[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Vitamin D (vit D) deficiency may be associated with an increased risk of statin-related symptomatic myalgia in statin-treated patients. The aim of this meta-analysis was to substantiate the role of serum vitamin D levels in statin-associated myalgia.
The search included PUBMED, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and EMBASE from January 1, 1987 to April 1, 2014 to identify studies that investigated the impact of vit D levels in statin-treated subjects with and without myalgia. Two independent reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods and outcomes. Quantitative data synthesis was performed using a fixed-effect model.
The electronic search yielded 437 articles; of those 20 were scrutinized as full texts and 13 studies were considered unsuitable. The final analysis included 7 studies with 2420 statin-treated patients divided into subgroups of patients with (n =666 [27.5%]) or without (n =1754) myalgia. Plasma vit D concentrations in the symptomatic and asymptomatic subgroups were 28.4 ± 13.80 ng/mL and 34.86 ± 11.63 ng/mL, respectively. The combination of data from individual observational studies showed that vit D plasma concentrations were significantly lower in patients with statin-associated myalgia compared with patients not manifesting this side effect (weighted mean difference −9.41 ng/mL; 95% confidence interval: −10.17 to −8.64; p <0.00001).
This meta-analysis provides evidence that low vit D levels are associated with myalgia in patients on statin therapy. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to establish whether vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk for statin-associated myalgia.
International Journal of Cardiology 10/2014; · 6.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmacy refill adherence assesses the medication-filling behaviors, whereas self-report adherence assesses the medication-taking behaviors. We contrasted the association of pharmacy refill and self-reported antihypertensive medication adherence with blood pressure (BP) control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The term "nondisease-specific" has been used to describe problems that cross multiple domains of health and are not necessarily the result of a single underlying disease. Although individuals with reduced eGFR and elevated albumin-to-creatinine ratio have many comorbidities, the prevalence of and outcomes associated with nondisease-specific problems have not been well studied.
Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN. 10/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) is defined as uncontrolled hypertension despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive medication classes or controlled hypertension while treated with ≥4 antihypertensive medication classes. Although a high prevalence of aTRH has been reported, few data are available on its association with cardiovascular and renal outcomes. We analyzed data on 14 684 Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) participants to determine the association between aTRH (n=1870) with coronary heart disease, stroke, all-cause mortality, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, and end-stage renal disease. We defined aTRH as blood pressure not at goal (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) while taking ≥3 classes of antihypertensive medication or taking ≥4 classes of antihypertensive medication with blood pressure at goal during the year 2 ALLHAT study visit (1996-2000). Use of a diuretic was not required to meet the definition of aTRH. Follow-up occurred through 2002. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing participants with versus without aTRH were as follows: coronary heart disease (1.44 [1.18-1.76]), stroke (1.57 [1.18-2.08]), all-cause mortality (1.30 [1.11-1.52]), heart failure (1.88 [1.52-2.34]), peripheral artery disease (1.23 [0.85-1.79]), and end-stage renal disease (1.95 [1.11-3.41]). aTRH was also associated with the pooled outcomes of combined coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.71) and combined cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.64). These results demonstrate that aTRH increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease. Studies are needed to identify approaches to prevent aTRH and reduce risk for adverse outcomes among individuals with aTRH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visit-to-visit variability of blood pressure (BP) has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in some but not all studies. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the association between visit-to-visit variability of BP and CVD and all-cause mortality. Medical databases were searched through June 4, 2014, for studies meeting the following eligibility criteria: adult participants; BP measurements at ≥3 visits; follow-up for CVD, coronary heart disease, stroke, or mortality outcomes; events confirmed via database, death certificate, or event ascertainment committee; and adjustment for confounders. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and pooled using a random-effects model. Overall, 8870 abstracts were identified of which 37 studies, representing 41 separate cohorts, met inclusion criteria. Across studies, visit-to-visit variability of systolic BP and diastolic BP showed significant associations with outcomes in 181 of 312 (58.0%) and 61 of 188 (32.4%) analyses, respectively. Few studies provided sufficient data for pooling risk estimates. For each 5 mm Hg higher SD of systolic BP, the pooled hazard ratio for stroke across 7 cohorts was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.28), for coronary heart disease across 4 cohorts was 1.27 (95% CI, 1.07-1.51), for CVD across 5 cohorts was 1.12 (95% CI, 0.98-1.28), for CVD mortality across 5 cohorts was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.09-1.35), and for all-cause mortality across 4 cohorts was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.05-1.36). In summary, modest associations between visit-to-visit variability of BP and CVD and all-cause mortality are present in published studies. However, these findings are limited by the small amount of data available for meta-analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have assessed the effectiveness of different drugs for osteoporosis (OP). We aimed to determine if fracture and mortality rates vary among patients initiating different OP medications.
Clinical and experimental rheumatology 07/2014; · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: The aim of the study was to identify the association of systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels with cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and falls among elderly persons taking antihypertensive medication.
Methods: US adults ≥ 45 years of age taking antihypertensive medication enrolled in the REGARDS study were categorized into 3 age groups: 55-64, 65-74 and ≥ 75 years old and baseline on-treatment SBP levels. Our primary analyses focused on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) (n = 9,787) and all-cause mortality (n = 13,948).
Results: During follow-up, 530 (5.4%) participants had CVD events and 2095 (15%) participants died. After multivariable adjustment among participants ≥ 75, the incidence of CVD per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval) was 16.9 (11.1-25.7), 13.4 (9.2-19.7), 11.6 (7.6-17.7), 17.8 (11.2-27.5) and 36.7 (26.6-50.8) at SBP levels of < 120, 120-129, 130-139, 140-149, and ≥ 150 mmHg, respectively. For the same SBP categories, the adjusted CVD incidence rates were 9.3 (7.2-12.0), 10.0 (8.1-12.3), 9.4 (7.5-11.8), 14.0 (11.0-17.8), and 16.4 (12.5-21.4), respectively, among participants 55-64 years, and 16.5 (13.6-21.5), 17.4 (14.8-20.6), 19.2 (16.4-22.5), 22.3 (18.6-26.9), and 27.6 (22.7-33.4), respectively, for participants 65-74 years. Among participants aged 55-64 and 65-74 years, a linear association was present between higher SBP categories and all-cause mortality risk (each p-trend < 0.001). In contrast, for participants ≥ 75 years no association was present between SBP and all-cause mortality (p-trend = 0.319). No association was observed between SBP and falls among participants in all age groups.
Conclusions: Among adults aged ≥ 55 taking antihypertensive medication, SBP between 120-139 mmHg was significantly associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality outcomes.
International Journal of Cardiology 07/2014; · 6.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low statin adherence and discontinuation of statins are common in patients with coronary heart disease. We hypothesized that low antihypertensive medication adherence would be associated with future statin discontinuation and low adherence in patients initiating statins. Using a 5% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries, we conducted a cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries initiating statins after hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Antihypertensive medication adherence, defined using the average proportion of days covered across 5 classes during the 365 days before hospitalization, was categorized as ≥80% (high), 50% to <80% (medium), and <50% (low). Statin discontinuation was defined as failure to refill a statin within 365 days of hospital discharge, and low adherence was defined as proportion of days covered for statins <80%. In 2,695 Medicare beneficiaries who initiated statins after hospital discharge, 6.0%, 8.4%, and 14.5% with high, medium, and low antihypertensive medication adherence discontinued statins. After multivariable adjustment, the risk ratios (95% confidence interval) for statin discontinuation were 1.38 (0.98 to 1.95) and 2.41 (1.51 to 3.87) for beneficiaries with medium and low versus high antihypertensive medication adherence, respectively. In beneficiaries who did not discontinue statins, 36.2% had low statin adherence. Compared with high adherence, medium and low antihypertensive medication adherences were associated with multivariable adjusted risk ratios (95% confidence interval) for low statin adherence of 1.33 (1.14 to 1.55) and 1.62 (1.25 to 2.10), respectively. In conclusion, low antihypertensive medication adherence before initiating statins is associated with future statin discontinuation and low statin adherence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : The 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults Report From the Panel Members Appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) was recently published. This guideline recommended that older adults (≥60 years) without diabetes or chronic kidney disease with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥150 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg be initiated on antihypertensive medication with a treatment goal SBP/DBP <150/90 mm Hg. In contrast, the previous 3 JNC guidelines recommended treatment for these individuals be initiated at SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mm Hg with goal SBP/DBP <140/90 mm Hg. In this article, we review randomized trials of antihypertensive medication and observational data on SBP and DBP with cardiovascular outcomes among older adults, possible explanations underlying the different findings from these randomized trials and observational studies, and contemporary antihypertensive treatment patterns among older U.S. adults. In closing, we highlight future research needs related to hypertension and outcomes among older adults.
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 06/2014; · 1.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guidelines recommend lifestyle modification for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Few data demonstrate which lifestyle modifications, if sustained, reduce recurrent CHD and mortality risk in cardiac patients after the postacute rehabilitation phase. We determined the association between ideal lifestyle factors and recurrent CHD and all-cause mortality in REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study participants with CHD (n = 4,174). Ideal lifestyle factors (physical activity ≥4 times/week, nonsmoking, highest quartile of Mediterranean diet score, and waist circumference <88 cm for women and <102 cm for men) were assessed through questionnaires and an in-home study visit. There were 447 recurrent CHD events and 745 deaths over a median 4.3 and 4.5 years, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, physical activity ≥4 versus no times/week and non-smoking versus current smoking were associated with reduced hazard ratios (HRs; 95% confidence interval [CI]) for recurrent CHD (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.89 and HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.64, respectively) and death (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.86 and HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.65, respectively). The multivariable-adjusted HRs (and 95% CIs) for recurrent CHD and death comparing the highest versus lowest quartile of Mediterranean diet adherence were 0.77 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.06) and 0.84 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.07), respectively. Neither outcome was associated with waist circumference. Comparing participants with 1, 2, and 3 versus 0 ideal lifestyle factors (non-smoking, physical activity ≥4 times/week, and highest quartile of Mediterranean diet score), the HRs (and 95% CIs) were 0.60 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.81), 0.49 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.67), and 0.38 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.67), respectively, for recurrent CHD and 0.65 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.83), 0.57 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.74), and 0.41 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.64), respectively, for death. In conclusion, maintaining smoking cessation, physical activity, and Mediterranean diet adherence is important for secondary CHD prevention.
The American Journal of Cardiology. 06/2014; 113(12):1933–1940.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few data exist on whether healthy lifestyle factors are associated with better prognosis among individuals with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension, a high-risk phenotype of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of healthy lifestyle factors with cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality among individuals with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. We studied participants (n=2043) from the population-based Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg despite the use of 3 antihypertensive medication classes or the use of ≥4 classes of antihypertensive medication regardless of blood pressure control). Six healthy lifestyle factors adapted from guidelines for the management of hypertension (normal waist circumference, physical activity ≥4 times/week, nonsmoking, moderate alcohol consumption, high Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet score, and low sodium-to-potassium intake ratio) were examined. A greater number of healthy lifestyle factors were associated with lower risk for cardiovascular events (n=360) during a mean follow-up of 4.5 years. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios [HR (95% confidence interval)] for cardiovascular events comparing individuals with 2, 3, and 4 to 6 versus 0 to 1 healthy lifestyle factors were 0.91 (0.68-1.21), 0.80 (0.57-1.14), and 0.63 (0.41-0.95), respectively (P-trend=0.020). Physical activity and nonsmoking were individual healthy lifestyle factors significantly associated with lower risk for cardiovascular events. Similar associations were observed between healthy lifestyle factors and risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle factors, particularly physical activity and nonsmoking, are associated with a lower risk for cardiovascular events and mortality among individuals with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Statins reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in individuals with a history of CHD or risk equivalents. A 10-year CHD risk >20% is considered a risk equivalent but is frequently not detected. Statin use and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) control were examined among participants with CHD or risk equivalents in the nationwide Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study (n = 8812).
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 06/2014; · 1.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) among U.S. adults aged 80 years and older increased between 1988 to 1994 and 2005 to 2010. Trends in the prevalence of albuminuria over this time period have not been reported in this population.
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 05/2014; · 1.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the association of serum inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP)) and serum lipid measures (low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol) with risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and ischaemic stroke (IS) among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study using 2005-2010 data from a US commercial health plan. Eligible patients had two or more physician diagnoses of RA during a baseline period of at least 180 days with continuous medical and pharmacy coverage. We computed age-adjusted incidence rates of MI and IS, and used spline regression to assess non-linear associations and Cox-regression to quantify the independent association between the laboratory values and the outcomes.
We identified 44 418 eligible RA patients (mean age 49 years; 76% women). CRP>10 mg/L compared with <1 mg/L was associated with increased MI risk (HR 2.12; 95% CI 1.02 to 4.38). ESR>42 mm/h compared with <14 mm/h was associated with increased risk of MI (HR 2.53; 95% CI 1.48 to 4.31) and IS (HR 2.51; 95% CI 1.33 to 4.75) risk. HDL-cholesterol ≥60 mg/dL (1.6 mmol/L) compared with <40 mg/dL (1.0 mmol/L) was associated with reduced MI risk (HR 0.37; 0.21 to 0.66). The association between LDL and MI was not linear; the lowest risk was observed among patients with LDL between 70 mg/L (1.8 mmol/L) and 100 mg/L (2.6 mmol/L). We did not observe a significant association between LDL and IS.
This study provides evidence supporting the hypothesis that RA-related systemic inflammation plays a role in determining cardiovascular risk and a complex relationship between LDL and cardiovascular risk.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 05/2014; · 8.11 Impact Factor