[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coagulation is a host defense system that limits the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases, such as thrombin, also activate cells by cleaving PARs. In this study, we analyzed the role of PAR-1 in coxsackievirus B3-induced (CVB3-induced) myocarditis and influenza A infection. CVB3-infected Par1-/- mice expressed reduced levels of IFN-β and CXCL10 during the early phase of infection compared with Par1+/+ mice that resulted in higher viral loads and cardiac injury at day 8 after infection. Inhibition of either tissue factor or thrombin in WT mice also significantly increased CVB3 levels in the heart and cardiac injury compared with controls. BM transplantation experiments demonstrated that PAR-1 in nonhematopoietic cells protected mice from CVB3 infection. Transgenic mice overexpressing PAR-1 in cardiomyocytes had reduced CVB3-induced myocarditis. We found that cooperative signaling between PAR-1 and TLR3 in mouse cardiac fibroblasts enhanced activation of p38 and induction of IFN-β and CXCL10 expression. Par1-/- mice also had decreased CXCL10 expression and increased viral levels in the lung after influenza A infection compared with Par1+/+ mice. Our results indicate that the tissue factor/thrombin/PAR-1 pathway enhances IFN-β expression and contributes to the innate immune response during single-stranded RNA viral infection.
The Journal of clinical investigation 02/2013; · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with a complex vascular pathophysiology that includes activation of coagulation and inflammation. However, the crosstalk between these 2 systems in SCD has not been investigated. Here, we examined the role of tissue factor (TF) in the activation of coagulation and inflammation in 2 different mouse models of SCD (BERK and Townes). Leukocytes isolated from BERK mice expressed TF protein and had increased TF activity compared with control mice. We found that an inhibitory anti-TF antibody abrogated the activation of coagulation but had no effect on hemolysis or anemia. Importantly, inhibition of TF also attenuated inflammation and endothelial cell injury as demonstrated by reduced plasma levels of IL-6, serum amyloid P, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. In addition, we found decreased levels of the chemokines MCP-1 and KC, as well as myeloperoxidase in the lungs of sickle cell mice treated with the anti-TF antibody. Finally, we found that endothelial cell-specific deletion of TF had no effect on coagulation but selectively attenuated plasma levels of IL-6. Our data indicate that different cellular sources of TF contribute to activation of coagulation, vascular inflammation, and endothelial cell injury. Furthermore, it appears that TF contributes to these processes without affecting intravascular hemolysis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer patients often have an activated clotting system and are at increased risk for venous thrombosis. In the present study, we analyzed tissue factor (TF) expression in 4 different human pancreatic tumor cell lines for the purpose of producing derivative tumors in vivo. We found that 2 of the lines expressed TF and released TF-positive microparticles (MPs) into the culture medium. The majority of TF protein in the culture medium was associated with MPs. Only TF-positive cell lines activated coagulation in nude mice, and this activation was abolished by an anti-human TF Ab. Of the 2 TF-positive lines, only one produced detectable levels of human MP TF activity in the plasma when grown orthotopically in nude mice. Surprisingly, < 5% of human TF protein in plasma from tumor-bearing mice was associated with MPs. Mice with TF-positive tumors and elevated levels of circulating TF-positive MPs had increased thrombosis in a saphenous vein model. In contrast, we observed no difference in thrombus weight between tumor-bearing and control mice in an inferior vena cava stenosis model. The results of the present study using a xenograft mouse model suggest that tumor TF activates coagulation, whereas TF on circulating MPs may trigger venous thrombosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. It also is associated with platelet hyperactivity, which increases morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms by which hypercholesterolemia produces a procoagulant state remain undefined. Atherosclerosis is associated with accumulation of oxidized lipoproteins within atherosclerotic lesions. Small quantities of oxidized lipoproteins are also present in the circulation of patients with coronary artery disease. We therefore hypothesized that hypercholesterolemia leads to elevated levels of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in plasma and that this induces expression of the procoagulant protein tissue factor (TF) in monocytes. In support of this hypothesis, we report here that oxLDL induced TF expression in human monocytic cells and monocytes. In addition, patients with familial hypercholesterolemia had elevated levels of plasma microparticle (MP) TF activity. Furthermore, a high-fat diet induced a time-dependent increase in plasma MP TF activity and activation of coagulation in both LDL receptor-deficient mice and African green monkeys. Genetic deficiency of TF in bone marrow cells reduced coagulation in hypercholesterolemic mice, consistent with a major role for monocyte-derived TF in the activation of coagulation. Similarly, a deficiency of either TLR4 or TLR6 reduced levels of MP TF activity. Simvastatin treatment of hypercholesterolemic mice and monkeys reduced oxLDL, monocyte TF expression, MP TF activity, activation of coagulation, and inflammation, without affecting total cholesterol levels. Our results suggest that the prothrombotic state associated with hypercholesterolemia is caused by oxLDL-mediated induction of TF expression in monocytes via engagement of a TLR4/TLR6 complex.
The Journal of clinical investigation 01/2012; 122(2):558-68. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue factor (TF) is a potent initiator of the extrinsic coagulation cascade. The role and source of TF in venous thrombotic disease is not clearly defined. Our study objective was to identify the contribution of myeloid cell TF to venous thrombogenesis in mice.
The mouse electrolytic inferior vena cava model was used to induce thrombosis. The following groups of mice were used (1) TF(flox/flox)LysMCre(+) mice that have reduced TF expression in myeloid cells, (2) TF(flox/flox)LysMCre(-) littermate controls, (3) Wild type mice given a monoclonal anti-mouse TF antibody (1H1) to inhibit TF activity, and (4) Wild type mice given rat IgG. Evaluations at baseline, day 2, and day 6 post thrombosis included thrombus weight, vein wall inflammatory cell migration, vein wall TF mRNA, and plasma D-dimer levels.
Inhibition of TF significantly decreased thrombus weight 2days post venous thrombosis. In contrast, TF(flox/flox)LysMCre(+) had no change in thrombus weight when compared to littermate controls. The absence of myeloid cell TF did not affect infiltration of neutrophils or monocytes into the vein wall. TF mRNA expression in the vein wall decreased at 2days but then returned to baseline levels by 6days post thrombosis. D-dimer levels peaked at 2days post thrombosis in mice with or without myeloid cell TF.
TF is important in the formation of venous thrombi in the macrovasculature. However, TF expression by myeloid cells does not significantly contribute to venous thrombogenesis in this model.
Thrombosis Research 12/2011; 130(4):640-5. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The microvasculature assumes an inflammatory and procoagulant state in a variety of different diseases, including sickle cell disease (SCD), which may contribute to the high incidence of ischemic stroke in these patients. This study provides evidence for accelerated thrombus formation in arterioles and venules in the cerebral vasculature of mice that express hemoglobin-S (β(s) mice). Enhanced microvascular thrombosis in β(s) mice was blunted by immunologic or genetic interventions that target tissue factor, endothelial protein C receptor, activated protein C, or thrombin. Platelets from β(s) mice also exhibited enhanced aggregation velocity after stimulation with thrombin but not ADP. Neutropenia also protected against the enhanced thrombosis response in β(s) mice. These results indicate that the cerebral microvasculature is rendered vulnerable to thrombus formation in β(s) mice via a neutrophil-dependent mechanism that is associated with an increased formation of and enhanced platelet sensitivity to thrombin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to define the relative contributions of three major pro- and anti-coagulation pathways (heparin-antithrombin, protein C, and tissue factor (TF)) in the thrombogenic responses that occur in large and small vessels of the brain.
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis was induced by topical application of FeCl3 on the superior sagittal sinus, while photoactivation of fluorescein was used to induce thrombus formation in cerebral microvessels. Heparin, activated protein C (APC), and antibodies to either APC or TF were used to assess thrombogenesis in wild-type mice. Mutant mice that overexpress the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR-tg) or with TF deficiency in Tie2-expressing endothelial cells (LTFE) were also used.
Thrombus formation in the superior sagittal sinus of wild-type mice was attenuated by heparin and in EPCR-tg mice, while treatment with the APC antibodies enhanced thrombogenesis. Arteriolar thrombosis was largely unresponsive to the interventions studied. However, in cerebral venules, thrombosis was inhibited by heparin and in EPCR-tg mice. TF antibody treatment also inhibited venular thrombosis, with a similar attenuation noted in LTFE mice.
Thrombin promotes while the APC pathway blunts thrombus formation in an experimental model of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. TF involvement is more evident in cerebral microvascular thrombogenesis, with endothelial cell-associated TF mediating this response in venules, but not arterioles.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue factor (TF) is present in blood in various forms, including small membrane vesicles called microparticles (MPs). Elevated levels of these MPs appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of thrombosis in a variety of diseases, including sepsis.
Measure levels of MP TF activity and activation of coagulation in control and endotoxemic mice.
MPs were prepared from plasma by centrifugation. The procoagulant activity (PCA) of MPs was measured using a two-stage chromogenic assay. We also measured levels of thrombin-antithrombin and the number of MPs.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased MP PCA in wild-type mice; this PCA was significantly reduced by an anti-mouse TF antibody (1H1) but not with an anti-human TF antibody (HTF-1). Conversely, in mice expressing only human TF, MP PCA was inhibited by HTF-1 but not 1H1. MPs from wild-type mice had 6-fold higher levels of PCA using mouse factor (F)VIIa compared with human FVIIa, which is consistent with reported species-specific differences in FVIIa. Mice expressing low levels of human TF had significantly lower levels of MP TF activity and TAT than mice expressing high levels of human TF; however, there were similar levels of phosphatidylserine (PS)-positive MPs. Importantly, levels of MP TF activity in wild-type mice correlated with levels of TAT but not with PS-positive MPs in endotoxemic mice.
These results suggest that the levels of TF-positive MPs can be used as a biomarker for evaluating the risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation in endotoxemia.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 05/2009; 7(7):1092-8. · 6.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Separation of concentrated bile acids from hepatic parenchymal cells is a key function of the bile duct epithelial cells (BDECs) that form intrahepatic bile ducts. Using coimmunostaining, we found that tissue factor (TF), the principal activator of coagulation, colocalized with cytokeratin 19, a marker of BDECs in the adult mouse liver. BDEC injury induced by xenobiotics such as alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) causes cholestasis, inflammation, and hepatocellular injury. We tested the hypothesis that acute ANIT-induced cholestatic hepatitis is associated with TF-dependent activation of coagulation and determined the role of TF in ANIT hepatotoxicity. Treatment of mice with ANIT (60 mg/kg) caused multifocal hepatic necrosis and significantly increased serum biomarkers of cholestasis and hepatic parenchymal cell injury. ANIT treatment also significantly increased liver TF expression and activity. ANIT-induced activation of the coagulation cascade was shown by increased plasma thrombin-antithrombin levels and significant deposition of fibrin within the necrotic foci. ANIT-induced coagulation and liver injury were reduced in low-TF mice, which express 1% of normal TF levels. The results indicate that ANIT-induced liver injury is accompanied by TF-dependent activation of the coagulation cascade and that TF contributes to the progression of injury during acute cholestatic hepatitis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fetal loss in patients with antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies has been ascribed to thrombosis of placental vessels. However, we have shown that inflammation, specifically activation of complement with generation of the anaphylotoxin C5a, is an essential trigger of fetal injury. In this study, we analyzed the role of the procoagulant molecule tissue factor (TF) in a mouse model of aPL antibody-induced pregnancy loss. We found that either blockade of TF with a monoclonal antibody in wild-type mice or a genetic reduction of TF prevented aPL antibody-induced inflammation and pregnancy loss. In response to aPL antibody-generated C5a, neutrophils express TF potentiating inflammation in the deciduas and leading to miscarriages. Importantly, we showed that TF in myeloid cells but not fetal-derived cells (trophoblasts) was associated with fetal injury, suggesting that the site for pathologic TF expression is neutrophils. We found that TF expression in neutrophils contributes to respiratory burst and subsequent trophoblast injury and pregnancy loss induced by aPL antibodies. The identification of TF as an important mediator of C5a-induced oxidative burst in neutrophils in aPL-induced fetal injury provides a new target for therapy to prevent pregnancy loss in the antiphospholipid syndrome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence for an interplay between inflammatory and coagulation pathways in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, it remains unclear whether components of the coagulation pathway, such as tissue factor (TF), contribute to intestinal inflammation, and whether targeting TF will blunt the inflammatory cell recruitment, tissue injury, and enhanced thrombus formation that occur in experimental colitis. Mice were fed 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colonic inflammation, with some mice receiving a mouse TF-blocking antibody (muTF-Ab). The adhesion of leukocytes and platelets in colonic venules, light/dye-induced thrombus formation in cremaster muscle microvessels, as well as disease activity index, thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complexes in plasma, and histopathologic changes in the colonic mucosa were monitored in untreated and muTF-Ab-treated colitic mice. In untreated mice, DSS elicited the recruitment of adherent leukocytes and platelets in colonic venules, caused gross and histologic injury, increased plasma TAT complexes, and enhanced thrombus formation in muscle arterioles. muTF-Ab prevented elevation in TAT complexes, reduced blood cell recruitment and tissue injury, and blunted thrombus formation in DSS colitic mice. These findings implicate TF in intestinal inflammation and support an interaction between inflammation and coagulation in experimental colitis.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 08/2007; 204(7):1595-601. · 13.21 Impact Factor