[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: RBM5 (RNA-binding motif protein 5, also named H37/LUCA-15) gene from chromosome 3p21.3 has been demonstrated to be a tumor suppressor. Current researches in vitro confirm that RBM5 can suppress the growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis. There is still no effective model in vivo, however, that thoroughly investigates the effect and molecular mechanism of RBM5 on lung adenocarcinoma. METHOD: We established the transplanted tumor model on BALB/c nude mice using the A549 cell line. The mice were treated with the recombinant plasmids carried by attenuated Salmonella to induce the overexpression of RBM5 in tumor tissues. RBM5 overexpression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry staining. H&E staining was performed to observe the histological performance on plasmids-treated A549 xenografts. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining with a TUNEL detection kit. Apoptosis-regulated genes were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: We successful established the lung adenocarcinoma animal model in vivo. The growth of tumor xenografts was significantly retarded on the mice treated with pcDNA3.1-RBM5 carried by attenuated Salmonella compared to that on mice treated with pcDNA3.1. Overexpression of RBM5 enhanced the apoptosis in tumor xenografts. Furthermore, the expression of Bcl-2 protein was decreased significantly, while the expression of BAX, TNF-alpha, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP proteins was significantly increased in the pcDNA3.1-RBM5-treated mice as compared to that in the control mice. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we established a novel animal model to determine RBM5 function in vivo, and concluded that RBM5 inhibited tumor growth in mice by inducing apoptosis. The study suggests that although RBM5's involvement in the death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway is still to be investigated, RBM5-mediated growth suppression, at least in part, employs regulation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 05/2013; 11(1):123. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated that the nuclear RNA-binding protein RBM5 has the ability to modulate apoptosis and suppress tumor growth. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of RBM5 in human prostate cancer and its mechanism of tumor suppression. METHODS: The expression of RBM5 protein in cancerous prostatic tissues and normal tissues was examined by IHC. PC-3 cell line was used to determine the apoptotic function of RBM5 in vitro. PC-3 cells were transiently transfected with pcDNA3.1-RBM5. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Rhodamine 123 staining and Annexin V analysis were performed to observe the apoptotic activity of PC-3 cells overexpressing RBM5. Expression of apoptosis-related genes was assessed by western blot. RESULTS: The expression of RBM5 protein was significantly decreased in cancerous prostatic tissues compared to the normal tissues. PC-3 cells overexpressing RBM5 showed not only significant growth inhibition compared with the vector controls, but also dysfunction of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased apoptotic activity. To further define RBM5 function in apoptotic pathways, we investigated differential expression profiles of various BH3-only proteins including Bid, Bad, and Bim, and apoptosis regulatory proteins include P53, cleaved caspase9, and cleaved caspase3. We found that the expression of both BH3-only proteins and apoptosis regulatory proteins was increased in RBM5 transfected cells. CONCLUSION: The expression of RBM5 protein was significantly decreased in cancerous prostatic tissues, which suggests that RBM5 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. RBM5 may induce the apoptosis of prostate cancer PC-3 cells by modulating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and thus RBM5 might be a promising target for gene therapy on prostate cancer.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 11/2012; 10(1):247. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The loss of tumor suppressor gene (TSG) function is a critical step in the pathogenesis of human lung cancer. RBM5 (RNA-binding motif protein 5, also named H37/LUCA-15) gene from chromosome 3p21.3 demonstrated tumor suppressor activity. However, the role of RBM5 played in the occurrence and development of lung cancer is still not well understood. METHOD: Paired non-tumor and tumor tissues were obtained from 30 adenocarcinomas. The expression of RBM5 mRNA and protein was examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. A549 cell line was used to determine the apoptotic function of RBM5 in vitro. A549 cells were transiently transfected with pcDNA3.1-RBM5. AnnexinV analysis was performed by flow cytometry. Expression of Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9 and PAPP proteins in A549 lung cancer cells and the A549 xenograft BALB/c nude mice model was determined by Western blot. Tumor suppressor activity of RBM5 was also examined in the A549 xenograft model treated with pcDNA3.1-RBM5 plasmid carried by attenuated Salmonella typhi Ty21a. Result The expression of RBM5 mRNA and protein was decreased significantly in adenocarcinoma tissues compared to that in the non-tumor tissues. In addition, as compared to the vector control, a significant growth inhibition of A549 lung cancer cells was observed when transfected with pcDNA3.1-RBM5 as determined by cell proliferation assay. We also found that overexpression of RBM5 induced both early and late apoptosis in A549 cells using AnnexinV/PI staining as determined by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the expression of Bcl-2 protein was decreased, whereas the expression of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP proteins was significantly increased in the RBM5 transfected cells; similarly, expression of decreased Bcl-2 and increased cleaved caspase-3 proteins was also examined in the A549 xenograft model. More importantly, we showed that accumulative and stable overexpression of RBM5 in the A549 xenograft BALB/c nude mice model significantly inhibited the tumor growth rate in vivo as compared to that in the control. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that RBM5 can inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells and induce apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, which suggests that RBM5 might be used as a potential biomarker or target for lung cancer diagnosis and chemotherapy. Moreover, we propose a novel animal model set up in BALB/c nude mice treated with attenuated Salmonella as a vector carrying plasmids to determine RBM5 function in vivo.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 08/2012; 10(1):160. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Increasing RBM5 levels inhibit tumor cell growth and promote apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the role of RBM5 in the cisplatin resistance observed in human lung non-small cell lung cancer cells and evaluated the effect of RBM5 modulation on cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induced by cisplatin in the parental non-small cell lung cancer cells A549 and their cisplatin resistant counterparts, A549/DDP cells. Methods: RBM5 mRNA and protein expression in the A549 and A549/DDP cells was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and western blot. The A549/DDP cells were then transfected with a pcDNA3-RBM5 plasmid, and an RBM5-specific siRNA was transfected into A549 cells, prior to treatment with cisplatin. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses were performed to confirm the expression of RBM5 mRNA or protein, and knockdown of RBM5 mRNA or protein, respectively. MTT assays were used to evaluate chemosensitivity to cisplatin. Apoptosis was assessed by DAPI nuclear staining and flow cytometric analysis with an Annexin-V-FITC apoptosis kit. Cytosolic cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 were detected by western blot. Results: The expression of RBM5 mRNA and protein was significantly reduced in the A549/DDP cells compared with the A549 cells. Exogenous expression of RBM5 by the pcDNA3-RBM5 resensitized the response of A549/DDP to cisplatin, resulting in a significant increase in tumor-suppressing activity induced by cisplatin. In contrast, downregulation of RBM5 with siRNA in the A549 cells inhibited cisplatin-induced apoptosis. We also found that the RBM5-enhanced chemosensitivity was associated with the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, activation of caspase-9 and the downstream marker caspase-3. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that RBM5 may serve as a biomarker with the ability to predict a response to cisplatin. It may also act as a prognostic indicator in lung cancer patients. Our findings suggest that there may be clinical utility for ectopic RBM5 such as enhancing and resensitizing nonresponders to cisplatin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RNA binding motif 5 (RBM5) is a tumor suppressor gene that modulates apoptosis through the regulation of alternative splicing of apoptosis-related genes. This study aimed to detect RBM5 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to associate RBM5 expression with clinicopathological data from NSCLC patients and EGFR and KRAS expression to better understand the potential role of RBM5 in NSCLC.
Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were performed to detect expression of mRNA and protein, respectively, of RBM5, EGFR and KRAS in 120 paired non-tumor and tumor samples of NSCLC.
The data showed that expression of RBM5 mRNA and protein was significantly reduced in NSCLC compared to normal tissues, whereas expression of both EGFR and KRAS genes was increased in NSCLC compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, the reduced RBM5 protein expression correlated with smoking status, tumor stage and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC, while overexpression of EGFR and KRAS proteins correlated with tumor stage and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. Overexpression of KRAS protein was more frequent in smokers with NSCLC. In addition, expression of RBM5 mRNA and protein was negatively correlated with expression of EGFR and KRAS mRNA and protein in NSCLC tissues.
This study suggests further evaluation of RBM5 expression is warranted for use of RBM5 as a biomarker for NSCLC patients.
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 04/2012; 31:36. · 3.07 Impact Factor