[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Real-time quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (QT-NASBA) is a sensitive method for detection of sub-microscopic gametocytaemia by measuring gametocyte-specific mRNA. Performing analysis on fresh whole blood samples is often not feasible in remote and resource-poor areas. Convenient methods for sample storage and transport are urgently needed.
Real-time QT-NASBA was performed on whole blood spiked with a dilution series of purified in-vitro cultivated gametocytes. The blood was either freshly processed or spotted on filter papers. Gametocyte detection sensitivity for QT-NASBA was determined and controlled by microscopy. Dried blood spot (DBS) samples were subjected to five different storage conditions and the loss of sensitivity over time was investigated. A formula to approximate the loss of Pfs25-mRNA due to different storage conditions and time was developed.
Pfs25-mRNA was measured in time to positivity (TTP) and correlated well with the microscopic counts and the theoretical concentrations of the dilution series. TTP results constantly indicated higher amounts of RNA in filter paper samples extracted after 24 hours than in immediately extracted fresh blood. Among investigated storage conditions freezing at -20°C performed best with 98.7% of the Pfs25-mRNA still detectable at day 28 compared to fresh blood samples. After 92 days, the RNA detection rate was only slightly decreased to 92.9%. Samples stored at 37°C showed most decay with only 64.5% of Pfs25-mRNA detectable after one month. The calculated theoretical detection limit for 24 h-old DBS filter paper samples was 0.0095 (95% CI: 0.0025 to 0.0380) per μl.
The results suggest that the application of DBS filter papers for quantification of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes with real-time QT-NASBA is practical and recommendable. This method proved sensitive enough for detection of sub-microscopic densities even after prolonged storage. Decay rates can be predicted for different storage conditions as well as durations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Andreas Wieser (firstname.lastname@example.org) Victor Soederstroem (email@example.com) David Poluda (firstname.lastname@example.org) Teferi Eshetu (email@example.com) Michael Hoelscher (firstname.lastname@example.org) Soeren Schubert (email@example.com) Jonathan Shock (firstname.lastname@example.org) Thomas Loescher (email@example.com) Nicole Berens-Riha This peer-reviewed article was published immediately upon acceptance. It can be downloaded, printed and distributed freely for any purposes (see copyright notice below).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are characterized by a new or an increased occurrence within the last few decades. They
include the following categories Emerging diagnosis of infectious diseases: old diseases that are newly classified as infectious
diseases because of the discovery of a responsible infectious agent.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to increasing drug resistance, artemisinin-based combination chemotherapy (ACT) has become the first-line treatment of falciparum malaria in many endemic countries. However, irreversible ototoxicity associated with artemether/lumefantrine (AL) has been reported recently and suggested to be a serious limitation in the use of ACT. The aim of the study was to compare ototoxicity, tolerability, and efficacy of ACT with that of quinine and atovaquone/proguanil in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria.
Ninety-seven patients in south-west Ethiopia with slide-confirmed malaria were randomly assigned to receive either artemether/lumefantrine or quinine or atovaquone/proguanil and followed-up for 90 days. Comprehensive audiovestibular testing by pure tone audiometry (PTA), transitory evoked (TE) and distortion product (DP) otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and brain stem evoked response audiometry (BERA) was done before enrolment and after seven, 28 and 90 days.
PTA and DP-OAE levels revealed transient significant cochlear hearing loss in patients treated with quinine but not in those treated with artemether/lumefantrine or atovaquone/proguanil. TE-OAE could be elicited in all examinations, except for three patients in the Q group on day 7, who suffered a transient hearing loss greater than 30 dB. There was no evidence of drug-induced brain stem lesions by BERA measurements.
There was no detrimental effect of a standard oral regimen of artemether/lumefantrine on peripheral hearing or brainstem auditory pathways in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. In contrast, transient hearing loss is common after quinine therapy and due to temporary outer hair cell dysfunction.