[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In breast cancer, immunohistochemical assessment of proliferation using the marker Ki67 has potential use in both research and clinical management. However, lack of consistency across laboratories has limited Ki67's value. A working group was assembled to devise a strategy to harmonize Ki67 analysis and increase scoring concordance. Toward that goal, we conducted a Ki67 reproducibility study.
Eight laboratories received 100 breast cancer cases arranged into 1-mm core tissue microarrays-one set stained by the participating laboratory and one set stained by the central laboratory, both using antibody MIB-1. Each laboratory scored Ki67 as percentage of positively stained invasive tumor cells using its own method. Six laboratories repeated scoring of 50 locally stained cases on 3 different days. Sources of variation were analyzed using random effects models with log2-transformed measurements. Reproducibility was quantified by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and the approximate two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the true intraclass correlation coefficients in these experiments were provided.
Intralaboratory reproducibility was high (ICC = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.93 to 0.97). Interlaboratory reproducibility was only moderate (central staining: ICC = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.78; local staining: ICC = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.68). Geometric mean of Ki67 values for each laboratory across the 100 cases ranged 7.1% to 23.9% with central staining and 6.1% to 30.1% with local staining. Factors contributing to interlaboratory discordance included tumor region selection, counting method, and subjective assessment of staining positivity. Formal counting methods gave more consistent results than visual estimation.
Substantial variability in Ki67 scoring was observed among some of the world's most experienced laboratories. Ki67 values and cutoffs for clinical decision-making cannot be transferred between laboratories without standardizing scoring methodology because analytical validity is limited.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy is an effective approach to curb uncontrolled proliferation of malignant cells. However, most drugs rapidly lose their efficacy as a result of resistance development. We explored the potential of combinational siRNA silencing to prevent growth of drug-resistant breast cancer cells independent of chemotherapy. Resistance was induced in two breast cancer lines by chronic exposure to doxorubicin. Microarray analysis of apoptosis-related proteins showed Bcl2, survivin, NFƙB, and Mcl1 to be prominently up-regulated in drug-resistant cells. Human siRNA libraries against apoptosis-related proteins and kinases were screened using lipid-substituted polymers as non-viral carrier, and siRNAs were selected to diminish cell growth without affecting growth of skin fibroblasts. Surprisingly, the selected siRNAs led to similar responses in wild-type and drug-resistant cells, despite their phenotypic differences. Promising kinase siRNAs were co-delivered with anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 siRNA and Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase (RPS6KA5) was found the most promising candidate for simultaneous silencing with Mcl-1. In both MDA435 wild type (WT) and MDA435 resistant (R) xenografts in nude mice, double silencing of Mcl-1/RPS6KA5 also led to improved inhibition of tumor growth in the absence of chemotherapy. We conclude that combinational silencing of well-selected targets could be a feasible therapeutic strategy in the absence of drug therapy and could provide a new avenue for therapy of drug-resistant breast cancers.
Journal of Controlled Release 08/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We compared standard adjuvant anthracycline chemotherapy with anthracycline-taxane combination chemotherapy in women with operable node-positive breast cancer. Here we report the final, 10-year follow-up analysis of disease-free survival, overall survival, and long-term safety. METHODS: BCIRG 001 was an open label, phase 3, multicentre trial in which 1491 patients aged 18-70 years with node-positive, early breast cancer and a Karnofsky score of 80% or more were randomly assigned to adjuvant treatment with docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TAC) or fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) every 3 weeks for six cycles. Randomisation was stratified according to institution and number of involved axillary lymph nodes per patient (one to three vs four or more). Disease-free survival was the primary endpoint and was defined as the interval between randomisation and breast cancer relapse, second primary cancer, or death, whichever occurred first. Efficacy analyses were based on the intention-to-treat principle. BCIRG 001 is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00688740. FINDINGS: Enrolement took place between June 11, 1997 and June 3, 1999; 745 patients were assigned to receive TAC and 746 patients were assigned to receive FAC. After a median follow-up of 124 months (IQR 90-126), disease-free survival was 62% (95% CI 58-65) for patients in the TAC group and 55% (51-59) for patients in the FAC group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·80, 95% CI 0·68-0·93; log-rank p=0·0043). 10-year overall survival was 76% (95% CI 72-79) for patients in the TAC group and 69% (65-72) for patients in the FAC group (HR 0·74, 0·61-0·90; log-rank p=0·0020). TAC improved disease-free survival relative to FAC irrespective of nodal, hormone receptor, and HER2 status, although not all differences were significant in these subgroup analyses. Grade 3-4 heart failure occurred in 26 (3%) patients in the TAC group and 17 (2%) patients in the FAC group, and caused death in two patients in the TAC group and four patients in the FAC group. A substantial decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (defined as a relative decrease from baseline of 20% or more) was seen in 58 (17%) patients who received TAC and 41 (15%) patients who received FAC. Six patients who received TAC developed leukaemia or myelodysplasia, as did three patients who received FAC. INTERPRETATION: Our results provide evidence that the initial therapeutic outcomes seen at the 5-year follow-up with a docetaxel-containing adjuvant regimen are maintained at 10 years. However, a substantial percentage of patients had a decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction, probably caused by anthracycline therapy, which warrants further investigation. FUNDING: Sanofi.
The Lancet Oncology 12/2012; · 25.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer causes death through cancer cell migration and subsequent metastasis to distant organs. In vitro, the MUC1 mucin can mediate breast cancer cell migration by binding to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). This migration is dependent on MUC1 cytoplasmic domain (MUC1-CD) activation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Src, possibly through competitive displacement of an inhibitory Src intramolecular SH3 binding. Therefore, we characterized the binding site and affinity of the MUC1-CD for Src-SH3 using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to monitor the titration of the (15)N labeled Src-SH3 domain with synthetic native and mutant peptides of MUC1-CD. The results revealed that the dissociation constant (K(d)) for the interaction of the native MUC1-CD peptides and Src-SH3 domain was weak with a K(d) of 2-3 mM. Notably, the SH3 residues most perturbed upon peptide binding were located outside the usual hydrophobic binding cleft in a previously described alternate binding site on the Src-SH3, suggesting that MUC1-CD binds to a non-canonical site. The binding characteristics outlined here suggest that the interaction between Src-SH3 and MUC1-CD represents a novel weak electrostatic interaction of the type which is increasingly recognized as important in transient and dynamic protein complexes required for cell migration and signal transduction. As such, this study forms the foundation for the design of specific inhibitors of this interaction which may target breast cancer metastases with exquisite specificity.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2012; 421(4):832-6. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uncontrolled proliferation is a hallmark of cancer. In breast cancer, immunohistochemical assessment of the proportion of cells staining for the nuclear antigen Ki67 has become the most widely used method for comparing proliferation between tumor samples. Potential uses include prognosis, prediction of relative responsiveness or resistance to chemotherapy or endocrine therapy, estimation of residual risk in patients on standard therapy and as a dynamic biomarker of treatment efficacy in samples taken before, during, and after neoadjuvant therapy, particularly neoadjuvant endocrine therapy. Increasingly, Ki67 is measured in these scenarios for clinical research, including as a primary efficacy endpoint for clinical trials, and sometimes for clinical management. At present, the enormous variation in analytical practice markedly limits the value of Ki67 in each of these contexts. On March 12, 2010, an international panel of investigators with substantial expertise in the assessment of Ki67 and in the development of biomarker guidelines was convened in London by the co-chairs of the Breast International Group and North American Breast Cancer Group Biomarker Working Party to consider evidence for potential applications. Comprehensive recommendations on preanalytical and analytical assessment, and interpretation and scoring of Ki67 were formulated based on current evidence. These recommendations are geared toward achieving a harmonized methodology, create greater between-laboratory and between-study comparability, and allow earlier valid applications of this marker in clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mucin MUC1, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is overexpressed in breast cancer and has been correlated with increased metastasis. We were the first to report binding between MUC1 and Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which is expressed on stromal and endothelial cells throughout the migratory tract of a metastasizing breast cancer cell. Subsequently, we found that MUC1/ICAM-1 binding results in pro-migratory calcium oscillations, cytoskeletal reorganization, and simulated transendothelial migration. These events were found to involve Src kinase, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase also implicated in breast cancer initiation and progression. Here, we further investigated the mechanism of MUC1/ICAM-1 signalling, focusing on the role of MUC1 dimerization in Src recruitment and pro-metastatic signalling.
To assay MUC1 dimerization, we used a chemical crosslinker which allowed for the detection of dimers on SDS-PAGE. We then generated MUC1 constructs containing an engineered domain which allowed for manipulation of dimerization status through the addition of ligands to the engineered domain. Following manipulation of dimerization, we immunoprecipitated MUC1 to investigate recruitment of Src, or assayed for our previously observed ICAM-1 binding induced events. To investigate the nature of MUC1 dimers, we used both non-reducing SDS-PAGE and generated a mutant construct lacking cysteine residues.
We first demonstrate that the previously observed MUC1/ICAM-1 signalling events are dependent on the activity of Src kinase. We then report that MUC1 forms constitutive cytoplasmic domain dimers which are necessary for Src recruitment, ICAM-1 induced calcium oscillations and simulated transendothelial migration. The dimers are not covalently linked constitutively or following ICAM-1 binding. In contrast to previously published reports, we found that membrane proximal cysteine residues were not involved in dimerization or ICAM-1 induced signalling.
Our data implicates non-cysteine linked MUC1 dimerization in cell signalling pathways required for cancer cell migration.
Molecular Cancer 07/2011; 10:93. · 5.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by diverse molecular signatures and a variable response to therapy. Clinical management of breast cancer is guided by the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and HER2 amplification. New prognostic and predictive markers, as well as additional targets for therapy, are needed for more effective management of this disease. Gene expression microarrays were probed with RNAs from 176 primary breast cancer samples and tissue microarrays immunostained with anti-DDX1 antibody, an antibody to DEAD box protein DDX1, a putative RNA-RNA and RNA-DNA unwinding protein normally found in the nucleus. Half of the patient cohort had experienced early relapse despite standard adjuvant therapy, but were otherwise matched for estrogen receptor and HER2 status, stage and duration of follow-up. Here, we identify DDX1 RNA overexpression as an independent prognostic marker for early recurrence in primary breast cancer, with a hazard ratio of 4.31 based on logrank analysis of Kaplan-Meier curves. Elevated levels of DDX1 protein in the cytoplasm also independently correlate with early recurrence with a hazard ratio of 1.90. In conclusion, our data indicate a strong and independent association between poor prognosis and deregulation of the DEAD box protein DDX1. We propose that elevated levels of DDX1 RNA or the presence of DDX1 in the cytoplasm could serve as an effective prognostic biomarker for early recurrence in primary breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 05/2010; 127(1):53-63. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the prognostic and predictive significance of subtyping node-positive early breast cancer by immunohistochemistry in a clinical trial of a docetaxel-containing regimen.
Pathologic data from a central laboratory were available for 1,350 patients (91%) from the BCIRG 001 trial of docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TAC) versus fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) for operable node-positive breast cancer. Patients were classified by tumor characteristics as (1) triple negative (estrogen receptor [ER]-negative, progesterone receptor [PR]-negative, HER2/neu [HER2]-negative), (2) HER2 (HER2-positive, ER-negative, PR-negative), (3) luminal B (ER-positive and/or PR-positive and either HER2-positive and/or Ki67(high)), and (4) luminal A (ER-positive and/or PR-positive and not HER2-positive or Ki67(high)), and assessed for prognostic significance and response to adjuvant chemotherapy.
Patients were subdivided into triple negative (14.5%), HER2 (8.5%), luminal B (61.1%), and luminal A (15.9%). Three-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates (P values with luminal B as referent) were 67% (P < .0001), 68% (P = .0008), 82% (referent luminal B), and 91% (P = .0027), respectively, with hazard ratios of 2.22, 2.12, and 0.46. Improved 3-year DFS with TAC was found in the luminal B group (P = .025) and a combined ER-positive/HER2-negative group treated with tamoxifen (P = .041), with a marginal trend in the triple negatives (P = .051) and HER2 (P = .068) subtypes. No DFS advantage was seen in the luminal A population.
A simple immunopanel can divide breast cancers into biologic subtypes with strong prognostic effects. TAC significantly complements endocrine therapy in patients with luminal B subtype and, in the absence of targeted therapy, is effective in the triple-negative population.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2009; 27(8):1168-76. · 17.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MUC1, a transmembrane glycoprotein of the mucin family, when aberrantly expressed on breast cancer cells is correlated with increased lymph node metastases. We have previously shown that MUC1 binds intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on surrounding accessory cells and facilitates transendothelial migration of MUC1-bearing cells. Nevertheless, the underlying molecular mechanism is still obscure. In the present study, we used a novel assay of actin cytoskeletal reorganization to show that by ligating ICAM-1, MUC1 triggers Rac1- and Cdc42-dependent actin cytoskeletal protrusive activity preferentially at the heterotypic cell-cell contact sites. Further, we show that these MUC1/ICAM-1 interaction-initiated lamellipodial and filopodial protrusions require Src family kinase and CT10 regulator of kinase like (CrkL) accompanied by the rapid formation of a Src-CrkL signaling complex at the MUC1 cytoplasmic domain. Through inhibition of Src kinase activity, we further revealed that Src is required for recruiting CrkL to the MUC1 cytoplasmic domain as well as mediating the observed actin cytoskeleton dynamics. These findings suggest a novel MUC1-Src-CrkL-Rac1/Cdc42 signaling cascade following ICAM-1 ligation, through which MUC1 regulates cytoskeletal reorganization and directed cell motility during cell migration.
Molecular Cancer Research 05/2008; 6(4):555-67. · 4.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has recently emerged as a cancer therapeutic agent because it is capable of preferentially inducing apoptosis in human cancer over normal cells. The majority of human pancreatic cancers, unfortunately, are resistant to TRAIL treatment. Here, we show that the inhibition of caspase-8 cleavage is the most upstream event in TRAIL resistance in pancreatic cancers. TRAIL treatment led to the cleavage of caspase-8 and downstream caspase-9, caspase-3, and DNA fragmentation factor 45 (DFF45) in TRAIL-sensitive pancreatic cancer cell lines (BXPC-3, PACA-2). This caspase-8-initiated caspase cascade, however, was inhibited in TRAIL-resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines (PANC-1, ASPC-1, CAPAN-1, CAPAN-2). The long and short forms of cellular Fas-associated death domain-like interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP(L), c-FLIP(S)) were highly expressed in the TRAIL-resistant as compared to the sensitive cells; knockdown of c-FLIP(L) and c-FLIP(S) by a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) rendered the resistant cells sensitive to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the cleavage of caspase-8 and activation of the mitochondrial pathway. Receptor-interacting protein (RIP) has been reported in TRAIL-induced activation of NF-kappaB and we show here that knockdown of RIP sensitized the resistant cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These results indicate the role of c-FLIP and RIP in caspase-8 inhibition and thus TRAIL resistance. Treatment of the resistant cells with camptothecin, celecoxib and cisplatin resulted in the downregulation of c-FLIP and caused a synergistic apoptotic effect with TRAIL. These studies therefore suggest that combination treatment with chemotherapy can overcome TRAIL resistance and enhance TRAIL therapeutic efficacy in treating pancreatic cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As survival in breast cancer patients is improving, brain metastases are becoming increasingly prevalent. The risk of brain metastases in newly diagnosed human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) -overexpressing breast cancer patients is not yet fully defined. We aimed to analyze the risk of brain metastasis in newly diagnosed HER-2-positive breast cancer patients in comparison with HER-2-negative patients.
To determine the incidence of brain metastases in HER-2-overexpressing patients, we analyzed a cohort of newly diagnosed 301 HER-2-positive and 363 HER-2-negative patients identified between January 1998 and December 2003. The association between histologic features and the occurrence of brain metastases was evaluated with univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis.
Median follow-up was 3.9 years. Brain metastases were identified in 9% (27 patients) with HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer compared with only 1.9% (7 patients) in the HER-2 negative patients (hazard ratio 4.23 [1.84-9.74], P = .0007). HER-2 overexpression, tumor size larger than 2 cm, at least one positive node, and grade 2/3 disease were predictors of brain metastases in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, HER-2 overexpression, tumor size larger than 2 cm, and hormone-receptor negativity were independent prognostic factors for the development of brain metastases, whereas hormone-receptor expression was protective.
Our study shows that newly diagnosed HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer patients are at increased risk for brain metastases. Because most brain metastases occur after the development of systemic disease, these findings prompt consideration of brain prophylaxis strategies with HER-2-inhibiting small molecules able to cross the blood-brain barrier and/or radiologic screening to detect asymptomatic brain metastases.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2007; 24(36):5658-63. · 17.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared docetaxel plus doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (TAC) with fluorouracil plus doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (FAC) as adjuvant chemotherapy for operable node-positive breast cancer.
We randomly assigned 1491 women with axillary node-positive breast cancer to six cycles of treatment with either TAC or FAC as adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery. The primary end point was disease-free survival.
At a median follow-up of 55 months, the estimated rates of disease-free survival at five years were 75 percent among the 745 patients randomly assigned to receive TAC and 68 percent among the 746 randomly assigned to receive FAC, representing a 28 percent reduction in the risk of relapse (P=0.001) in the TAC group. The estimated rates of overall survival at five years were 87 percent and 81 percent, respectively. Treatment with TAC resulted in a 30 percent reduction in the risk of death (P=0.008). The incidence of grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was 65.5 percent in the TAC group and 49.3 percent in the FAC group (P<0.001); rates of febrile neutropenia were 24.7 percent and 2.5 percent, respectively (P<0.001). Grade 3 or 4 infections occurred in 3.9 percent of the patients who received TAC and 2.2 percent of those who received FAC (P=0.05); no deaths occurred as a result of infection. Two patients in each group died during treatment. Congestive heart failure and acute myeloid leukemia occurred in less than 2 percent of the patients in each group. Quality-of-life scores decreased during chemotherapy but returned to baseline levels after treatment.
Adjuvant chemotherapy with TAC, as compared with FAC, significantly improves the rates of disease-free and overall survival among women with operable node-positive breast cancer.
New England Journal of Medicine 06/2005; 352(22):2302-13. · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MUC1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by normal breast epithelium and virtually all breast cancers. MUC1 is normally restricted to the apical surface of epithelia and loss of this polarized distribution in breast carcinomas is associated with lymph node metastasis. Our previous work found that MUC1 can bind intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), mediating adhesion of breast cancer cells to a simulated blood vessel wall, and also triggering a calcium-based signal in the MUC1-bearing cells. It is possible that the depolarized membrane distribution of MUC1 in breast carcinomas may facilitate interactions with stromal/endothelial ICAM-1 leading to adhesion and subsequent migration through the vessel wall. In the current study, we provide evidence that ICAM-1 can influence the migration of cells that express endogenous or transfected MUC1. Migration across a gelatin-coated Transwell membrane could be increased in a step-wise manner by the sequential addition of ICAM-1-expressing cells (endothelial cells and fibroblasts), and ICAM-1-inducing inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta). Antibodies against MUC1 or ICAM-1, but not a control antibody, could abrogate migratory increases. Cells that did not express MUC1 were unresponsive to ICAM-1. Our current findings build on our earlier work, by suggesting that the end result of the MUC1/ICAM-1-mediated cell-cell adhesion and calcium-based signal is migration. This has implications for the exit of circulating tumour cells from the vasculature, as well as tumour cell migration through fibroblast-containing stroma underlying the endothelial wall.
Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 02/2005; 22(6):475-83. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The MUC1 mucin is normally restricted to the apical surface of breast epithelial cells. In tumors, it is frequently overexpressed and underglycosylated. The MUC1 peptide core mediates firm adhesion of tumor cells to adjacent cells via binding to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). There is increasing evidence that MUC1 is involved in signaling, with current reports focusing on phosphorylation of the MUC1 cytoplasmic tail after indirect or artificial modes of stimulation. ICAM-1 is the only known direct ligand of the MUC1 extracellular domain. The data presented herein show that MUC1 expressed on the surface of breast cancer cell lines or transfected 293T cells can initiate a calcium-based oscillatory signal on contact with ICAM-1-transfected NIH 3T3 cells, and we present a novel method of quantifying and comparing calcium oscillations. The MUC1-induced signal appears to be distinct from those previously described, and may involve a Src family kinase, phosphoinositol 3-kinase, phospholipase C, and lipid rafts, but not mitogen-activated protein kinase. As calcium signaling has been associated with cytoskeletal change and motility, it is possible that the functions of MUC1 include heterotypic cell-cell adhesion followed by a calcium-based promigratory signal within tumor cells, thus facilitating metastasis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2004; 279(28):29386-90. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The MUC1 mucin is present on the apical surface of normal secretory epithelia. In breast carcinoma, MUC1 expression is variable in amount and cellular localization, the significance of which is controversial. The authors undertook a detailed analysis of staining pattern combined with a comprehensive literature review to better understand the role of MUC1 in breast carcinoma.
Seventy-one patients with breast carcinoma were examined for MUC1, beta-catenin, and E-cadherin staining patterns. These data were compared with data from 25 articles from the literature examining the expression of MUC1 in breast carcinoma.
All invasive carcinomas showed some MUC1 staining. In invasive ductal carcinomas, MUC1 was detected in the apical membrane (15%), cytoplasm (93%), or circumferential membrane (13%), with 81% of tumors showing a mixture of patterns. Tumors with low overall MUC1 expression (< or = 50% positive tumor cells) had a higher nuclear grade than tumors with high overall MUC1 expression (> 50%; P = 0.01). Tumors with high and low cytoplasmic expression had no difference in nuclear grade (P > 0.3). Circumferential membrane staining was correlated with positive lymph node status (P = 0.011).
In the literature, similar findings prevailed in which overall MUC1 expression was increased in lower grade (10 of 14 studies), estrogen receptor positive (8 of 13 studies) tumors and was associated with a better prognosis (8 of 13 studies). High cytoplasmic staining was associated with a worse prognosis, an association that was not explained by differences in histologic grade. Thus, the presence of MUC1 in the majority of tumor cells is associated with better differentiated tumors and with an improved prognosis. However, aberrantly localized MUC1 in the tumor cell cytoplasm or nonapical membrane is associated with a worse prognosis.
Cancer 06/2001; 91(11):1973-82. · 4.90 Impact Factor