[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor suppressor gene TUSC2/FUS1 (TUSC2) is frequently inactivated early in lung cancer development. TUSC2 mediates apoptosis in cancer cells but not normal cells by upregulation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. No drug strategies currently exist targeting loss-of-function genetic abnormalities. We report the first in-human systemic gene therapy clinical trial of tumor suppressor gene TUSC2.
Patients with recurrent and/or metastatic lung cancer previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy were treated with escalating doses of intravenous N-[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTAP):cholesterol nanoparticles encapsulating a TUSC2 expression plasmid (DOTAP:chol-TUSC2) every 3 weeks.
Thirty-one patients were treated at 6 dose levels (range 0.01 to 0.09 milligrams per kilogram). The MTD was determined to be 0.06 mg/kg. Five patients achieved stable disease (2.6-10.8 months, including 2 minor responses). One patient had a metabolic response on positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. RT-PCR analysis detected TUSC2 plasmid expression in 7 of 8 post-treatment tumor specimens but not in pretreatment specimens and peripheral blood lymphocyte controls. Proximity ligation assay, performed on paired biopsies from 3 patients, demonstrated low background TUSC2 protein staining in pretreatment tissues compared with intense (10-25 fold increase) TUSC2 protein staining in post-treatment tissues. RT-PCR gene expression profiling analysis of apoptotic pathway genes in two patients with high post-treatment levels of TUSC2 mRNA and protein showed significant post-treatment changes in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Twenty-nine genes of the 82 tested in the apoptosis array were identified by Igenuity Pathway Analysis to be significantly altered post-treatment in both patients (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.519; p<0.01).
DOTAP:chol-TUSC2 can be safely administered intravenously in lung cancer patients and results in uptake of the gene by human primary and metastatic tumors, transgene and gene product expression, specific alterations in TUSC2-regulated pathways, and anti-tumor effects (to our knowledge for the first time for systemic DOTAP:cholesterol nanoparticle gene therapy).
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e34833. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of smaller than 100 nm antibody (Ab) nanoparticle conjugates to target and modulate the biology of specific cell types may enable major advancements in cellular imaging and therapy in cancer. A key challenge is to load a high degree of targeting, imaging, and therapeutic functionality into small, yet stable particles. A versatile method called thin autocatalytic growth on substrate (TAGs) has been developed in our previous study to form ultrathin and asymmetric gold coatings on iron oxide nanocluster cores producing exceptional near-infrared (NIR) absorbance. AlexaFluor 488 labeled Abs were used to correlate the number of Abs conjugated to iron oxide/gold nanoclusters (nanoroses) with the hydrodynamic size. A transition from submonolayer to multilayer aggregates of Abs on the nanorose surface was observed for 54 Abs and an overall particle diameter of ∼60-65 nm. The hydrodynamic diameter indicated coverage of a monolayer of 54 Abs, in agreement with the prediction of a geometric model, by assuming a circular footprint of 16.9 nm diameter per Ab molecule. The targeting efficacy of nanoclusters conjugated with monoclonal Abs specific for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was evaluated in A431 cancer cells using dark field microscopy and atomic absorbance spectrometry (AAS) analysis. Intense NIR scattering was achieved from both high uptake of nanoclusters in cells and high intrinsic NIR absorbance of individual nanoclusters. Dual mode imaging with dark field reflectance microscopy and fluorescence microscopy indicates the Abs remained attached to the Au surfaces upon the uptake by the cancer cells. The ability to load intense multifunctionality, specifically strong NIR absorbance, conjugation of an Ab monolayer in addition to a strong r2 MRI contrast that was previously demonstrated in a total particle size of only 63 nm, is an important step forward in development of theranostic agents for combined molecular specific imaging and therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), a target for anticancer drug design, is activated by recruitment to phosphotyrosine residues on growth factor and cytokine receptors via its SH2 domain. We report here structure-activity relationship studies on phosphopeptide mimics targeted to the SH2 domain of Stat3. Inclusion of a methyl group on the β-position of the pTyr mimic 4-phosphocinnamide enhanced affinity 2- to 3-fold. Bis-pivaloyloxymethyl prodrugs containing β-methylcinnamide, dipeptide scaffolds Haic and Nle-cis-3,4-methanoproline, and glutamine surrogates were highly potent, completely inhibiting phosphorylation of Stat3 Tyr705 at 0.5-1 μM in a variety of cancer cell lines. The inhibitors were selective for Stat3 over Stat1, Stat5, Src, and p85 of PI3K, indicating ability to discriminate individual SH2 domains in intact cells. At concentrations that completely inhibited Stat3 phosphorylation, the prodrugs were not cytotoxic to a panel of tumor cells, thereby showing clear distinction between cytotoxicity and effects downstream of activated Stat3.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 05/2011; 54(10):3549-63. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer is a major health problem in the world. Advances made in cancer therapy have improved the survival of patients in certain types of cancer. However, the overall five-year survival has not significantly improved in the majority of cancer types. Major challenges encountered in having effective cancer therapy are development of drug resistance by the tumor cells, nonspecific cytotoxicity, and inability to affect metastatic tumors by the chemodrugs. Overcoming these challenges requires development and testing of novel therapies. One attractive cancer therapeutic approach is cancer gene therapy. Several laboratories including the authors' laboratory have been investigating nonviral formulations for delivering therapeutic genes as a mode for effective cancer therapy. In this paper the authors will summarize their experience in the development and testing of a cationic lipid-based nanocarrier formulation and the results from their preclinical studies leading to a Phase I clinical trial for nonsmall cell lung cancer. Their nanocarrier formulation containing therapeutic genes such as tumor suppressor genes when administered intravenously effectively controls metastatic tumor growth. Additional Phase I clinical trials based on the results of their nanocarrier formulation have been initiated or proposed for treatment of cancer of the breast, ovary, pancreas, and metastatic melanoma, and will be discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in 80% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and is associated with poor survival. In recent years, EGFR-targeted inhibitors have been tested in the clinic for NSCLC. Despite the emergence of novel therapeutics and their application in cancer therapy, the overall survival rate of lung cancer patients remains 15%. To develop more effective therapies for lung cancer we have combined the anti-EGFR antibody (Clone 225) as a molecular therapeutic with hybrid plasmonic magnetic nanoparticles (NP) and tested on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.
Cell viability was determined by trypan-blue assay. Cellular protein expression was determined by Western blotting. C225-NPs were detected by electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, and EGFR expression using immunocytochemistry. C225-NP exhibited a strong and selective antitumor effect on EGFR-expressing NSCLC cells by inhibiting EGFR-mediated signal transduction and induced autophagy and apoptosis in tumor cells. Optical images showed specificity of interactions between C225-NP and EGFR-expressing NSCLC cells. No binding of C225-NP was observed for EGFR-null NSCLC cells. C225-NP exhibited higher efficiency in induction of cell killing in comparison with the same amount of free C225 antibody in tumor cells with different levels of EGFR expression. Furthermore, in contrast to C225-NP, free C225 antibody did not induce autophagy in cells. However, the therapeutic efficacy of C225-NP gradually approached the level of free antibodies as the amount of C225 antibody conjugated per nanoparticle was decreased. Finally, attaching C225 to NP was important for producing the enhanced tumor cell killing as addition of mixture of free C225 and NP did not demonstrate the same degree of cell killing activity.
We demonstrated for the first time the molecular mechanism of C225-NP induced cytotoxic effects in lung cancer cells that are not characteristic for free molecular therapeutics thus increasing efficacy of therapy against NSCLC.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(11):e25507. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interleukin (IL) -24 protein encoded by melanoma differentiation associated-7 (mda-7) gene is a novel IL-10 family cytokine with unique tumor-specific apoptotic and anti-angiogenic properties. Additional role(s)
for IL-24, including the regulation of skin inflammation, as suggested by recent data, provide a teleologic role for this
melanocyte- and monocyte-produced molecule. Previous studies by our group led to a Phase I trial for local adenoviral therapy
delivery in advanced solid tumor patients. These clinical studies employed gene therapy with adenoviral vector–mediated delivery
of mda-7/IL-24 (Ad-mda-7/IL-24) and clearly demonstrated a bystander apoptotic effect resulting from IL-24 protein production
in injected tumor lesion. While these studies are useful for “proof of principle” for IL-24, we now realize that we must devise
means to use this same product, IL-24, systemically to achieve therapeutic success in patients with melanoma. Therefore, gene
therapy with a nanoparticle delivery vehicle is now being pursued. We propose that MDA7/IL-24 is a major skin-derived tumor
suppressor/cytokine that has profound significance as a biotherapeutic for melanoma and possibly other cancers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent advances in genetics, molecular biology, and molecular pharmacology have resulted in the development of molecularly
targeted therapies. Targeting specific molecular pathways essential for the survival of cancer cells would personalize treatment
with the potential to improve outcome and minimize toxicities. In this chapter, we review gene-based targeted therapies for
cancer. Discussion focuses on replacement therapies for abnormal p53 function and FUS1 tumor suppressor gene-mediated molecular
therapy using nanoparticles for systemic gene delivery.
KeywordsGene-Molecular-Tumor suppressor-Cancer therapy
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-24 (IL-24) is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family. IL-24, also known as melanoma differentiation associated gene 7 (mda-7), is a unique cytokine in that it has cytokine properties and functions as a novel tumor suppressor gene. Studies by us and other investigators using viral and non-viral vectors have demonstrated IL-24 overexpression in human cancer cells inhibited tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. A majority of these studies using immunodeficient animal models have focused on demonstrating the direct anticancer properties of IL-24. Very few studies have focused on studying the immunotherapeutic properties of IL-24 despite it being reported to function as a Th1 cytokine. A phase I clinical trial using an adenovirus vector expressing IL-24 (Ad-IL24/INGN241) reported Ad-IL24 treatment of cancer patients resulted in changes in cytokines and T cells. However, well-designed and detailed preclinical studies to support the clinical findings are warranted. Demonstrating immune modulation by IL-24 will provide a rationale for developing IL-24-based immunotherapeutic approaches for cancer treatment.In the present chapter, we provide experimental details for conducting IL-24-based immunotherapy studies. As it is not possible for the authors to cover all of the information the authors recommend reading other immunology-based literature and procedures for a better understanding of conducting preclinical studies.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2010; 651:241-70.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human interleukin-24 (IL-24) is unique among the IL-10 superfamily as there is considerable evidence that it possesses multiple
anti-cancer properties, including direct tumor cell cytotoxicity, helper T cell (TH1) immune stimulation, and anti-angiogenic
activities. The primary sequence of human IL-24 differs from homologous cytokines, because it possesses three consensus N-linked glycosylation sites and the potential for a single disulfide bond. To address the significance of these modifications
in human IL-24, we analyzed the relationship between post-translational modifications and the cytokine activity of the human
IL-24 protein. In contrast to related interleukins, we identified a relationship between net glycosylation, protein solubility,
and cytokine activity. In addition, abrogation of the two cysteine residues by mutagenesis dramatically altered the ability
of IL-24 to secrete from host cells and resulted in the concomitant loss of IL-24 activity. We conclude that, unlike other
IL-10 family members, human IL-24 must be glycosylated to maintain solubility and bioavailability. Further, a single, unique
disulfide bond is required for secretion and activity. These structure-function relationships show that, although IL-24 is
a member of the IL-19 subfamily of IL-10-like cytokines by sequence similarity, its surface properties and its distinctive
disulfide arrangement make it unique. These observations could explain the novel biological activities measured of this cytokine.
Understanding the structural basis of IL-24 activity will be important in the interpretation of the function of this cytokine
and in the development of scale-up strategies for biophysical and clinical applications.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2009; 284(44):30526-30533. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human interleukin-24 (IL-24) is unique among the IL-10 superfamily as there is considerable evidence that it possesses multiple anti-cancer properties, including direct tumor cell cytotoxicity, helper T cell (TH1) immune stimulation, and anti-angiogenic activities. The primary sequence of human IL-24 differs from homologous cytokines, because it possesses three consensus N-linked glycosylation sites and the potential for a single disulfide bond. To address the significance of these modifications in human IL-24, we analyzed the relationship between post-translational modifications and the cytokine activity of the human IL-24 protein. In contrast to related interleukins, we identified a relationship between net glycosylation, protein solubility, and cytokine activity. In addition, abrogation of the two cysteine residues by mutagenesis dramatically altered the ability of IL-24 to secrete from host cells and resulted in the concomitant loss of IL-24 activity. We conclude that, unlike other IL-10 family members, human IL-24 must be glycosylated to maintain solubility and bioavailability. Further, a single, unique disulfide bond is required for secretion and activity. These structure-function relationships show that, although IL-24 is a member of the IL-19 subfamily of IL-10-like cytokines by sequence similarity, its surface properties and its distinctive disulfide arrangement make it unique. These observations could explain the novel biological activities measured of this cytokine. Understanding the structural basis of IL-24 activity will be important in the interpretation of the function of this cytokine and in the development of scale-up strategies for biophysical and clinical applications.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2009; 284(44):30526-33. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melanoma is the most malignant of skin cancers, highly resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Temozolomide, a promising new derivative of dacarbazine, is currently being tested for treatment of metastatic melanoma. Resistance to alkylating agents such as temozolomide correlates with increased expression of DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). Interleukin-24 (IL-24; mda-7) is a tumor suppressor cytokine that selectively inhibits tumor cell growth by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in melanoma cell lines and solid tumors. This tumor-selective activity has been observed in multiple preclinical animal models and in clinical trials. In this study, we analyzed the ability of Ad-IL-24 and its protein product, IL-24, to overcome temozolomide resistance in human melanoma cells. We have shown that Ad-IL-24 via exogenous IL-24 protein induces combinatorial synergy of temozolomide-induced cell killing in temozolomide-resistant melanoma cells by inhibition of MGMT. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-24 or its receptors significantly blocked the apoptotic activity of IL-24 + MGMT treatment. We show that accumulation of functional p53 is essential for IL-24-induced down-regulation of MGMT. Using either MGMT small interfering RNA, p53 small interfering RNA, or a p53 dominant-negative mutant to block MGMT protein expression resulted in increased sensitization to temozolomide. However, MGMT blockade in combination with IL-24 + temozolomide resulted in loss of combinatorial synergy, indicating that MGMT expression is required for the reversal of temozolomide resistance in melanoma cells. This study shows that IL-24 can play a significant role in overcoming temozolomide resistance and that the clinical efficacy of temozolomide may be improved by using a biochemotherapy combination with IL-24.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 01/2009; 7(12):3842-51. · 5.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Steady-state protein levels are determined by the balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Protein half-lives are determined primarily by degradation, and the major degradation pathways involve either lysosomal destruction or an ATP-dependent process involving ubiquitination to target proteins to the proteosome. Studies have shown that multiple tumor-suppressor proteins are ubiquitinated and degraded by the 26S proteasome. In the present study, we investigated whether the tumor suppressor/cytokine melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 gene (MDA-7/IL-24) protein is ubiquitinated and its degradation controlled by the proteasome. Treatment of ovarian (2008) and lung (H1299) tumor cells with adenoviral delivery of mda-7 (Ad-mda7) or Ad-mda7 plus the proteosome inhibitor MG132 showed that MDA-7 protein expression was dependent upon proteosome activity. Western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses verified that the MDA-7 protein was ubiquitinated and that ubiquitinated-MDA-7 levels were increased in MG132-treated cells. These results were confirmed using small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of ubiquitin. Furthermore, ubiquitinated MDA-7 protein was degraded by the 26S proteasome, as MDA-7 accumulation was observed only when cells were treated with MG132 but not with lysosome or protease inhibitors. Inhibition of the catalytic beta-5 subunit of the 20S proteasome using siRNA resulted in MDA-7 protein accumulation. Finally, treatment of tumor cells with Ad-mda7 plus the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib resulted in increased tumor cell killing. Our results show that MDA-7/IL-24 is ubiquitinated and degraded by the 26S proteasome. Furthermore, inhibition of MDA-7 degradation results in enhanced tumor killing, identifying a novel anticancer strategy.
Cancer gene therapy 02/2008; 15(1):1-8. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional cancer treatments include cytotoxic chemotherapies and radiotherapy, which result in significant collateral toxicities. The goal for future cancer treatments is to leverage improved understanding of cancer biology mechanisms and thereby develop targeted drugs that display exquisite tumor selectivity and avoid iatrogenic damage. In this review, we discuss the potential of tumor suppressor genes for development of cancer-selective drugs using the tumor suppressor p53 as an archetype.
Frontiers in Bioscience 02/2008; 13:1959-67. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subtraction hybridization applied to a 'differentiation therapy' model of cancer employing human melanoma cells resulted in the cloning of melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24). Initial studies confirm an inverse correlation between mda-7 expression and melanoma development and progression. Forced expression of mda-7 by means of a plasmid or via a replication incompetent adenovirus (Ad.mda-7) promotes growth suppression and induces apoptosis in a broad array of human cancers. In contrast, mda-7 does not induce growth suppressive or toxic effects in normal cells. Based on structure (containing an IL-10 signature motif), secretion by cells (including subsets of T-cells) and location on chromosome 1q (in an area containing IL-10-family genes), mda-7 has now been renamed mda-7/IL-24. Studies by several laboratories have uncovered many of mda-7/IL-24's unique properties, including cancer-specific apoptosis-induction, cell cycle regulation, an ability to inhibit angiogenesis, potent 'bystander antitumor activity' and a capacity to enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to radiation, chemotherapy and monoclonal antibody therapy. Moreover, based on its profound cancer tropism, substantiated by in vivo human xenograft studies in nude mice, mda-7/IL-24 (administered as Ad.mda-7) was evaluated in a phase I clinical trial in patients with melanomas and solid cancers. These studies document that mda-7/IL-24 is well tolerated and demonstrates evidence of significant clinical activity. In these contexts, mda-7/IL-24 represents a unique cytokine gene with potential for therapy of human cancers. The present review focuses on three unique properties of mda-7/IL-24, namely its potent 'bystander antitumor activity', ability to sensitize tumor cells to radiation, and its antiangiogenesis properties. Additionally, an overview of the phase I clinical trial is provided. These studies affirm that mda-7/IL-24 has promise for the management of diverse cancers.
International Journal of Oncology 12/2007; 31(5):985-1007. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenovirus-mediated mda-7 (Ad-mda7) gene transfer has been shown to induce apoptosis in various human cancer cells while sparing normal cells. Vitamin E succinate (VES) is also known to exhibit antitumor activity against a number of human cancer cell lines. We hypothesized that a combination of the two agents would produce an enhanced antitumor effect in MDAH2774 human ovarian cancer cells. Treatment of MDAH2774 cells with Ad-mda7 plus VES resulted in enhanced antitumor activity that involved the activation of two apoptotic pathways. Activation of the extrinsic pathway was demonstrated by increased cell-surface Fas expression and cleavage of Bid and caspase-8. Activation of the intrinsic pathway was demonstrated by disruption of mitochondrial potential; and activation of downstream capase-9 and caspase-3 via cytochrome C release. In contrast, the combination of Ad-mda7 plus VES did not show any antitumor activity against normal fibroblasts, indicating selective tumor cell killing. Our in vitro results provide a basis for further preclinical testing of Ad-mda7 plus VES as a potential cancer treatment strategy.
Cancer Letters 10/2007; 254(2):217-26. · 4.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation promotes cell survival and growth. Reports show that chemotherapeutic agents and cytokines that are used for cancer therapy activate NF-kappaB expression in tumor cells and its suppression enhanced the antitumor activity. We hypothesized that adenovirus-mediated overexpression of melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (Ad-mda7/IL-24) induces NF-kappaB expression and that inhibition of this expression results in enhanced tumor cell killing. Treatment of human lung tumor (H1299 and A549) cells with Ad-mda7 resulted in NF-kappaB activation in a dose- and time-dependent manner before activation of cell death pathways. To establish that inhibition of Ad-mda7-mediated NF-kappaB activation results in enhanced tumor cell killing, H1299 cells that overexpress the dominant-negative I kappa B alpha (dnI kappa B alpha) were treated with Ad-mda7 in vitro. An enhanced growth arrest and apoptosis was observed in Ad-mda7-treated H1299-dnI kappa B alpha compared with H1299-Neo cells. This Ad-mda7-mediated enhanced killing of H1299-dnI kappa B alpha cells involved cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) and caspase-3 in a feedback loop mechanism. The inhibition of MEKK1 or caspase-3 cleavage in H1299-dnI kappa B alpha cells resulted in reduced Ad-mda7-mediated cell killing. In vivo, the treatment of H1299-dnI kappa B alpha s.c. tumors with Ad-mda7 resulted in increased drug sensitivity and delayed the tumor growth rate compared with Ad-mda7-treated H1299-Neo tumors. Molecular analysis of Ad-mda7-treated H1299-dnI kappa B alpha tumors showed increased MEKK1 cleavage and activation of caspase-3 compared with Ad-mda7-treated H1299-Neo tumors. Our findings thus showed that the NF-kappaB activation induced by Ad-mda7 treatment of lung cancer cells is an intrinsic survival mechanism and that the inhibition of this NF-kappaB expression results in enhanced tumor cell killing.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 05/2007; 6(4):1440-9. · 5.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), has shown antitumor activity by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis in preclinical and clinical studies. However, bevacizumab monotherapy does not induce complete tumor regression. Therefore, additional treatments must be combined with bevacizumab to promote tumor regression. We previously showed that melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (mda-7) protein exerts potent antitumor and antiangiogenic activity. Thus, in this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of mda-7 in combination with bevacizumab using lung cancer as a model. In vitro, treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with conditioned medium from Ad-mda7 plus bevacizumab-treated lung tumor cells showed reduced VEGF ligand-receptor binding, and decreased cell survival, resulting in growth arrest and apoptosis. In vivo, treatment of subcutaneous lung tumor xenografts with bevacizumab plus Ad-mda7 resulted in significant tumor growth inhibition and improved survival compared to tumor growth in control mice. Furthermore, tumors in all the Ad-mda7 plus bevacizumab-treated mice completely regressed, and these were tumor free through the study's end. Molecular analysis showed enhanced tumor cell apoptosis and reduced VEGF and CD31 expression in Ad-mda7 plus bevacizumab-treated tumors. Thus, Ad-mda7 and bevacizumab treatment produces a synergistic and complete therapeutic effect against human lung cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7 (mda-7/IL-24) is a unique member of the interleukin 10 (IL-10) family of cytokines, with ubiquitous tumor cell pro-apoptotic activity. Recent data have shown that IL-24 is secreted as a glycosylated protein and functions as a pro-Th1 cytokine and as a potent anti-angiogenic molecule. In this study, we analyzed the activity of Ad-mda7 and its protein product, secreted IL-24, against human breast cancer cells. We show that Ad-mda7 transduction of human breast cancer cells results in G(2)/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death, which correlates with secretion of IL-24 protein. Neutralizing antibody against IL-24 significantly inhibited Ad-mda7 cytotoxicity. IL-24 and IL-10 both engage their cognate receptors on breast cancer cells resulting in phosphorylation and activation of STAT3, however, IL-10 receptor binding failed to induce cell killing, indicating that tumor cell killing by IL-24 is independent of STAT3 phosphorylation. Treatment with exogenous IL-24 induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells and this effect was abolished by addition of anti-IL-24 antibody or anti-IL-20R1, indicating that bystander cell killing is mediated via IL-24 binding to the IL-20R1/IL-20R2 heterodimeric receptor complex. Co-administration of the related cytokine IL-10 inhibited killing mediated by IL-24 and concomitantly inhibited IL-24 mediated up-regulation of the tumor suppressor proteins, p53 and p27(Kip1). In summary, we have defined a tumor-selective cytotoxic bystander role for secreted IL-24 protein and identified a novel receptor-mediated death pathway in breast cancer cells, wherein the related cytokines IL-24 and IL-10 exhibit antagonistic activity.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 03/2007; 56(2):205-15. · 3.64 Impact Factor