Pt was also sequenced and found to encode two copies of a putative RepB protein. Whereas pHS649 stably replicated in E. coli DH5alpha, pHS129 did not. Genetic relatedness and possible replication mechanisms of these plasmids are described.