[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Respiratory viral infections that cause chronic airway and lung disease can result in the activation of the innate immune response. Alveolar macrophages (AMs), one of the first lines of defense in the lung, are abundantly located in alveoli and the respiratory tract. Flavonoids found in fruits and vegetables exhibit cytoprotective effects on various cell types. In this study, we investigated the effect of quercetin on activation of AMs that had been exposed to imiquimod, a ligand of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7. In both a mouse AM cell line (AMJ2-C11 cells) and mouse bronchoalveolar fluid cells, we demonstrated that quercetin attenuated TLR7-induced the expression of TNF-α and IL-6. In AMJ2-C11 cells, quercetin also attenuated the TLR7-induced CD40 expression; attenuated the translocation of p65; induced translocation of Nrf2 from cytosol to nucleus; and induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression. Notably, tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), an inhibitor of HO-1, also attenuated TLR7-induced transcription of the TNF-α and IL-6 genes, suggesting that the effect of quercetin is mediated by HO-1. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with quercetin may have efficacy in the treatment of respiratory viral infection.
© 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Pharmacology 09/2015; 96(5-6):201-209. DOI:10.1159/000438993 · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
An original symptom score sheet named "Anaphylaxis Scoring Aichi (ASCA)" was created to quantitatively determine the severity of allergic symptoms provoked in an oral food challenge.
ASCA lists and sorts subjective and objective symptoms into five organs (respiratory, skin-mucosal, gastrointestinal, psycho-neurological and cardiovascular). The organ scores were given (0 to 60 points) in accordance with the severity of each symptom. The total score was defined as the sum of the highest 5 organ scores (maximum 240 points) observed throughout the course of an OFC. This study evaluated the ASCA score in 253 cases of a positive food challenge (age 1-16 years, mean 5.3±3.2 years) conducted from April to August 2011 in our institute. The results were compared to the modified anaphylaxis grading presented in the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Oral Food Challenge Test in Food Allergy 2009. At the same time, we evaluated the indications of symptomatic treatment using ASCA score.
The total score closely correlated with the anaphylaxis grading, but there was a wide range of overlap between grade 2 and grade 3. All cases with a total score≥60 points were equivalent to grade 4 or 5, and that were consisted of three or more organ symptoms. These severe cases contained respiratory or skin/mucosal symptoms, and despite the early induction of initial therapy, the symptoms became worse.
ASCA is therefore considered to be a useful tool for use in an oral food challenge test.
Arerugī = [Allergy] 08/2013; 62(8):968-979.
Nihon Shoni Arerugi Gakkaishi The Japanese Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology 01/2013; 27(5):684-691. DOI:10.3388/jspaci.27.684
Nihon Shoni Arerugi Gakkaishi The Japanese Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology 01/2013; 27(5):692-700. DOI:10.3388/jspaci.27.692
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 04/2012; 129(6):1681-2. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.03.041 · 11.48 Impact Factor