[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Fat mass is a determinant of bone strength and both phenotypes have a strong genetic component. In this study, we examined the association between obesity associated polymorphisms (SNPs) with body composition, BMD, Ultrasound (QUS), fracture and biomarkers (Homocysteine (Hcy), folate, Vitamin D and Vitamin B12) for obesity and osteoporosis. Five common variants: rs17782313 and rs1770633 (melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R); rs7566605 (insulin induced gene 2 (INSIG2); rs9939609 and rs1121980 (fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) were genotyped in 2 cohorts of Swedish women: PEAK-25 (age 25, n = 1061) and OPRA (age 75, n = 1044). Body mass index (BMI), total body fat and lean mass were strongly positively correlated with QUS and BMD in both cohorts (r(2) = 0.2-0.6). MC4R rs17782313 was associated with QUS in the OPRA cohort and individuals with the minor C-allele had higher values compared to T-allele homozygotes (TT vs. CT vs.
100 vs. 103 vs. 103; p = 0.002); (SOS: 1521 vs. 1526 vs. 1524; p = 0.008); (Stiffness index: 69 vs. 73 vs. 74; p = 0.0006) after adjustment for confounders. They also had low folate (18 vs. 17 vs. 16; p = 0.03) and vitamin D (93 vs. 91 vs. 90; p = 0.03) and high Hcy levels (13.7 vs 14.4 vs. 14.5; p = 0.06). Fracture incidence was lower among women with the C-allele, (52% vs. 58%; p = 0.067). Variation in MC4R was not associated with BMD or body composition in either OPRA or PEAK-25. SNPs close to FTO and INSIG2 were not associated with any bone phenotypes in either cohort and FTO SNPs were only associated with body composition in PEAK-25 (p≤0.001). Our results suggest that genetic variation close to MC4R is associated with quantitative ultrasound and risk of fracture.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e88565. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the elderly, degenerative changes in the lumbar spine are common, contributing to falsely elevated bone mineral density (BMD) values. The parathyroid hormone (PTH) system plays an important role in the regulation of bone turnover and we explore the hypothesis that polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes in this pathway (PTH, PTHLH, PTH1R and PTH2R) contribute to degenerative manifestations of the spine in elderly women. The study included 1,004 Swedish women aged 75 years from the population-based OPRA cohort who attended follow-up at 5 and 10 years. Lumbar spine BMD was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and each individual vertebra was evaluated visually on the DXA image for apparent degenerative manifestations. Six SNPs in PTH and 3 SNPs each in PTH1R, PTH2R and PTHLH were analysed. Among women with degenerative manifestations at the lumbar spine, there was an over-representation at baseline of those carrying the PTH2R SNP rs897083 A-allele (p = 0.0021; odds ratio 1.5 95 % CI 1.2-2.0) and across the duration of follow-up (p = 0.0008). No association was observed between degenerative manifestations and variation in the other genes. None of the PTH hormone system genes were associated with vertebral fracture. Variation in the PTH2R gene (Chr2q34, rs897083) may contribute to the age-associated degenerative manifestations that develop at the lumbar spine.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 12/2013; · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous reports have shown ambiguous findings regarding the possible associations between ischaemic stroke (IS) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) gene region. The SNP rs12188950 (or SNP45) has often been studied in this context. We performed a multi-centre study involving a large sample of 2599 IS patients and 2093 control subjects from the south and west regions of Sweden to replicate previous studies regarding IS risk and rs12188950. Subjects from Lund Stroke Register (LSR), Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDC) and Sahlgrenska Academy Study on Ischemic Stroke (SAHLSIS) were enroled. Subgroups of participants with hypertension and participants <55 years of age, as well as the TOAST subgroups large vessel disease, small vessel disease and cardioembolism, were also assessed. Univariate odds ratios (ORs) and ORs controlling for hypertension, diabetes and current smoking were calculated. We additionally performed a meta-analysis including 10,500 patients and 10,102 control subjects from 17 publications (including the present study). When assessing pooled data from LSR, MDC and SAHLSIS we obtained no association between IS and rs12188950 for all participants (OR=0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83-1.05). Significant associations were not found for hypertensive participants or participants with age <55, or when separately evaluating patients from the three different TOAST subgroups. The meta-analysis showed no significant overall estimate (OR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.89-1.04) with significant heterogeneity for random effect (P=0.042). No effect from rs12188950 on IS was found from either our pooled multi-centre data or the performed meta-analysis. We did not find any association between the examined subgroups and rs12188950 either.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 01/2012; 20(7):783-9. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed an inbred rat model of diabetic embryopathy, in which the offspring displays skeletal malformations (agnathia or micrognathia) when the mother is diabetic, and no malformations when she is not diabetic. Our aim was to find genes controlling the embryonic maldevelopment in a diabetic environment. We contrasted the fetal outcome in inbred Sprague-Dawley L rats (20% skeletal malformations in diabetic pregnancy) with that of inbred Wistar Furth rats (denotedW, no skeletal malformations in diabetic pregnancy). We used offspring from the backcross F(1)×L to probe for the genetic basis for malformation of the mandible in diabetic pregnancy. A set of 186 fetuses (93 affected, 93 unaffected) was subjected to a whole genome scan with 160 micro satellites. Analysis of genotype distribution indicated 7 loci on chromosome 4, 10 (3 loci), 14, 18, and 19 in the teratogenic process (and 14 other loci on 12 chromosomes with less strong association to the malformations), several of which contained genes implicated in other experimental studies of diabetic embryopathy. These candidate genes will be scrutinized in further experimentation. We conclude that the genetic involvement in rodent diabetic embryopathy is polygenic and predisposing for congenital malformations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously performed a genome-wide linkage study in Scandinavian Type 1 diabetes (T1D) families. In the Swedish families, we detected suggestive linkage (LOD≤2.2) to the chromosome 5p13-q13 region. The aim of our study was to investigate the linked region in search for possible T1D susceptibility genes.
Microsatellites were genotyped in the Scandinavian families to fine-map the previously linked region. Further, SNPs were genotyped in Swedish and Danish families as well as Swedish sporadic cases. In the Swedish families we detected genome-wide significant linkage to the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (HTR1A) gene (LOD 3.98, p<9.8×10(-6)). Markers tagging two separate genes; the ring finger protein 180 (RNF180) and HTR1A showed association to T1D in the Swedish and Danish families (p<0.002, p<0.001 respectively). The association was not confirmed in sporadic cases. Conditional analysis indicates that the primary association was to HTR1A. Quantitative PCR show that transcripts of both HTR1A and RNF180 are present in human islets of Langerhans. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the presence of the 5-HTR1A protein in isolated human islets of Langerhans as well as in sections of human pancreas.
We have identified and confirmed the association of both HTR1A and RFN180, two genes in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) to T1D in two separate family materials. As both HTR1A and RFN180 were expressed at the mRNA level and HTR1A as protein in human islets of Langerhans, we suggest that HTR1A may affect T1D susceptibility by modulating the initial autoimmune attack or either islet regeneration, insulin release, or both.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e35439. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is a common cause of upper gastrointestinal obstruction during infancy. A multifactorial background of the disease is well established. Multiple susceptibility loci including the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) gene have previously been linked to IHPS, but contradictory results of linkage studies in different materials indicate genetic heterogeneity. To identify IHPS susceptibility loci, we conducted a genome-wide linkage analysis in 37 Swedish families. In regions where the Swedish material showed most evidence in favor of linkage, 31 additional British IHPS families were analyzed. Evidence in favor of significant linkage was observed in the Swedish material to two loci on chromosome 2q24 (non-parametric linkage (NPL) =3.77) and 7p21 (NPL=4.55). In addition, evidence of suggestive linkage was found to two loci on chromosome 6p21 (NPL=2.97) and 12q24 (NPL=2.63). Extending the material with British samples did not enhance the level of significance. Regions with linkage harbor interesting candidate genes, such as glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2 encoded by the glucagon gene GCG), NOS1, motilin (MLN) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). The coding exons for GLP-2, and NPY were screened for mutations with negative results. In conclusion, we could confirm suggestive linkage to the region harboring the NOS1 gene and detected additional novel susceptibility loci for IHPS.
Journal of Human Genetics 12/2011; 57(2):115-21. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) evolves when insulin secretion fails. Insulin release from the pancreatic β cell is controlled by mitochondrial metabolism, which translates fluctuations in blood glucose into metabolic coupling signals. We identified a common variant (rs950994) in the human transcription factor B1 mitochondrial (TFB1M) gene associated with reduced insulin secretion, elevated postprandial glucose levels, and future risk of T2D. Because islet TFB1M mRNA levels were lower in carriers of the risk allele and correlated with insulin secretion, we examined mice heterozygous for Tfb1m deficiency. These mice displayed lower expression of TFB1M in islets and impaired mitochondrial function and released less insulin in response to glucose in vivo and in vitro. Reducing TFB1M mRNA and protein in clonal β cells by RNA interference impaired complexes of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system. Consequently, nutrient-stimulated ATP generation was reduced, leading to perturbed insulin secretion. We conclude that a deficiency in TFB1M and impaired mitochondrial function contribute to the pathogenesis of T2D.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Susceptibility to osteoporotic fracture is influenced by genetic factors that can be dissected by whole-genome linkage analysis in experimental animal crosses. The aim of this study was to characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for biomechanical and two-dimensional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) phenotypes in reciprocal F2 crosses between diabetic GK and normo-glycemic F344 rat strains and to identify possible co-localization with previously reported QTLs for bone size and structure. The biomechanical measurements of rat tibia included ultimate force, stiffness and work to failure while DXA was used to characterize tibial area, bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD). F2 progeny (108 males, 98 females) were genotyped with 192 genome-wide markers followed by sex- and reciprocal cross-separated whole-genome QTL analyses. Significant QTLs were identified on chromosome 8 (tibial area; logarithm of odds (LOD) = 4.7 and BMC; LOD = 4.1) in males and on chromosome 1 (stiffness; LOD = 5.5) in females. No QTLs showed significant sex-specific interactions. In contrast, significant cross-specific interactions were identified on chromosome 2 (aBMD; LOD = 4.7) and chromosome 6 (BMC; LOD = 4.8) for males carrying F344mtDNA, and on chromosome 15 (ultimate force; LOD = 3.9) for males carrying GKmtDNA, confirming the effect of reciprocal cross on osteoporosis-related phenotypes. By combining identified QTLs for biomechanical-, size- and qualitative phenotypes (pQCT and 3D CT) from the same population, overlapping regions were detected on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10. These are strong candidate regions in the search for genetic risk factors for osteoporosis.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e22462. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The F344 rat carries alleles contributing to bone fragility while the GK rat spontaneously develops type-2 diabetes. These characteristics make F344×GK crosses well suited for the identification of genes related to bone size and allow for future investigation on the association with type-2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for bone size phenotypes measured by a new application of three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) and to investigate the effects of sex- and reciprocal cross. Tibia from male and female GK and F344 rats, representing the parental, F1 and F2 generations, were examined with 3DCT and analyzed for: total and cortical volumetric BMD, straight and curved length, peri- and endosteal area at mid-shaft. F2 progeny (108 male and 98 female) were genotyped with 192 genome-wide microsatellite markers (average distance 10 cM). Sex- and reciprocal cross-separated QTL analyses were performed for the identification of QTLs linked to 3DCT phenotypes and true interactions were confirmed by likelihood ratio analysis in all F2 animals. Several genome-wide significant QTLs were found in the sex- and reciprocal cross-separated progeny on chromosomes (chr) 1, 3, 4, 9, 10, 14, and 17. Overlapping QTLs for both males and females in the (GK×F344)F2 progeny were located on chr 1 (39-67 cM). This region confirms previously reported pQCT QTLs and overlaps loci for fasting glucose. Sex separated linkage analysis confirmed a male specific QTL on chr 9 (67-82 cM) for endosteal area at the fibula site. Analyses separating the F2 population both by sex and reciprocal cross identified cross specific QTLs on chr 14 (males) and chr 3 and 4 (females). Two loci, chr 4 and 6, are unique to 3DCT and separate from pQCT generated loci. The 3DCT method was highly reproducible and provided high precision measurements of bone size in the rat enabling identification of new sex- and cross-specific loci. The QTLs on chr 1 indicate potential genetic association between bone-related phenotypes and traits affecting type-2 diabetes. The results illustrate the complexity of the genetic architecture of bone size phenotypes and demonstrate the importance of complementary methods for bone analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several common genetic variations have been associated with type 2 diabetes, but the exact disease mechanisms are still poorly elucidated. Using congenic strains from the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat, we identified a 1.4-megabase genomic locus that was linked to impaired insulin granule docking at the plasma membrane and reduced beta cell exocytosis. In this locus, Adra2a, encoding the alpha2A-adrenergic receptor [alpha(2A)AR], was significantly overexpressed. Alpha(2A)AR mediates adrenergic suppression of insulin secretion. Pharmacological receptor antagonism, silencing of receptor expression, or blockade of downstream effectors rescued insulin secretion in congenic islets. Furthermore, we identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the human ADRA2A gene for which risk allele carriers exhibited overexpression of alpha(2A)AR, reduced insulin secretion, and increased type 2 diabetes risk. Human pancreatic islets from risk allele carriers exhibited reduced granule docking and secreted less insulin in response to glucose; both effects were counteracted by pharmacological alpha(2A)AR antagonists.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proper function of mammalian mitochondria necessitates a coordinated expression of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, most likely due to the co-evolution of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The non-protein coding regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) including the D-loop, tRNA and rRNA genes form a major component of this regulated expression unit. Here we present comparative analyses of the non-protein-coding regions from 27 Rattus norvegicus mtDNA sequences. There were two variable positions in 12S rRNA, 20 in 16S rRNA, eight within the tRNA genes and 13 in the D-loop. Only one of the three neutrality tests used demonstrated statistically significant evidence for selection in 16S rRNA and tRNA-Cys. Based on our analyses of conserved sequences, we propose that some of the variable nucleotide positions identified in 16S rRNA and tRNA-Cys, and the D-loop might be important for mitochondrial function and its regulation.
PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(12):e8148. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A genome-wide linkage analysis to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for bone phenotypes was performed in an F(2) intercross of inbred spontaneously type 2 diabetic GK and normoglycemic F344 rats (108 males and 98 females). The aim of the study was to locate genome regions with candidate genes affecting trabecular and cortical bone and to investigate the effects of sex and reciprocal cross. pQCT was used to determine tibial bone phenotypes in the F(2) rats, comprising reciprocal crosses with divergent mitochondrial (mt) DNA. Sex and reciprocal cross-separated QTL analyses were performed followed by assessment of specific interactions. Four genome-wide significant QTLs linked to either cortical vBMD, tibia length, body length, or metaphyseal area were identified in males on chromosomes (chr) 1, 8, and 15. In females, three significant QTLs linked to cortical BMC or metaphyseal total vBMD were identified on chr 1 and 2. Several additional suggestive loci for trabecular and cortical traits were detected in both males and females. Four female-specific QTLs on chr 2, 3, 5, and 10 and four reciprocal cross-specific QTLs on chr 1, 10, and 18 were identified, suggesting that both sex and mt genotype influence the expression of bone phenotypes.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 01/2009; 24(6):1066-74. · 6.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid factors (RF), autoantibodies that bind the Fc region of IgG, are one of the major diagnostic marker in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but occur with lower frequency also in other infectious and inflammatory conditions. Through positional cloning of the previously described quantitative trait locus (QTL) Rf1 in congenic and advanced intercrossed rats, we identified the Ig lambda light chain locus as a locus that regulates the production of RF in rats. The congenic rats produce RF-Ig lambda and have significant higher levels of RF-IgG and RF-IgM in serum, while the DA rat has an impaired RF production and does not produces RF-Ig lambda. Thus, we could investigate the role of RF in pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) as well as ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. We show that there was no difference in the development and severity of PIA between congenic and parental DA rats, suggesting that RF using lambda light chains have no impact on PIA. However, the RF producing congenic rats developed a more severe airway inflammation as indicated in the significantly increased number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as total IgE in serum. In addition, RF congenic rats had a significantly enhanced immune response toward OVA due to increased OVA-Igk but not OVA-Igl antibodies, suggesting a possible involvement of RF in the regulation of the humoral immune response.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2008; 105(37):14005-10. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) plays a critical role in osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis from osteoprogenitor cells. The balance between osteogenic and adipogenic effects is influenced by BMP2 concentration, transcription factors and age. BMP2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may contribute to osteoporosis risk, but the relationship between adiposity and body composition has not been explored. We investigated the relationship between BMP2 polymorphisms and body composition in young and elderly women.
Population-based association study.
Four BMP2 SNPs studied. Total body fat and lean mass measured by DEXA in two cohorts: 'PEAK-25' women aged 25 (+/-0.00) (n=993) and osteoporosis prospective risk assessment (OPRA) women aged 75 (+/-0.00) years (n=1001).
We found no association between BMP2 SNPs and fat or lean mass, however, we observed consistent although non-significant trends. Polymorphisms, rs235767 and Ser37Ala, exerted opposing effects on most parameters of soft tissue and bone mass in both cohorts. This relationship appeared to be age specific with large differences between alleles observed (fat mass; Ser37Ala: 14.3% (PEAK-25), -3.5% (OPRA)). These initial results appear to suggest that alleles exerting a beneficial effect in young women may subsequently contribute to phenotypes associated with osteoporosis risk in elderly women.
While further analyses in other comparative populations are necessary, in this study of almost 2000 women we observed interesting, although non-significant trends, regarding the effects of variation in the BMP2 gene on parameters of body mass. Although the exact nature of the relationship remains uncertain, we suggest that the mechanisms are influenced by age and environmental factors.
European Journal of Endocrinology 06/2008; 158(5):661-8. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous Icelandic studies reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) region and the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein ALOX5AP were associated with ischaemic stroke, whereas other studies reported ambiguous findings. We examined 932 ischaemic stroke patients from a Swedish population-based stroke register, and 396 control subjects. We assessed possible associations between ischaemic stroke and nine preselected SNPs in the chromosome regions of the PDE4D gene, including rs12188950 (SNP45) and rs3887175 (SNP39); the ALOX5AP gene, including rs17222814 (SG13S25) and the promoter region of the MHC class II transactivator, MHC2TA. The T allele of SNP45 showed negative association with ischaemic stroke (odds ratio, OR=0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.91; P=0.0055). Among hypertensive subjects, this influence of the T allele of SNP45, and the T allele of SNP39, were more pronounced (with OR=0.52; 95% CI: 0.37-0.73; P=0.0001 and OR=0.57; 95% CI: 0.41-0.79; P=0.0007, respectively). These SNPs also interacted with hypertension with a relative excess risk due to interaction of -1.66 (P=0.0002) for SNP45 and -1.65 (P=0.0005) for SNP39. The P-values remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Among nonhypertensives, the A allele of SG13S25 indicated increased stroke risk (OR=1.82; 95% CI: 1.21-2.74; P=0.0039; not significant after Bonferroni correction). SNP45 was associated with ischaemic stroke even when controlling for hypertension, diabetes, heart disease and smoking. Our meta-analysis of 13 studies (including ours) showed no overall influence of SNP45 on ischaemic stroke. However, the 13 studies may differ because of nonrandom causes, as suggested by the heterogeneity test (P=0.042). This might support previously undetected mechanisms causing fluctuating ischaemic stroke risk.
European Journal of HumanGenetics 05/2008; 16(9):1117-25. · 4.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a key regulator of calcium metabolism. Parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHrP) contributes to skeletal development through regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during early bone growth. Both PTH and PTHrP act through the same receptor (PTHR1). A second receptor, PTHR2, has been identified although its function is comparatively unknown. PTH hyper-secretion induces bone resorption, whereas intermittent injection of PTH increases bone mass. To explore the effects of genetic variation in the PTH pathway, we have analysed variations in PTH, PTHLH, PTHR1 and PTHR2 in relation to bone mass and fracture incidence in elderly women.
This study includes 1044 elderly women, all 75 years old, from the Malmö Osteoporosis Prospective Risk Assessment study (OPRA). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 4 genes and derived haplotypes in the PTH signaling pathway were analysed in 745-1005 women; 6 SNPs in the PTH gene and 3 SNPs each in the PTHLH, PTHR1 and PTHR2 genes were investigated in relation to BMD (assessed at baseline), fracture (434 prevalent fractures of all types over lifetime, self-reported and 174 incident fractures up to 7 years, X-ray verified) and serum PTH.
Individually, SNPs in the 4 loci did not show any significant association with BMD. Neither were PTHLH, PTHR1 and PTHR2 polymorphisms associated with fracture. Three of 5 common haplotypes, accounting for >98% of alleles at the PTH locus, were identified as independent predictors of fracture. Haplotype 9 (19%) was suggestive of an association with fractures of any type sustained during lifetime (p=0.018), with carriers of one or more copies of the haplotype having the lowest incidence (p=0.006). Haplotypes 1 (13%) and 5 (37%) and 9 were suggestive of an association with fractures sustained between 50 and 75 years (p=0.02, p=0.013 and p=0.034). Carriers of haplotypes 1 and 5 were more likely to suffer a fracture (haplotype 1, p=0.045; haplotype 5, p=0.008). We conclude, that while further genotyping across the gene is recommended, in this cohort of elderly Swedish women, polymorphisms in PTH may contribute to the risk of fracture through mechanisms that are independent of BMD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin secretion in pancreatic islets is dependent upon mitochondrial function and production of ATP. The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (protein PGC-1alpha; gene PPARGC1A) is a master regulator of mitochondrial genes and its expression is decreased and related to impaired oxidative phosphorylation in muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes. Whether it plays a similar role in human pancreatic islets is not known. We therefore investigated if PPARGC1A expression is altered in islets from patients with type 2 diabetes and whether this expression is influenced by genetic (PPARGC1A Gly482Ser polymorphism) and epigenetic (DNA methylation) factors. We also tested if experimental downregulation of PPARGC1A expression in human islets influenced insulin secretion.
The PPARGC1A Gly482Ser polymorphism was genotyped in human pancreatic islets from 48 non-diabetic and 12 type 2 diabetic multi-organ donors and related to PPARGC1A mRNA expression. DNA methylation of the PPARGC1A promoter was analysed in pancreatic islets from ten type 2 diabetic and nine control donors. Isolated human islets were transfected with PPARGC1A silencing RNA (siRNA).
PPARGC1A mRNA expression was reduced by 90% (p<0.005) and correlated with the reduction in insulin secretion in islets from patients with type 2 diabetes. After downregulation of PPARGC1A expression in human islets by siRNA, insulin secretion was reduced by 41% (p <or= 0. 01). We were able to ascribe reduced PPARGC1A expression in islets to both genetic and epigenetic factors, i.e. a common PPARGC1A Gly482Ser polymorphism was associated with reduced PPARGC1A mRNA expression (p<0.00005) and reduced insulin secretion (p<0.05). In support of an epigenetic influence, the PPARGC1A gene promoter showed a twofold increase in DNA methylation in diabetic islets compared with non-diabetic islets (p<0.04).
We have shown for the first time that PPARGC1A might be important in human islet insulin secretion and that expression of PPARGC1A in human islets can be regulated by both genetic and epigenetic factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) plays a key role in bone formation and maintenance. Studies of polymorphisms within the gene in relation to bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture have been inconsistent. Our aim was to investigate associations between polymorphisms in the BMP2 gene and bone mass, fracture, and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measures at different stages of skeletal development. Study subjects were participants of two population-based cohorts of Swedish women: the PEAK-25 cohort of young adult women aged 25 years (n = 993) and the OPRA cohort of elderly women aged 75 years (n = 1,001). We analyzed four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the BMP2 gene including the Ser37Ala SNP previously identified in relation to BMD, QUS of the calcaneus, and, in the elderly women, fracture. BMP2 gene variations were associated with QUS of bone, independent of BMD, but only in the young women. Even after adjusting for confounding factors, SNP rs235754 in the 3' region of the gene was significantly associated with the ultrasound parameters speed of sound (P = 0.003) and stiffness (P = 0.002). The 5' SNP rs235710 showed trends for QUS parameters (P = 0.02-0.07). No association with BMP2 SNPs was observed in either cohort for either BMD or fracture. While further, more extensive genotyping across the gene is recommended, as we may not have captured all information, our preliminary data suggest that variation in BMP2 may play a previously unidentified role in aspects of bone quality, which may be age- and site-dependent.
Calcified Tissue International 11/2007; 81(4):254-62. · 2.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of genetic variation on molecular functions predisposing to type 2 diabetes are still largely unknown. Here, in a specifically designed diabetes model, we couple separate gene loci to mechanisms of beta-cell pathology. Niddm1i is a major glucose-controlling 16-Mb region in the diabetic GK rat that causes defective insulin secretion and corresponds to loci in humans and mice associated with type 2 diabetes. Generation of a series of congenic rat strains harboring different parts of GK-derived Niddm1i enabled fine mapping of this locus. Congenic strains carrying the GK genotype distally in Niddm1i displayed reduced insulin secretion in response to both glucose and high potassium, as well as decreased single-cell exocytosis. By contrast, a strain carrying the GK genotype proximally in Niddm1i exhibited both intact insulin release in response to high potassium and intact single-cell exocytosis, but insulin secretion was suppressed when stimulated by glucose. Islets from this strain also failed to respond to glucose by increasing the cellular ATP-to-ADP ratio. Changes in beta-cell mass did not contribute to the secretory defects. We conclude that the failure of insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes includes distinct functional defects in glucose metabolism and insulin exocytosis of the beta-cell and that their genetic fundaments are encoded by different loci within Niddm1i.