[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apathy and depression are the most frequent neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In a cross-sectional observational study of 734 subjects with probable mild AD, we evaluated the prevalence of apathy and depression. After the use of specific diagnostic criteria, we tested the interaction between the two syndromes and their relation with specific comorbidities, and different functional outcomes. Depression was diagnosed using the diagnostic criteria for depression in AD, and apathy with the diagnostic criteria for apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders. According to the specific diagnostic criteria, depression had a 47.9% prevalence, while apathy prevalence was 41.6%. Apathy and depression were associated in 32.4% of patients (n = 225). 9.4% (n = 65) had only apathy, 15.4% (n = 107) had only depression, and 42.9% had no apathy and no depression (n = 298). The three most frequent depressive symptoms were fatigue or loss of energy (59.4%), decreased positive affect or pleasure in response to social contacts and activities (46.2%), and psychomotor agitation or retardation (36.9%). Concerning apathy, loss of goal-directed cognition was the most frequently altered (63.6%), followed by loss of goal-directed action (60.6%) and loss of goal-directed emotion (43.8%). Patients with both apathy and depression more frequently required a resource allowance for dependency. Neurological comorbidities were more frequent in the "apathy and depression" and "depression alone" groups (p < 0.001). Apathy and depression overlap considerably, and this might be explained by the presence of some non-specific symptoms in both diagnostic criteria. The need for social support is higher when a patient fulfills the two diagnostic criteria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The medical care of elderly patients with psychotic disorders is a matter of major concern. The aim of the study was to investigate health conditions and treatment of elderly patients with psychotic disorders in France.
The SAGE (Schizophrenia AGEd) study (observational, cross-sectional) was a survey conducted among 123 physicians in France, regarding prescriptions of antipsychotic drugs in elderly patients (≥60 years) suffering from psychotic disorders. The survey was based on a questionnaire addressing the mental and somatic health management of the patients.
Data from 930 patients (mean age: 70.4 years) were collected. Most patients (58.5%) suffered from schizophrenia, 20.8% had delusional disorder and 20.6% hallucinatory chronic psychosis (very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis). 70.8% of them were outpatients, while 29.2% were inpatients. The severity of psychotic symptoms was assessed in 97.8% of patients, but cognitive function was only evaluated in 41.6%. Some 46.5% of patients were treated with atypical antipsychotics alone, 36.2% with classical antipsychotics alone and 17.3% received a combination of both, atypical and classical antipsychotics; 36.3% patients were given antiparkinsonian medication, of whom only 17.8% as preventive treatment; 51.1% of patients had somatic comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disorders (34.0%). Evaluation of renal and/or liver function to adjust the dose of treatment was done in only 32.1% of patients. Over the previous 12 months, almost half of the patients had had no ECG, glycemia or creatininemia investigated and HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were available for less than one-third of them.
Antipsychotic and antiparkinsonian drug prescriptions in French aged psychotic patients follow only partially the clinical guidelines and recommendations of consensus conferences. Moreover, cognitive, cardiac and metabolic aspects are not fully managed as expected.
International Psychogeriatrics 08/2011; 24(3):496-502. DOI:10.1017/S1041610211001487 · 1.93 Impact Factor