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Publications (6)20.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: An immature vasa vasorum in the adventitia of arteries has been implicated in induction of the formation of unstable atherosclerotic plaques. Normalization/maturation of the vasa vasorum may be an attractive therapeutic approach for arteriosclerotic diseases. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a pleotropic molecule with angiogenic activity in addition to neural growth effects. However, whether NGF affects the formation of microvessels in addition to innervation during pathological angiogenesis is unclear. In the present study, we show a new role for NGF in neovessels around injured arterial walls using a novel in vivo angiogenesis assay. The vasa vasorum around arterial walls was induced to grow using wire-mediated mouse femoral arterial injury. When collagen-coated tube (CCT) was placed beside the injured artery for 7-14days, microvessels grew two-dimensionally in a thin layer on the CCT (CCT-membrane) in accordance with the development of the vasa vasorum. The perivascular nerve was found at not only arterioles but also capillaries in the CCT-membrane. Biodegradable hydrogels containing VEGF and NGF were applied around the injured artery/CCT. VEGF significantly increased the total length and instability of microvessels within the CCT-membrane. In contrast, NGF induced regeneration of the peripheral nerve around the microvessels and induced the maturation and stabilization of microvessels. In an ex vivo nerve-free angiogenesis assay, although NGF potentially stimulated vascular sprouting from aorta tissues, no effects of NGF on vascular maturation were observed. These data demonstrated that NGF had potent angiogenic effects on the microvessels around the injured artery, and especially induced the maturation/stabilization of microvessels in accordance with the regeneration of perivascular nerves.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In contrast to the widely accepted images of the Golgi apparatus as a cup-like shape, the Golgi in pituitary gonadotropes is organized as a spherical shape in which the outer and inner faces are cis- and trans-Golgi elements, respectively. At the center of the spherical Golgi, a pair of centrioles is situated as a microtubule-organizing center from which radiating microtubules isotropically extend toward the cell periphery. This review focuses on the significance of the characteristic organization of the Golgi and microtubule network in gonadotropes, considering the roles of microtubule-dependent membrane transport in the formation and maintenance of the Golgi structure. Because the highly symmetrical organization of the Golgi is possibly perturbed in response to experimental treatments of gonadotropes, monitoring of the Golgi structure in gonadotropes under various experimental conditions will be a novel in vivo approach to elucidate the biogenesis of the Golgi apparatus.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 10/2013; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Axonal injury and demyelination are observed in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. However, pathological changes that underlie these morphologies are not fully understood. We examined in vivo morphological changes using a new histological technique, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with osmium maceration method to observe three-dimensional structures such as myelin and axons in the spinal cord. Myelin basic protein-deficient shiverer mice and mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) were used to visualize how morphological changes in myelin and axons are induced by dysmyelination and demyelination. SEM revealed following morphological changes during dysmyelination of shiverer mice. First, enriched mitochondria and well-developed sER in axons were observed in shiverer, but not in wild-type mice. Second, the processes from some perinodal glial cells ran parallel to internodes of axons in addition to the process that covered the nodal region of the axon in shiverer mice. Last, this technique left myelin and axonal structures undisturbed. Moreover, SEM images showed clear variations in the ultrastructural abnormalities of myelin and axons in the white matter of the EAE spinal cord. This technique will be a powerful tool for identifying the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis in demyelination.
    Neuroscience Research 02/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prior to secretion, regulated peptide hormones are selectively sorted to secretory granules (SGs) at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in endocrine cells. Secretogranin III (SgIII) appears to facilitate SG sorting process by tethering of protein aggregates containing chromogranin A (CgA) and peptide hormones to the cholesterol-rich SG membrane (SGM). Here, we evaluated the role of SgIII in SG sorting in AtT-20 cells transfected with small interfering RNA targeting SgIII. In the SgIII-knockdown cells, the intracellular retention of CgA was greatly impaired, and only a trace amount of CgA was localized within the vacuoles formed in the TGN, confirming the significance of SgIII in both the tethering of CgA-containing aggregates and the establishment of the proper SG morphology. Although the intracellular retention of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) was considerably impaired in SgIII-knockdown cells, residual ACTH/POMC was still localized to some few remaining SGs together with another granin protein, secretogranin II (SgII), and was secreted in a regulated manner. Biochemical analyses indicated that SgII bound directly to the SGM in a cholesterol-dependent manner and was able to retain the aggregated form of POMC, revealing a latent redundancy in the SG sorting and retention mechanisms, that ensures the regulated secretion of bioactive peptides.
    Traffic 11/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disruption of epithelial barrier function was identified as one of the pathologic mechanisms in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Epithelial barrier consists of various intercellular junctions, in which the tight junction (TJ) is an important component. However, the regulatory mechanism of tight junction is still not clear. Here we examined the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in the epithelial barrier function on Caco-2 monolayers using a specific FAK inhibitor, PF-573, 228 (PF-228). We found that the decrease of transepithelial resistance and the increase of paracellular permeability were accompanied with the inhibition of autophosphorylation of FAK by PF-228 treatment. In addition, PF-228 inhibited the FAK phosphorylation at Y576/577 on activation loop by Src, suggesting Src-dependent regulation of FAK in Caco-2 monolayers. In an ethanol-induced barrier injury model, PF-228 treatment also inhibited the recovery of transepithelial resistance as well as these phosphorylations of FAK. In a sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, FAK co-localized with claudin-1, an element of the TJ complex, and they co-migrate after ethanol-induced barrier injury. Immunofluorescence imaging analysis revealed that PF-228 inhibited the FAK redistribution to the cell border and reassembly of TJ proteins in the recovery after ethanol-induced barrier injury. Finally, knockdown of FAK by siRNA resulted in the decrease of transepithelial resistance. These findings reveal that activation of FAK is necessary for maintaining and repairing epithelial barrier in Caco-2 cell monolayer via regulating TJ redistribution.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease 10/2012; · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In polarized exocrine cells, the Golgi apparatus is cup-shaped and its convex and concave surfaces are designated as cis and trans faces, functionally confronting the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the cell surface, respectively. To clarify the morphological characteristics of the Golgi apparatus in non-polarized endocrine cells, the investigators immunocytochemically examined its precise architecture in pituitary gonadotropes, especially in relation to the arrangement of the intracellular microtubule network. The Golgi apparatus in the gonadotropes was not cup-shaped but ball-shaped or spherical, and its outer and inner surfaces were the cis and trans faces, respectively. Centrioles were situated at the center of the Golgi apparatus, from which radiating microtubules isotropically extended to the cell periphery through the gaps in the spherical wall of the Golgi stack. The shape of the Golgi apparatus and the arrangement of microtubules demonstrated in the present study could explain the microtubule-dependent movements of tubulovesicular carriers and granules within the gonadotropes. Furthermore, the spherical shape of the Golgi apparatus possibly reflects the highly symmetrical arrangement of microtubule arrays, as well as the poor polarity in the cell surface of pituitary gonadotropes.
    Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 05/2012; 60(8):588-602. · 2.26 Impact Factor