[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is one of the leading cancer-related causes of death worldwide. Treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is complex and challenging, especially when metastasis has developed. In this study, we applied infrared radiation as an alternative approach for the treatment of TNBC. We used middle infrared (MIR) with a wavelength range of 3-5 μm to irradiate breast cancer cells. MIR significantly inhibited cell proliferation in several breast cancer cells, but did not affect the growth of normal breast epithelial cells. We performed iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS analysis to investigate the MIR-triggered molecular mechanisms in breast cancer cells. A total of 1,749 proteins were identified, quantified, and subjected to functional enrichment analysis. From the constructed functional enriched network, we confirmed that MIR caused G2/M cell cycle arrest, remodeled the microtubule network to an astral pole arrangement, altered the actin filament formation and focal adhesion molecule localization, and reduced cell migration activity and invasion ability. Our results reveal the coordinative effects of MIR-regulated physiological responses in concentrated networks, demonstrating the potential implementation of infrared radiation in breast cancer therapy. Mass spectrometry data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001078.
Journal of Proteome Research 01/2015; 14(2). DOI:10.1021/pr5011873 · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pardaxin is a cationic antimicrobial peptide derived from Red Sea Moses sole. Previous studies have shown that pardaxin selectively triggers the death of cancer cells, initiating the development of a pardaxin-based cancer vaccine; however, the underlying mechanism by which pardaxin kills cancer cells has not yet been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that this mechanism involves endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting and c-FOS induction. Transcriptiome analysis of pardaxin-treated HT-1080 cells revealed induction of the gene encoding c-FOS, an AP-1 transcription factor. Pardaxin mediates cell death by activating c-FOS, but not other AP-1 transcription factors. Overexpression of c-FOS caused a dramatic increase in cell death, while knockdown of c-FOS induced pardaxin resistance; such effects were observed in both an in vitro cell model and an in vivo xenograft tumor model. Treatment with pardaxin also increased the level of calcium, and blockage of cellular calcium signaling disrupted pardaxin-induced cell death. Immunocytochemistry was used to demonstrate targeting of pardaxin to the endoplasmic reticulum, but not to the Golgi apparatus or mitochondria. Importantly, pardaxin treatment or c-FOS overexpression induced cell death in diverse cancer cell lines, indicating that pardaxin and c-FOS may possess therapeutic potential for use in cancer treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pardaxin, an antimicrobial peptide secreted by the Red Sea flatfish Pardachirus marmoratus, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human cancer cell lines. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are only partially understood at present. In this study, we used proteomic approaches and network reconstruction to clarify the mechanism of pardaxin-induced apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. We identified that pardaxin-regulated proteins predominantly function in the unfolded protein response, oxidative stress, and cytoskeletal distribution. Molecular examination of signal transduction and cellular localization demonstrated that the activator protein-1 transcription factor was activated, which eventually caused apoptosis via both caspase- and apoptosis-inducing factor-dependent pathways. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) alleviated c-Jun activation, and small interfering RNA knockdown of c-Jun abrogated pardaxin-induced caspase activation and cell death, thereby implicating ROS and c-Jun in pardaxin-induced apoptosis signaling. In summary, the present study provides the first protein-interacting network maps and novel insights into the biological responses and potential toxicity of pardaxin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play important roles in innate immunity. One such AMP, epinecidin-1, exhibits antibacterial effects in zebrafish. In the current study, we aimed to identify the antimicrobial-associated proteins affected by epinecidin-1 treatment, and to unravel the underlying antimicrobial molecular mechanisms of epinecidin-1. We analyzed proteome changes in epinecidin-1-treated zebrafish using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled to mass spectrometry. Several differentially expressed proteins were identified, some of which were validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The differentially expressed proteins were mapped onto Ingenuity Pathway Analysis canonical pathways, to construct a possible protein-protein interacting network regulated by epinecidin-1; this network suggested a potential role of epinecindin-1 in cytoskeletal assembly and organization. Our findings imply that epinecidin-1 may stabilize the cytoskeleton network in host cells, thereby promoting resistance to bacterial infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antitumor activity of pardaxin, a fish antimicrobial peptide, has not been previously examined in in vitro and in vivo systems for treating murine fibrosarcoma. In this study, the antitumor activity of synthetic pardaxin was tested using murine MN-11 tumor cells as the study model. We show that pardaxin inhibits the proliferation of MN-11 cells and reduces colony formation in a soft agar assay. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that pardaxin altered the membrane structure similar to what a lytic peptide does, and also produced apoptotic features, such as hollow mitochondria, nuclear condensation, and disrupted cell membranes. A qRT-PCR and ELISA showed that pardaxin induced apoptosis, activated caspase-7 and interleukin (IL)-7r, and downregulated caspase-9, ATF 3, SOCS3, STAT3, cathelicidin, p65, and interferon (IFN)-γ suggesting that pardaxin induces apoptosis through the death receptor/nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway after 14 days of treatment in tumor-bearing mice. An antitumor effect was observed when pardaxin (25 mg/kg; 0.5 mg/day) was used to treat mice for 14 days, which caused significant inhibition of MN-11 cell growth in mice. Overall, these results indicate that pardaxin has the potential to be a novel therapeutic agent to treat fibrosarcomas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunostimulatory effects of the oral administration of the recombinant epinecidin-1 protein from BL21 Escherichia coli (containing the pET28a-epinecidin-1-dsRed plasmid) were studied in grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). For this purpose, fish were fed diets for 30 days containing the recombinant epinecidin-1 protein from BL21 E. coli (containing the pET28a-epinecidin-1-dsRed plasmid) at different bacterial numbers (10(4), 10(6), 10(8), and 10(10) colony-forming units (cfu) of BL21 E. coli in 50 ml of LB medium) mixed with 50 g of eel powder as fodder. After 30 days of feeding, immune-related gene expressions for bacterial-infection responses and disease resistance against Vibrio vulnificus (204) were determined. The V. vulnificus (204) injected into the fish abdominal cavity mimicked gram-negative bacterial infections in culture ponds. Experimental results assessed whether the recombinant epinecidin-1 protein from BL21 E. coli (containing the pET28a-epinecidin-1-dsRed plasmid) has up- (or down-) regulation immune-related genes expression. Results indicated that the recombinant epinecidin-1 protein from BL21 E. coli administered as a feed supplement significantly enhanced expressions several immune-related genes such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-1 in grouper and Toll-like receptor (TLR)4, interleukin (IL)-1β, nitric oxide synthase (NOS)2, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB in zebrafish. After being challenged with V. vulnificus (204) for 24, 48, 72, or 96 h, the percentage mortality was significantly reduced in treated fish, which indicated that the recombinant epinecidin-1 protein from BL21 E. coli administered as a feed supplement could bring about downregulation of TNF-1 expression and functioned like an antagonist for binding TLR4, which reduced the signal transduction pathway for inhibiting TNF and IL-1β expressions while reducing binding of the transcription factor, NF-κB, to TNF and the IL-1β promoter region. The experimental results indicated that dietary intake of the recombinant epinecidin-1 protein from BL21 E. coli modulated immune-related gene expressions and disease resistance of grouper and zebrafish after a V. vulnificus (204) infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Piscidin-1, a 22-residue cationic peptide isolated from mast cells of a hybrid striped bass, has potent antimicrobial activities against both gram-positive and -negative bacteria. To date, there is no report of its antitumor activity on any tumor cell lines. In this study, we examined the antitumor activity of a synthetic piscidin-1 peptide against several human cancer cell lines using an MTS assay and soft-agar colony-formation assay. We found that a low dose of piscidin induces both apoptosis and necrosis in HT1080 cells, as shown by annexin-V/propidium iodide and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, and triggers a necrotic cell death pathway in a short period with high-dose treatment. The destruction of cell membranes by piscidin-1 was demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, piscidin-1 also inhibits the migration of HT1080 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This study provides the first evidence of the anticancer activity of the antimicrobial peptide, piscidin-1, with potential implications for the treatment of cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pardaxin is an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that was first isolated from secretions of the Red Sea Moses sole. The role of pardaxin in inducing apoptosis for preventing cancer has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we examined the antitumor activity of pardaxin against human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells; pardaxin inhibited cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis, as demonstrated by an increase in the externalization of plasma membrane phosphatidylserine and the presence of chromatin condensation. Additionally, pardaxin-treated cells showed elevation of caspase-3/7 activities, disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Inhibition of ROS production and caspase-3/7 activities reduced pardaxin-induced effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that pardaxin may be a potential anticancer agent for selectively inducing apoptosis in cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. We investigate whether miR-124, the abundant neuronal miRNA, plays a pivotal role in neuroblastoma. Knockdown of miR-124 promotes neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cell differentiation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Further miR-124 is predicted to target aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) which may promote neuroblastoma cell differentiation. We validate that miR-124 may suppress the expression of AHR by targeting its 3'-UTR. These results suggest that miR-124 could serve as a potential therapeutic target of neuroblastoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While broad band infrared has a number of biomedical applications, the effects with specific wavelengths on biomolecule remain unclear. In this study, narrow band infrared plasmonic thermal emitters with peak wavelengths from 3.0 to 5.0 mum were developed to irradiate Escherichia coli (E. coli) cultures for 24 h. It was found that with peak wavelengths at 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 mum, they could promote the growth of cells. Systems biology analyses were performed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Furthermore, specific wavelengths (4.0-5.0 mum) induced the expression of transporters and enzymes involved in metabolism and respiration, thus stimulating the proliferation of E. coli.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeting of tumor tissues is one of the most powerful approaches to accelerate the efficiency of anticancer treatments. The investigation of effective targets, including proteins specifically and abundantly expressed in abnormal regions, has been one of the most important research topics in cancer therapy. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis on human breast carcinoma tissues to investigate the tumor-specific protein expression in breast carcinoma. Our study showed that ATP synthase was up-regulated in tumor tissues and was present on the plasma membrane of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we treated the breast cancer cells with ATP synthase inhibitors and examined the inhibitory efficiency. Aurovertin B, an ATP synthase inhibitor, has strong inhibition on the proliferation of several breast cancer cell lines, but little influence on the normal cell line MCF-10A. Aurovertin B inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and arresting cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. This study showed aurovertin B can be used as an antitumorigenic agent and may be exploited in cancer chemotherapy.
Journal of Proteome Research 05/2008; 7(4):1433-44. DOI:10.1021/pr700742h · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthetic peptides with the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) motif have been used widely as inhibitors of integrin-ligand interactions to study cell growth, adhesion, migration and differentiation. We designed cyclic-RGD peptide (Tpa-RGDWPC-, cRGD) which could cause cell death in MCF-7 cell line. In order to understand the mechanism involved in cRGD-induced apoptosis, we used microarray, real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) and bioinformatics to study the effects of cRGD on breast cancer cell line MCF-7. By time-series gene expression measurements and our developed software BSIP and GeneNetwork, we reconstructed an apoptosis-related gene network. In the network, caspase-9, located at the upstream, activates downstream effector caspases such as caspase-7, leading to the induction of caspase-4. Combined our previous proteomics data with newly performed docking simulation, it indicated that the cell death induced by cRGD may be triggered through blocking integrin signaling to the extracellular matrix and activation of caspase pathway. This study provides a molecular explanation of cRGD treatment in breast cancer cells and set forth a constructive far-reaching impact on breast cancer therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In studies of cell adhesion, migration, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, synthetic peptides containing the RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motif have been extensively used as the inhibitors of integrin-ligand interactions. The RGD motif is an integrin-recognition motif found in many ligands, so that the RGD-containing peptides can be used to probe integrin functions in various biological systems. A linear RGD is a tripeptide consisting of a flexible structure that makes the motif bind to its receptor with inefficient chelating affinity. Therefore, we designed a cyclic-RGD peptide (Tpa-RGDWPC, cRGD) with rigid skeleton to closely bind with its receptor. The cRGD was obtained by solid-phase peptide synthesis method using Rink amide resin. We showed that the cRGD exerts more potency than linear RGD on inhibiting cell growth of MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. This stimulated us to question how cRGD inhibits cell growth of MCF-7 cells. Moreover, understanding what molecular mechanism underlies the effect that RGD motif exerts on MCF-7 cells is also of considerable importance. We used proteomics and bioinformatics to survey the global changes in proteins after cRGD treatment in MCF-7 cells. The classification of these proteins is shown according to the different biological processes in which they are involved. Most of the proteins that appear to be strongly influenced by cRGD treatment are involved in metabolism, cell growth, responsive to external stimulus, cell communication, reproduction and cell death. This is the first report which monitors the protein expression profile of MCF-7 cells in response to treatment with RGD-containing peptides in a time-course analysis. The clustering data indicated temporal patterns of altered protein expression that can be categorized into early, intermediate and late response proteins. These patterns of protein expression may be important for predicting its response to cRGD. In summary, these results provide a molecular explanation for the properties of cRGD in breast cancer cells and present a valuable in-depth description of their possible impact on breast cancer therapy.