[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin resistance is a common hallmark of obesity. Rats on a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet are resistant to peripherally administered leptin. The aim of this study was to investigate feeding responses to central leptin as well as the associated changes in mRNA levels in hypothalamic and mesolimbic brain areas.
Rats on a CHOW or fcHFHS diet for 8 days received leptin or vehicle intracerebro(lateral)ventricularly (ICV) and food intake was measured 5 h and 24 h later. Four days later, rats were sacrificed after ICV leptin or vehicle and mRNA levels were quantified for hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and for preproenkephalin (ppENK) in nucleus accumbens and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in ventral tegmental area (VTA).
ICV leptin decreased caloric intake both in CHOW and fcHFHS rats. In fcHFHS, leptin preferentially decreased chow and fat intake. Leptin increased POMC and decreased NPY mRNA in CHOW, but not in fcHFHS rats. In CHOW rats, leptin had no effect on ppENK mRNA and decreased TH mRNA. In fcHFHS, leptin decreased ppENK mRNA and increased TH mRNA.
Despite peripheral and arcuate leptin resistance, central leptin suppresses feeding in fcHFHS rats. As the VTA and nucleus accumbens are still responsive to leptin, these brain areas may therefore, at least partly, account for the leptin-induced feeding suppression in rats on a fcHFHS diet.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87729. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as Olanzapine (Ola) induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these undesired side-effects are currently unknown. Chagnon et al. showed that the common allele rs7973796 of the prepro-melanin-concentrating hormone (PMCH) gene is associated with a greater body mass index in Ola-treated schizophrenic patients. As PMCH encodes for the orexigenic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), it was hypothesized that MCH is involved in Ola-induced metabolic changes. We have recently reported that the intragastric infusion of Ola results in hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance in male rats. In order to test in vivo the possible involvement of the PMCH gene in the pathogenesis of Ola side-effects, we administered Ola intragastrically in wild-type (WT) and PMCH knock-out (KO) rats. Our results show that glucose and corticosterone levels, as well as endogenous glucose production, are elevated by the infusion of Ola in both WT and KO animals. Thus, the lack of MCH does not seem to affect the acute effects of Ola on glucose metabolism. On the other hand, these effects might be obliterated by compensatory changes in other hypothalamic systems. In addition, possible modulatory effects of the MCH KO on the long term effects of Ola, i.e. increased adiposity, body weight gain, have not been investigated yet.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is an effective therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and is currently under investigation as a treatment for eating disorders. DBS of this area is associated with altered food intake and pharmacological treatment of OCD is associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Therefore we examined if DBS of the NAc-shell (sNAc) influences glucose metabolism. Male Wistar rats were subjected to DBS, or sham stimulation, for a period of 1 h. To assess the effects of stimulation on blood glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, blood samples were drawn before, during and after stimulation. Subsequently, all animals were used for quantitative assessment of Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) using computerized image analysis. DBS of the sNAc rapidly increased plasma concentrations of glucagon and glucose while sham stimulation and DBS outside the sNAc were ineffective. In addition, the increase in glucose was dependent on DBS intensity. In contrast, the DBS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentrations was independent of intensity and region, indicating that the observed DBS-induced metabolic changes were not due to corticosterone release. Stimulation of the sNAc with 200 μA increased Fos immunoreactivity in the LHA compared to sham or 100 μA stimulated animals. These data show that DBS of the sNAc alters glucose metabolism in a region- and intensity- dependent manner in association with neuronal activation in the LHA. Moreover, these data illustrate the need to monitor changes in glucose metabolism during DBS-treatment of OCD patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term reduced hypothalamic estrogen signaling leads to increased food intake and decreased locomotor activity and energy expenditure, and ultimately results in obesity and insulin resistance. In the current study, we aimed to determine the acute obesity-independent effects of hypothalamic estrogen signaling on glucose metabolism. We studied endogenous glucose production (EGP) and insulin sensitivity during selective modulation of systemic or intrahypothalamic estradiol (E2) signaling in rats 1 week after ovariectomy. Ovariectomy caused a 17% decrease in plasma glucose, which was completely restored by systemic E2. Likewise, the administration of E2 by microdialysis, either in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or in the ventromedial nucleus (VMH), restored plasma glucose. The infusion of an E2 antagonist via reverse microdialysis into the PVN or VMH attenuated the effect of systemic E2 on plasma glucose. Furthermore, E2 administration in the VMH, but not in the PVN, increased EGP and induced hepatic insulin resistance. E2 administration in both the PVN and the VMH resulted in peripheral insulin resistance. Finally, sympathetic, but not parasympathetic, hepatic denervation blunted the effect of E2 in the VMH on both EGP and hepatic insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, intrahypothalamic estrogen regulates peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity via sympathetic signaling to the liver.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-energy diets that induce obesity decrease striatal dopamine D(2/3) receptor (DRD(2/3)) availability. It is however poorly understood which components of these diets are underlying this decrease. This study assessed the role of saturated fat intake on striatal DRD(2/3) availability. Forty rats were randomized to a free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet (HFHS) or a standard chow diet for 28 days. Striatal DRD(2/3) availability was measured using (123)I-IBZM storage phosphor imaging at day 29. The HFHS group was split in a HFHS-high-fat (HFHS-hf) and HFHS-low-fat (HFHS-lf) group based on the percentage energy intake from fat. Rats of both HFHS subgroups had increased energy intake, abdominal fat stores and plasma leptin levels compared with controls. DRD(2/3) availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) was significantly lower in HFHS-hf than in HFHS-lf rats, whereas it was similar for HFHS-lf and control rats. Furthermore, DRD(2/3) availability in the NAcc was positively correlated with the percentage energy intake from sugar. Total energy intake was lower for HFHS-hf than for HFHS-lf rats. Together these results suggest that a diet with a high fat/carbohydrate ratio, but not total energy intake or the level of adiposity, is the best explanation for the decrease in striatal DRD(2/3) availability observed in diet-induced obesity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 7 August 2012; doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.128.
International journal of obesity (2005) 08/2012; · 5.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen plays an important role in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, but the neuroendocrine pathways and the role of estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes involved in specific aspects of this interaction remain unknown. In a first set of experiments, we administered estradiol (E2) intravenously, intracerebroventricularly, and by intrahypothalamic microdialysis to ovariectomized rats to measure plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations from carotid artery blood. Systemic infusion of E2 did not increase plasma CORT, but intracerebroventricular E2 induced a 3-fold CORT increase (P = 0.012). Local E2 infusions in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) significantly increased plasma CORT (P < 0.001). A similar CORT increase was seen after PVN infusion of the ERα agonist propylpyrazoletriol, whereas the ERβ agonist diarylpropiolnitrile had no effect. In a second set of experiments, we investigated whether E2 modulates the HPA-axis response to acute stress by administering E2 agonists or its antagonist ICI 182,780 into the PVN during restraint stress exposure. After 30 min of stress exposure, plasma CORT had increased 5.0-fold (P < 0.001). E2 and propylpyrazoletriol administration in the PVN enhanced the stress-induced plasma CORT increase (8-fold vs. baseline), whereas ICI 182,780 and diarylpropiolnitrile reduced it, as compared with both E2 and vehicle administration in the PVN. In conclusion, central E2 modulates HPA-axis activity both in the basal state and during restraint stress. In the basal condition, the stimulation is mediated by ERα-sensitive neurons, whereas during stress, it is mediated by both ERα and ERβ.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep deprivation affects cognitive functions that depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) such as cognitive flexibility, and the consolidation of newly learned information. The identification of cognitive processes that are either robustly sensitive or robustly insensitive to the same experimental sleep deprivation procedure, will allow us to better focus on the specific effects of sleep on cognition, and increase understanding of the mechanisms involved. In the present study we investigate whether sleep deprivation differentially affects the two separate cognitive processes of acquisition and consolidation of a spatial reversal task. After training on a spatial discrimination between two levers in a Skinner box, male Wistar rats were exposed to a reversal of the previously learned stimulus-response contingency. We first evaluated the effect of sleep deprivation on the acquisition of reversal learning. Performance on reversal learning after 12h of sleep deprivation (n=12) was compared to performance after control conditions (n=12). The second experiment evaluated the effect of sleep deprivation on the consolidation of reversal learning; the first session of reversal learning was followed by 3h of nap prevention (n=8) or undisturbed control conditions (n=8). The experiments had sufficient statistical power (0.90 and 0.81, respectively) to detect differences with medium effect sizes. Neither the acquisition, nor the consolidation, of reversal learning was affected by acute sleep deprivation. Together with previous findings, these results help to further delineate the role of sleep in cognitive processing.
Behavioural brain research 02/2012; 230(1):40-7. · 3.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The function of sleep in physiology, behaviour and cognition has become a primary focus of neuroscience. Its study inevitably includes experimental sleep deprivation designs. However, concerns exist regarding confounds like stress, increased locomotor activity levels, and decreased motivation to perform operant tasks induced by the methods employed. We here propose a novel procedure for sleep deprivation in rats and evaluate how it affects sleep, corticosterone concentration profiles, locomotor activity levels, and motivation to perform an operant task. Before, during and after 12h of total sleep deprivation by means of gradually increasing the rotation variability and the speed of a novel automated, two-compartment sleep deprivation device, sleep-wake states were assessed by electroencephalography (n=21), brain extracellular corticosterone concentrations using microdialysis (n=11), locomotor activity by infrared measurements (n=8), and operant performance using a fixed-interval-fixed-ratio task (n=16). Sleep was effectively prevented during the procedure; rats on average slept less than 1% of the time (0.8±0.2%, mean±standard error). Brain corticosterone concentrations were mildly increased during the procedure, but did not exceed normal peak concentrations. Locomotor activity was not only increased during the procedure, but also did not exceed the peak levels found during undisturbed wakefulness. Food restriction to 12 g/rat/day prevented sleep deprivation from reducing the motivation to perform an operant task. This novel procedure can be applied to sleep deprive rats in a highly effective way, while keeping corticosterone and locomotor activity within the normal range.
Journal of neuroscience methods 03/2011; 196(1):107-17. · 2.30 Impact Factor