[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In veterinary medicine, there have been different experiences with the plasmid DNA vaccination. In this area and with the hypothesis to demonstrate the effectiveness of different plasmids encoding porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS), five DNA vaccines against PRRS were evaluated for their innocuity and efficacy in pigs. Eighteen animals were divided into five groups which were injected with five (A, B, C, D, E) different DNA vaccines. Albeit, none of the proposed vaccines were able to protect the animals against PRRS virus. Only vaccines A and B were able to reduce the clinical signs of the infection. ELISA IgM were detected 30 days after the first vaccination in the pigs injected by Vaccine A or B. ELISA IgG were detected 90 days after the first vaccination in the pigs injected by Vaccine B or C. Neutralizing antibody were detected Post Challenge Days 61 (PCD) in all groups. In the pigs inoculated with Vaccine C, IFN- were detected 90 days after first vaccination, and after challenge exposure they increased In the othergroups, the IFN- were detected after challenge infection. Pigs injected with each of the vaccines A, B, C, D and E showed a significantly higher level of CD4−CD8+ lymphocytes (p < 0.001) after infection in comparison with their controls.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dogma that life without insulin is incompatible has recently been challenged by results showing the viability of insulin-deficient rodents undergoing leptin monotherapy. Yet, the mechanisms underlying these actions of leptin are unknown. Here, the metabolic outcomes of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of leptin in mice devoid of insulin and lacking or re-expressing leptin receptors (LEPRs) only in selected neuronal groups were assessed. Our results demonstrate that concomitant re-expression of LEPRs only in hypothalamic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons is sufficient to fully mediate the lifesaving and antidiabetic actions of leptin in insulin deficiency. Our analyses indicate that enhanced glucose uptake by brown adipose tissue and soleus muscle, as well as improved hepatic metabolism, underlies these effects of leptin. Collectively, our data elucidate a hypothalamic-dependent pathway enabling life without insulin and hence pave the way for developing better treatments for diseases of insulin deficiency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) often expresses mutant KRAS together with tumor-associated mutations of the CDKN2A locus, which are associated with aggressive, therapy-resistant tumors. Here, we unravel specific requirements for the maintenance of NSCLC that carry this genotype. We establish that the ERK/RHOA/focal adhesion kinase (FAK) network is deregulated in high-grade lung tumors. Suppression of RHOA or FAK induces cell death selectively in mutant KRAS;INK4a/ARF deficient lung cancer cells. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of FAK caused tumor regression specifically in the high-grade lung cancer that developed in mutant Kras;Cdkn2a-null mice. Our findings provide the rationale for the rapid implementation of genotype-specific targeted therapies utilizing FAK inhibitors in cancer patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis and protects against metabolic decline, but whether SIRT1 mediates these benefits is the subject of debate. To circumvent the developmental defects of germline SIRT1 knockouts, we have developed an inducible system that permits whole-body deletion of SIRT1 in adult mice. Mice treated with a moderate dose of resveratrol showed increased mitochondrial biogenesis and function, AMPK activation, and increased NAD(+) levels in skeletal muscle, whereas SIRT1 knockouts displayed none of these benefits. A mouse overexpressing SIRT1 mimicked these effects. A high dose of resveratrol activated AMPK in a SIRT1-independent manner, demonstrating that resveratrol dosage is a critical factor. Importantly, at both doses of resveratrol no improvements in mitochondrial function were observed in animals lacking SIRT1. Together these data indicate that SIRT1 plays an essential role in the ability of moderate doses of resveratrol to stimulate AMPK and improve mitochondrial function both in vitro and in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic feeding on high-calorie diets causes obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), illnesses that affect hundreds of millions. Thus, understanding the pathways protecting against diet-induced metabolic imbalance is of paramount medical importance. Here, we show that mice lacking SIRT1 in steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) neurons are hypersensitive to dietary obesity owing to maladaptive energy expenditure. Also, mutant mice have increased susceptibility to developing dietary T2DM due to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Mechanistically, these aberrations arise, in part, from impaired metabolic actions of the neuropeptide orexin-A and the hormone leptin. Conversely, mice overexpressing SIRT1 in SF1 neurons are more resistant to diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance due to increased energy expenditure and enhanced skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Our results unveil important protective roles of SIRT1 in SF1 neurons against dietary metabolic imbalance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In virtually all organisms, life expectancy is profoundly affected by caloric intake. For example, dietary restriction (DR; a feeding regimen of fewer calories compared to the ad libitum level without causing malnutrition) has been shown to lengthen, whereas hypercaloric (HC) diet feeding to shorten, lifespan. Recent findings in invertebrates indicate that specialized groups of cells (e.g.: metabolic-sensing neurons) detect changes in caloric intake and convey energy-status-variation signals to other cells in the body to regulate lifespan. In mammals, whether metabolic-sensing neurons govern aging in a cell-non-autonomous fashion is unknown. Yet, this is a captivating and testable hypothesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin monotherapy reverses the deadly consequences and improves several of the metabolic imbalances caused by insulin-deficient type 1 diabetes (T1D) in rodents. However, the mechanism(s) underlying these effects is totally unknown. Here, we report that intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of leptin reverses lethality and greatly improves hyperglycemia, hyperglucagonemia, hyperketonemia, and polyuria caused by insulin deficiency in mice. Notably, icv leptin administration leads to increased body weight while suppressing food intake, thus correcting the catabolic consequences of T1D. Also, icv leptin delivery improves expression of the metabolically relevant hypothalamic neuropeptides proopiomelanocortin, neuropeptide Y, and agouti-related peptide in T1D mice. Furthermore, this treatment normalizes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 contents without affecting glycogen levels in the liver. Pancreatic β-cell regeneration does not underlie these beneficial effects of leptin, because circulating insulin levels were undetectable at basal levels and following a glucose overload. Also, pancreatic preproinsulin mRNA was completely absent in these icv leptin-treated T1D mice. Furthermore, the antidiabetic effects of icv leptin administration rapidly vanished (i.e., within 48 h) after leptin treatment was interrupted. Collectively, these results unveil a key role for the brain in mediating the antidiabetic actions of leptin in the context of T1D.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2010; 107(40):17391-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Feeding on high-calorie (HC) diets induces serious metabolic imbalances, including obesity. Understanding the mechanisms against excessive body weight gain is critical for developing effective antiobesity strategies. Here we show that lack of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons causes hypersensitivity to diet-induced obesity due to reduced energy expenditure. The ability of leptin to properly engage the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in POMC neurons and elicit remodeling of perigonadal white adipose tissue (WAT) is severely compromised in mutant mice. Also, electrophysiological and histomorphomolecular analyses indicate a selective reduction in sympathetic nerve activity and brown-fat-like characteristics in perigonadal WAT of mutant mice, suggesting a physiologically important role for POMC neurons in controlling this visceral fat depot. In summary, our results provide direct genetic evidence that SIRT1 in POMC neurons is required for normal autonomic adaptations against diet-induced obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sirtuins are deacetylases and/or mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases found in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. These enzymes use oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and a long array of different proteins (e.g.: histones, transcription factors, cofactors, members of the electron transport chain, etc.) as substrates. Sirtuins-mediated reactions yield deacetylated proteins, nicotinamide (NAM) and 2'-O-acetyl-ADP-ribose (O-AADPr) or mono-ADP-ribosylated proteins and NAM. As these post-translational modifications change the activity of their targets and sirtuins depend on NAD(+) to function, these enzymes are thought to link metabolic statuses with cellular gene expression, activity and fate; as such sirtuins are thought to be bona fide metabolic-sensor proteins. Due to their diverse targets, sirtuins affect metabolism, senescence, longevity, circadian rhythms and many other biological and physiological programs. In this review we focus on their known roles on metabolic homeostasis with particular emphasis on their functions in neurons within the central nervous system (CNS). We also touch upon the possible metabolic outcomes of pharmacological manipulations of CNS sirtuins.
Pharmacological Research 02/2010; 62(1):48-54. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mounting clinical and experimental evidence suggests that the shift of carcinomas towards a mesenchymal phenotype is a common paradigm for both resistance to therapy and tumor recurrence. However, the mesenchymalization of carcinomas has not yet entered clinical practice as a crucial diagnostic paradigm.
By integrating in silico and in vitro studies with our epithelial and mesenchymal tumor models, we compare herein crucial molecular pathways of previously described carcinoma-derived mesenchymal tumor cells (A17) with that of both carcinomas and other mesenchymal phenotypes, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), breast stroma, and various types of sarcomas. We identified three mesenchymal/stromal-signatures which A17 cells shares with MSCs and breast stroma. By using a recently developed computational approach with publicly available microarray data, we show that these signatures: 1) significantly relates to basal-like breast cancer subtypes; 2) significantly relates to bone metastasis; 3) are up-regulated after hormonal treatment; 4) predict resistance to neoadjuvant therapies.
Our results demonstrate that mesenchymalization is an intrinsic property of the most aggressive tumors and it relates to therapy resistance as well as bone metastasis.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(11):e14131. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four DNA vaccines against BoHV-1 were evaluated for their efficacy in calves. Twelve animals were divided into four groups which were injected with four different DNA vaccines: pVAX-tgD (Vaccine A); pVAX-tgD co-immunised with pVAX-48CpG (Vaccine B); pVAX-UbiLacI-tgD-L (Vaccine C); pVAX-UbiLacI-tgD-L co-immunised with pVAX-48CpG (Vaccine D). Three additional calves were given the plasmid vector and served as controls. Ninety days after the first vaccination all calves were challenge infected with BoHV-1. All animals developed a severe form of infections bovine rhinotracheitis. Only the calves given the pVAX-tgD co-immunised with pVAX-48CpG (Vaccine B) developed humoral antibodies against BoHV-1 between 56 and 90 days after the first vaccination, whereas in calves of other groups and in the controls, antibodies appeared only after the infection. In the calves vaccinated with either pVAX-tgD (Vaccine A) or pVAX-tgD combined with pVAX-48CpG (Vaccine B), BoHV-1-specific IFN-γ secreting cells were detected in PBMCs 90 days after the first vaccination and their number increased after challenge exposure. In the other groups the IFN-γ secreting cells were detected after virus infection and at low values.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound that activates nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase SIRT1. Resveratrol has recently been shown to exert potent antidiabetic actions when orally delivered to animal models of type 2 diabetes. However, the tissue(s) mediating these beneficial effects is unknown. Because SIRT1 is expressed in central nervous system (CNS) neurons known to control glucose and insulin homeostasis, we hypothesized that resveratrol antidiabetic effects are mediated by the brain. Here, we report that long-term intracerebroventricular infusion of resveratrol normalizes hyperglycemia and greatly improves hyperinsulinemia in diet-induced obese and diabetic mice. It is noteworthy that these effects are independent of changes in body weight, food intake, and circulating leptin levels. In addition, CNS resveratrol delivery improves hypothalamic nuclear factor-kappaB inflammatory signaling by reducing acetylated-RelA/p65 and total RelA/p65 protein contents, and inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB alpha and IkappaB kinase beta mRNA levels. Furthermore, this treatment leads to reduced hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 mRNA and protein levels and ameliorates pyruvate-induced hyperglycemia in this mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Collectively, our results unveiled a previously unrecognized key role for the CNS in mediating the antidiabetic actions of resveratrol.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals who live in industrialized countries often eat a calorie-rich diet and perform little physical activity. These habits are thought to be critical contributors to the rapidly rising incidence of obesity, a condition that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. High-calorie intake alters metabolic-sensing pathways in central nervous system neurons, and these changes have pathogenic roles in the development of obesity. This review aims to summarize our current knowledge about the neuronal populations (the central melanocortin system in particular) and transcriptional regulators, including STAT3 and FOXO1, that are involved in the maintenance of normal body weight. We describe the interactions between these transcriptional factors and their target genes, which encode the main appetite-regulating neuropeptides (agouti-related peptide and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone). We discuss the transcriptional co-activator PGC-1-alpha and the supposed metabolic-sensor protein SIRT1, and their potential roles as targets for novel antiobesity medications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SIRT1 is a nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase that orchestrates key metabolic adaptations to nutrient deprivation in peripheral tissues. SIRT1 is induced also in the brain by reduced energy intake. However, very little is known about SIRT1 distribution and the biochemical phenotypes of SIRT1-expressing cells in the neuraxis. Unknown are also the brain sites in which SIRT1 is regulated by energy availability and whether these regulations are altered in a genetic model of obesity. To address these issues, we performed in situ hybridization histochemistry analyses and found that Sirt1 mRNA is highly expressed in metabolically relevant sites. These include, but are not limited to, the hypothalamic arcuate, ventromedial, dorsomedial, and paraventricular nuclei and the area postrema and the nucleus of the solitary tract in the hindbrain. Of note, our single-cell reverse transcription-PCR analyses revealed that Sirt1 mRNA is expressed in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons that are critical for normal body weight and glucose homeostasis. We also found that SIRT1 protein levels are restrictedly increased in the hypothalamus in the fasted brain. Of note, we found that this hypothalamic-specific, fasting-induced SIRT1 regulation is altered in leptin-deficient, obese mice. Collectively, our findings establish the distribution of Sirt1 mRNA throughout the neuraxis and suggest a previously unrecognized role of brain SIRT1 in regulating energy homeostasis.
Journal of Neuroscience 11/2008; 28(40):9989-96. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown that electroporation of plasmid carrying extracellular and transmembrane domains (EC-TM plasmid) encoded by the rat neu oncogene triggers a protective immune response toward rat p185(neu)-positive tumors in both wild-type BALB/c mice and cancer-prone rat neu-transgenic BALB-neuT mice. To identify the critical fragments that confer this protective immunity, mice were electroporated with plasmids encoding the TM domain associated with decreasing fragments of the EC domain and the antitumor protection afforded, the titer of antibody, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity elicited to Neu protein were evaluated. Plasmids encoding EC fragments shortened by 70 (EC1-TM plasmid), 150 (EC2-TM), 230 (EC3-TM), 310 (EC4-TM), and 390 (EC5-TM) NH(2)-terminal residues afforded effective protection. Plasmids encoding shorter truncated proteins were ineffective. When the immunogenic protein was retained in the cytoplasm (EC1-TM, EC2-TM, and EC5-TM), only a CTL response was elicited, whereas when it was also expressed on the membrane (EC4-TM) both CTLs and antibodies were induced. EC4-TM encoding a truncated protein with an EC portion of only 344 amino acids conferred protection on both BALB/c and BALB-neuT mice comparable to that of EC-TM.
Human Gene Therapy 04/2008; 19(3):229-40. · 4.02 Impact Factor