Takeshi Go Tsuru

Kyoto University, Kioto, Kyōto, Japan

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Publications (220)375.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) pixel sensor is promising technology for developing the high position resolution detector by integrating the small pixels and circuits in the monolithic way. The event driven (trigger mode) SOI based pixel sensor has also been developed for the application of X-ray astronomy with the purpose of reducing the noise using anti-coincidence event. This trigger mode SOI pixel sensor working with in the rate of kilo Hz is also a promising scatter detector for advanced Compton imaging to track the Compton recoiled electrons.
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a light dark matter search experiment using an SOI pixel detector (SOIPIX). The event-driven SOIPIX can be a powerful tool for detecting light WIMPs because of its low energy threshold (< 1 keV) and high timing resolution (few {\mu}s). In this study, we evaluate the performance of an SOIPIX prototype detector and we examine the required specifications of SOIPIX for our target sensitivity.
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed CMOS imaging sensor (XRPIX) using SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) technology for the X-ray astronomical use. XRPIX(X-Ray soiPIXel) has advantage of a high time resolution, a high position resolution and an observation in a wide X-ray energy band with a thick depletion layer of over 200um. However, the energy resolution of XRPIX is not as good as one of X-ray CCD. Therefore improvement of the the energy resolution is one of the most important development item of XRPIX. In order to evaluate the performance XRPIX more precisely, we have investigated on the temperature dependence of the basic performance, such as readout noise, leak current, gain and energy resolution, using two type of XRPIX, XRPIX1 and XRPIX2b_CZ. In our study, we confirmed the readout noise, the leak current noise and the energy resolution clearly depended on the operating temperature of XRPIX. In addition, we divided the readout noise into the leak current noise and the circuit origin noise. As a result, we found that noise of the electronic circuitry origin was proportional to the square root of operating temperature.
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    ABSTRACT: A low noise and wide dynamic range event driven detector for the detection of X-Ray energy is realized using 0.2 [um] Silicon on insulator (SOI) technology. Pixel circuits are divided into two parts; signal sensing circuit and event detection circuit. Event detection circuit is activated when X-Ray energy falls into the detector. In-pixel gain selection is implemented for the detection of a small signal and wide band of energy particle. Adaptive gain and capability of correlated double sampling (CDS) technique for the kTC noise canceling of charge detector realizes the low noise and high dynamic range event driven detector.
  • Ayaki Takeda · Takeshi Go Tsuru · Shoji Kawahito
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    ABSTRACT: We have been developing monolithic active pixel sensors series, named ``XRPIX'', based on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) pixel technology, for future X-ray astronomical satellites. The XRPIX series offers high coincidence time resolution (~?1??s), superior readout time (~?10??s), and a wide energy range (0.5?40 keV) . In the previous study, we successfully demonstrated X-ray detection by event-driven readout of XRPIX2b. We here report recent improvements in spectroscopic performance. We successfully increased the gain and reduced the readout noise in XRPIX2b by decreasing the parasitic capacitance of the sense-node originated in the buried p-well (BPW) . On the other hand, we found significant tail structures in the spectral response due to the loss of the charge collection efficiency when a small BPW is employed. Thus, we increased the gain in XRPIX3b by introducing in-pixel charge sensitive amplifiers instead of having even smaller BPW . We finally achieved the readout noise of 35 e? (rms) and the energy resolution of 320 eV (FWHM) at 6 keV without significant loss of the charge collection efficiency.
    Journal of Instrumentation 06/2015; 10. DOI:10.1088/1748-0221/10/06/C06005 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have been developing a new type of active pixel sensor, referred to as “XRPIX” for future X-ray astronomy satellites on the basis of silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. The problem on our previous device, XRPIX1b, was degradation of the charge-collection efficiency (CCE) at pixel borders. In order to investigate the non-uniformity of the CCE within a pixel, we measured sub-pixel response with X-ray beams whose diameters are at SPring-8. We found that the X-ray detection efficiency and CCE degrade in the sensor region under the pixel circuitry placed outside the buried p-wells (BPW). A 2D simulation of the electric fields with the semiconductor device simulator HyDeLEOS shows that the isolated pixel circuitry outside the BPW makes local minimums in the electric potentials at the interface between the sensor and buried oxide layers, where a part of charge is trapped and is not collected to the BPW. Based on this result, we modified the placement of the in-pixel circuitry in the next device, XRPIX2b, for the electric fields to be converged toward the BPW, and confirmed that the CCE at pixel borders is successfully improved.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 05/2015; 794. DOI:10.1016/j.nima.2015.05.008 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions developed by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), with a planned launch in 2015. The ASTRO-H mission is equipped with a suite of sensitive instruments with the highest energy resolution ever achieved at E > 3 keV and a wide energy range spanning four decades in energy from soft X-rays to gamma-rays. The simultaneous broad band pass, coupled with the high spectral resolution of Delta E < 7 eV of the micro-calorimeter, will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued. ASTRO-H is expected to provide breakthrough results in scientific areas as diverse as the large-scale structure of the Universe and its evolution, the behavior of matter in the gravitational strong field regime, the physical conditions in sites of cosmic-ray acceleration, and the distribution of dark matter in galaxy clusters at different redshifts.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the potential of high resolution imaging spectroscopy with the SXS on ASTRO-H to advance our understanding of the interstellar- and circumgalactic media of our own Galaxy, and other galaxies. Topics to be addressed range from absorption spectroscopy of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium, to observations to constrain the total mass-, metal-, and energy flow out of starburst galaxies.
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    ABSTRACT: We are developing the Soft X-ray Imager (SXI), a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera system to be deployed onboard the ASTRO-H satellite. Using an engineering model system in which design specifications were the same as those of the flight model, we measured charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) and the effects of charge trailing. The CCD was irradiated with monochromatic X-rays produced by a radio isotope (55Fe) and X-ray generator using alpha particles from 241Am. We used four targets for the X-ray generator: (C2F4)n, SiO2, Ti, and Ge. Since CTI degrades energy resolution, we adopted the charge-injection technique to the SXI. With this technique, injected charges fill traps, and subsequent signal charges are transferred with less loss of charge. However, the charge-injection technique can cause positional variations in gain on the CCD chip. Thus, we constructed a method for correcting CTI. We also evaluated the charge trailing effect and tested a method for correcting its effects. After applying these corrections to charge injection, variations in gain improved from 0.5% to 0.1% over the CCD chip, and the energy resolution (FWHM) improved from to at 5.9 keV.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 11/2014; 765:269-274. DOI:10.1016/j.nima.2014.05.091 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We are developing a monolithic active pixel sensor referred to as XRPIX for X-ray astronomy on the basis of silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. A crucial issue in our recent development is the impact of incomplete charge collection on the spectroscopic performance. In this paper, we report the spectral responses of several devices having different intra-pixel structures or produced from different wafers. We found that an emission line spectrum exhibits large low-energy tails when the size of the buried p-well, which acts as the charge-collection node, is small. Moreover, in charge sharing events, the peak channels of the emission lines shift toward channels lower than those without charge sharing. This peak shift is more pronounced as the distance between the pixel center and the position of incident photon increases. This suggests that the charge-collection efficiency is degraded at the pixel boundary. We also found that the charge-collection efficiency depends on the strength of the electric field at the interface of the depletion and insulator layers.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 11/2014; 765:183-186. DOI:10.1016/j.nima.2014.05.025 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An elongated X-ray source with a strong K-shell line from He-like iron (Fe XXVI) is found at (RA, Dec)_{J2000.0}=(17h44m00s.0, -29D13'40''.9) in the Galactic center region. The position coincides with the X-ray thread, G359.55+0.16, which is aligned with the radio non-thermal filament. The X-ray spectrum is well fitted with an absorbed thin thermal plasma (apec) model. The best-fit temperature, metal abundance, and column density are 4.1^{+2.7}_{-1.8} keV, 0.58^{+0.41}_{-0.32} solar, and 6.1^{+2.5}_{-1.3}x10^{22} cm^{-2}, respectively. These values are similar to those of the largely extended Galactic center X-ray emission.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 09/2014; 66(6). DOI:10.1093/pasj/psu122 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have been developing monolithic active pixel sensors, known as Kyoto's X-ray SOIPIXs, based on the CMOS SOI (silicon-on-insulator) technology for next-generation X-ray astronomy satellites. The event trigger output function implemented in each pixel offers microsecond time resolution and enables reduction of the non-X-ray background that dominates the high X-ray energy band above 5--10 keV. A fully depleted SOI with a thick depletion layer and back illumination offers wide band coverage of 0.3--40 keV. Here, we report recent progress in the X-ray SOIPIX development. In this study, we achieved an energy resolution of 300~eV (FWHM) at 6~keV and a read-out noise of 33~e- (rms) in the frame readout mode, which allows us to clearly resolve Mn-K$\alpha$ and K$\beta$. Moreover, we produced a fully depleted layer with a thickness of $500~{\rm \mu m}$. The event-driven readout mode has already been successfully demonstrated.
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    ABSTRACT: X-ray CCD operated onboard satellite are contaminated by outgas from organic material used in satellites. This contamination causes a significant reduction in the detection sensitivity of X-ray detectors. In order to prevent such contamination to the Back-Illuminated CCD (BI-CCD) of the Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) onboard ASTRO-H, we have developed a Contamination Blocking Filter (CBF), which consists of ~30nm thick Aluminum and ~200nm thick Polyimide. The CBF is be placed on the top of the CCD camera hood and is required to have a high X-ray transmission in order to take advantage of the high detection efficiency of BI-CCD. We measured the X-ray transmission of three flight candidates of the CBF last October at the SPring-8 and obtained the X-ray transmission of three CBFs in the soft X-ray energy from 0.2 to 1.8 keV which covers the absorption edges around C-K, N-K, O-K, and Al-K including X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). In these measurements, we found three CBFs have high X-ray transmission below 2ke V, e.g. ~70% at around 0.5 keV, and determined the thickness of Al and Polyimide to be 220 nm and ~50 nm, respectively. We will calculate the response function of SXI including these results.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: We present Suzaku results of the two Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) G350.1−0.3 and G349.7+0.2. We find Al and Ni Kα lines from both the SNRs for the first time, in addition to previously detected K-shell lines of Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe. The spectra are well described by two optically thin thermal plasmas: a low-temperature (low-kT) plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium and a high-temperature (high-kT) plasma in non-equilibrium ionization. Since the low-kT plasma has solar metal abundances, it is thought to be of interstellar medium origin. The high-kT plasma has super-solar abundances, hence it is likely to be of ejecta origin. The abundance patterns of the ejecta components are similar to those of core-collapse supernovae with progenitor masses of ∼ 15–25 M⊙ for G350.1−0.3 and ∼ 35–40 M⊙ for G349.7+0.2. We find extremely high abundances of Ni compared to Fe (ZNi/ZFe ∼ 8). Based on the measured column densities between the SNRs and the near sky background, we propose that G350.1−0.3 and G349.7+0.2 are located at distances of 9 ± 3 kpc and 12 ± 5 kpc, respectively. Then the ejecta masses are estimated to be ∼ 13 M⊙ and ∼ 24 M⊙ for G350−0.3 and G349.7+0.2, respectively. These values are consistent with the progenitor masses of ∼ 15–25 M⊙ and ∼ 35–40 M⊙ for G350.1−0.3 and G349.7+0.2, respectively.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 03/2014; 66(4). DOI:10.1093/pasj/psu043 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present deep observations of the Galactic supernova remnant IC 443 with the Suzaku X-ray satellite. We find prominent K-shell lines from iron and nickel, together with a triangle residual at 8-10 keV, which corresponds to the energy of the radiative recombination continuum (RRC) of He-like iron. In addition, the wavy residuals have been seen at ~5.1 and ~5.5 keV. We confirm that the residuals show the first enhanced RRCs of He- and H-like calcium found in supernova remnants. These facts provide robust evidence for the recombining plasma. We reproduce the plasma in the 3.7-10 keV band using a recombining plasma model at the electron temperature 0.65 keV. The recombination parameter n et (n e is electron density and t is elapsed time after formation of a recombining plasma) and abundances of iron and nickel are strongly correlated, and hence the errors are large. On the other hand, the ratio of nickel to iron relative to the solar abundances is well constrained to 11 (1σ). A possibility is that the large abundance ratio is a result of an asymmetric explosion of the progenitor star.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2014; 784(1):74. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/784/1/74 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of a distant star-forming galaxy, ALMA J010748.3─173028, which is identified by a 13σ emission line at 99.75 GHz (SΔv = 3.1 Jy km s─1), behind the nearby merging galaxies VV114 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 3. We also find an 880 μm counterpart with ALMA Band 7 (S 880μm = 11.2 mJy). A careful comparison of the intensities of the line and the continuum suggests that the line is a redshifted 12CO transition. A photometric redshift analysis using the infrared to radio data favors a CO redshift of z = 2.467, although z = 3.622 is acceptable. We also find a hard X-ray counterpart, suggesting the presence of a luminous (L X ~ 1044 erg s─1) active galactic nucleus obscured by a large hydrogen column (N H ~ 2 × 1023 cm─2 if z = 2.47). A cosmological simulation shows that the chance detection rate of a CO-emitting galaxy at z > 1 with >=1 Jy km s─1 is ~10─3 per single ALMA field of view and 7.5 GHz bandwidth at 99.75 GHz. This demonstrates that ALMA has sufficient sensitivity to find an emission-line galaxy such as ALMA J010748.3─173028 even by chance, although the likelihood of stumbling across such a source is not high.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 01/2014; 781(2). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/781/2/L39 · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of a distant star-forming galaxy, ALMA J010748.3-173028, which is identified by a 13-sigma emission line at 99.75 GHz (SdV = 3.1 Jy km/s), behind the nearby merging galaxies VV114 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 3. We also find an 880-um counterpart with ALMA Band 7 (S_880um = 11.2 mJy). A careful comparison of the intensities of the line and the continuum suggests that the line is a redshifted 12CO transition. A photometric redshift analysis using the infrared to radio data favors a CO redshift of z = 2.467, although z = 3.622 is acceptable. We also find a hard X-ray counterpart, suggesting the presence of a luminous (L_X ~ 10^44 erg/s) active galactic nucleus obscured by a large hydrogen column (N_H ~ 2 x 10^23 cm^-2 if z = 2.47). A cosmological simulation shows that the chance detection rate of a CO-emitting galaxy at z > 1 with \ge 1 Jy km/s is ~ 10^-3 per single ALMA field of view and 7.5-GHz bandwidth at 99.75 GHz. This demonstrates that ALMA has sufficient sensitivity to find an emission-line galaxy such as ALMA J010748.3-173028 even by chance, although the likelihood of stumbling across such a source is not high.
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    ABSTRACT: We have been developing active pixel sensors based on silicon-on-insulator technology for future X-ray astronomy missions. Recently we fabricated the new prototype named "XRPIX2", and investigated its spectroscopic performance. For comparison and evaluation of different chip designs, XRPIX2 consists of 3 pixel types: Small Pixel, Large Pixel 1, and Large Pixel 2. In Small Pixel, we found that the gains of the 68% pixels are within 1.4% of the mean value, and the energy resolution is 656 eV (FWHM) for 8 keV X-rays, which is the best spectroscopic performance in our development. The pixel pitch of Large Pixel 1 and Large Pixel 2 is twice as large as that of Small Pixel. Charge sharing events are successfully reduced for Large Pixel 1. Moreover Large Pixel 2 has multiple nodes for charge collection in a pixel. We confirmed that the multi-nodes structure is effective to increase charge collection efficiency.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 12/2013; 731:74-78. DOI:10.1016/j.nima.2013.04.063 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of the mapping observations of the northwest region of the Virgo cluster. The X-ray spectra can be represented by a single-temperature plasma. The temperature of the intracluster medium decreases with radius from 0′ to 50′, and it becomes almost constant beyond the 50′ radius. The metal abundances also decrease with radius from 0′ to 40′, then become constant beyond the radius of 40′. These temperature and abundance profiles can be clues to investigate the cluster formation history and cosmological parameters.
    07/2013; -1:264. DOI:10.1016/S0273-1177(99)00808-X
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    ABSTRACT: We have been developing a monolithic active pixel sensor with the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS technology for use in future X-ray astronomical satellite missions. This sensor is called XRPIX. Our objective is to replace the X-ray CCD, which is currently the standard detector in the field, with the developed XRPIX, which offers high coincidence time resolution (~ 50 ns), superior hit-position readout time (~ 10 μs), and wide bandpass (0.5-40 keV), in addition to having comparable performance in terms of imaging spectroscopy. In our previous study, we built a prototype sensor called XRPIX1 and confirmed its basic X-ray imaging spectroscopy performance in a mode that read out the entire area (all pixels). The next step is to realize a high-speed, intelligent readout for X-ray detection. XRPIX1 comprises a trigger circuit for each pixel, so as to detect an X-ray photon injection; this system is capable of direct access to selected pixels to read out the signal amplitude. We describe the design of the trigger circuitry system and report on the first resolved X-ray spectra obtained in the trigger-driven readout mode.
    IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 04/2013; 60(2):586-591. DOI:10.1109/TNS.2012.2225072 · 1.46 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
375.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2014
    • Kyoto University
      • • Division of Physics and Astronomy
      • • Department of Physics II
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2006
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1999–2006
    • Osaka University
      • Department of Earth and Space Science
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2004
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
      Chōfu, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1989–2002
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Department of Astronomy
      • • Department of Physics
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1998
    • NASA
      • Goddard Space Flight Centre
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
    • Niigata University
      • Department of Physics
      Niahi-niigata, Niigata, Japan
  • 1992
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom
  • 1971–1972
    • Kagoshima University
      • • Division of Surgery
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Kagosima, Kagoshima, Japan