[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To confirm whether clinical and biochemical parameters or Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) could predict the risks of malignancy among subjects who underwent thyroidectomy, as well as to determine the influence of HT on the biological behavior of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). METHODS: A total of 2,052 patients who underwent initial thyroidectomy were enrolled between June 2006 and August 2008. Serum free T4, free T3, thyrotropin (TSH), thyroglobulin, thyroglobulin antibody, antimicrosomal antibody, tumor-associated status, and thyroid disorders were documented. RESULTS: Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to define the risk predictors for thyroid cancer. Finally, calcification, HT, TSH, and age, were entered into the multivariate model. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the risk of thyroid cancer increases in parallel with TSH concentration within normal range, and the risk for malignancy significantly increased with serum TSH 1.97--4.94 mIU/L, compared with TSH less than 0.35 mIU/L (OR = 1.951, 95% CI = 1.201--3.171, P = 0.007). Increased risks of thyroid cancer were also detected among the patients with HT (OR = 3.732, 95% CI = 2.563--5.435), and microcalcification (OR = 14.486, 95% CI = 11.374--18.449). The effects of HT on the aggressiveness of PTC were not observed in extrathyroidal invasion (P = 0.347), capsular infiltration (P = 0.345), angioinvasion (P = 0.512), and lymph node metastases (P = 0.634). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of malignancy increases in patients with higher level TSH within normal range, as well as the presence of HT and microcalcification. No evidence suggests that coexistent HT alleviates the aggressiveness of PTC.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 03/2013; 11(1):56. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Correlation between clinicopathogenetic features and the expression of specific miRNAs is unclear in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We therefore sought to assess whether miR-221 was associated with aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics and the BRAF mutation. We studied the expression levels of miR-221 using northern blot quantitated by scion image in 51 cases of PTCs. The status of BRAF of PTCs was analyzed through direct DNA sequencing. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze different expression of miR-221 in PTCs with distinct clinicopathogenetic characteristics including gender, age, tumor size, multifocality, extrathyroidal invasion, disease stages, node metastasis, and BRAF status. Compared with the normal thyroid tissues, the relative expression of miR-221 in tumor tissues was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001). Overexpression of miR-221 was significantly associated with extrathyroidal invasion (p = 0.001), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.046), advanced disease stages III-IV (p = 0.001), and the BRAF mutation (p = 0.014). While among BRAF wild tumors, miR-221 was only associated with extarthyroidal invasion, it showed strong association with all above aggressive features among BRAF mutation tumors. MiR-221 may be of potential importance in determining the aggressive properties of PTCs including the BRAF mutation, and it may further refine the risk stratification by BRAF mutation in PTCs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optimal resection extent for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) remains controversial. The objective of the study was to investigate risk factors of bilateral PTMC and central lymph node metastasis (CLNM) to guide surgical strategies for PTMC patients.
We retrospectively reviewed 211 PTMC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy (TT) and 122 clinical lymph node-negative (cN0) cases that underwent prophylactic central lymph node dissection (CLND) between 2010 and 2011. The frequency, pattern, and predictive factors for bilateral PTMC and CLNM in these patients were studied using univariate and multivariate analysis with respect to the following variables: age, gender, extrathyroidal extension (ETE), T stage, with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), tumor size and multifocality based on final pathology, and preoperative evaluation using ultrasonography (US).
Fifty-four of 211 (25.6%) patients had bilateral PTMC. In multivariate analysis, multifocality (P < 0.001, OR = 23.900) and tumor size ≥7 mm (P = 0.014, OR = 2.398) based on US were independent predictive factors for bilateral PTMC which was also independently associated with multifocality (P < 0.001, OR = 29.657) and tumor size ≥7 mm (P = 0.005, OR = 2.863) based on final pathology. Among 122 cN0 patients who underwent prophylactic CLND, we found 49.2% of patients had CLNM. CLNM was independently associated with men, age <50 years and tumor size ≥7 mm based on final pathology or preoperative US.
TT should be considered for PTMC patients who are found multifocality and tumor size ≥7 mm based on preoperative US. CLND need be considered in cN0 patients who are men, aged <50 years or tumor size ≥7 mm based on preoperative US.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 04/2012; 10:67. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optimal resection extent for clinically unilateral papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) remains controversial. The objective was to investigate risk factors associated with occult contralateral carcinoma, and put emphasis on the predictive value of preoperative BRAF mutation.
100 clinically unilateral PTMC patients all newly diagnosed, previously untreated were analyzed in a prospective cohort study. We assessed the T1799A BRAF mutation status in FNAB specimens obtained from all PTMC patients before undergoing total thyroidectomy (TT) and central lymph node dissection (CLND) for PTMC. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to reveal the incidence of contralateral occult cancer, difference of risk factors and predictive value, with respect to the following variables: preoperative BRAF mutation status, age, gender, tumor size, multifocality of primary tumor, capsular invasion, presence of Hashimoto thyroiditis and central lymph node metastasis.
20 of 100 patients (20%) had occult contralateral lobe carcinoma. On multi-variate analysis, preoperative BRAF mutation (p = 0.030, OR = 3.439) and multifocality of the primary tumor (p = 0.004, OR = 9.570) were independent predictive factors for occult contralateral PTMC presence. However, there were no significant differences between the presence of occult contralateral carcinomas and age, gender, tumor size, capsular invasion, Hashimoto thyroiditis and central lymph node metastasis.
Total thyroidectomy, including the contralateral lobe, should be considered for the treatment of unilateral PTMC if preoperative BRAF mutation is positive and/or if the observed lesion presents as a multifocal tumor in the unilateral lobe.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2012; 13(4):1267-72. · 1.27 Impact Factor