James Dziura

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (140)933.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Disruptive behavior is common in children with autism spectrum disorder. Behavioral interventions are used to treat disruptive behavior but have not been evaluated in large-scale randomized trials. To evaluate the efficacy of parent training for children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior. This 24-week randomized trial compared parent training (n = 89) to parent education (n = 91) at 6 centers (Emory University, Indiana University, Ohio State University, University of Pittsburgh, University of Rochester, Yale University). We screened 267 children; 180 children (aged 3-7 years) with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behaviors were randomly assigned (86% white, 88% male) between September 2010 and February 2014. Parent training (11 core, 2 optional sessions; 2 telephone boosters; 2 home visits) provided specific strategies to manage disruptive behavior. Parent education (12 core sessions, 1 home visit) provided information about autism but no behavior management strategies. Parents rated disruptive behavior and noncompliance on co-primary outcomes: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability subscale (range, 0-45) and the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder (range, 0-9). On both measures, higher scores indicate greater severity and a 25% reduction indicates clinical improvement. A clinician blind to treatment assignment rated the Improvement scale of the Clinical Global Impression (range, 1-7), a secondary outcome, with a positive response less than 3. At week 24, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability subscale declined 47.7% in parent training (from 23.7 to 12.4) compared with 31.8% for parent education (23.9 to 16.3) (treatment effect, -3.9; 95% CI, -6.2 to -1.7; P < .001, standardized effect size = 0.62). The Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder declined 55% (from 4.0 to 1.8) compared with 34.2% in parent education (3.8 to 2.5) (treatment effect, -0.7; 95% CI, -1.1 to -0.3; P < .001, standardized effect size = 0.45). Neither measure met the prespecified minimal clinically important difference. The proportions with a positive response on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale were 68.5% for parent training vs 39.6% for parent education (P < .001). For children with autism spectrum disorder, a 24-week parent training program was superior to parent education for reducing disruptive behavior on parent-reported outcomes, although the clinical significance of the improvement is unclear. The rate of positive response judged by a blinded clinician was greater for parent training vs parent education. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01233414.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 04/2015; 313(15):1524-1533. DOI:10.1001/jama.2015.3150 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite infusions of federal funding and legislation, intimate partner violence (IPV) persists regardless of preventive efforts. Improved rates of IPV awareness and attitudes have not translated into less violence. Novel research and interventions are necessary to address this gap. This pilot study develops and validates a tool to measure implicit collusion with IPV at the macro societal level in an ecological framework. Using test-item construction techniques, the authors developed a preliminary measure of media consumers' implicit collusion with fatal IPV perpetration reported in newspapers. The present experiment investigates whether the provision of various information influences collusion. The implicit collusion measurement tool was constructed using item analysis principles and techniques. A purposive sample was created using four sites in three states, and included a range of demographic characteristics including income, race, gender, and education. Analysis of covariance procedures and standard scaling techniques including Cronbach's Alpha were used. Test-item construction demonstrated implicit collusion could be reliably measured in testing the effects of IPV news media " frames, " " labeling, " " extraneous information, " and " negative information. " When negative information was included about victims of fatal IPV (F(2,67) = 17.8, p < 0.001), research participants were significantly more likely to implicitly collude with the murderer. Implicit collusion with fatal IPV perpetration represents a potentially important construct heretofore not examined in the literature that can positively or negatively impact the public's health. Provision of seemingly benign details of fatal IPV incidents in news accounts has a negative impact on media consumers by inducing implicit collusion with homicide.
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    ABSTRACT: Natural gas extraction activities, including the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, may pose potential health risks to both human and animal populations in close proximity to sites of extraction activity. Because animals may have increased exposure to contaminated water and air as well as increased susceptibility to contaminant exposures compared to nearby humans, animal disease events in communities living near natural gas extraction may provide "sentinel" information useful for human health risk assessment. Community health evaluations as well as health impact assessments (HIAs) of natural gas exploration should therefore consider the inclusion of animal health metrics in their assessment process. We report on a community environmental health survey conducted in an area of active natural gas drilling, which included the collection of health data on 2452 companion and backyard animals residing in 157 randomly-selected households of Washington County, Pennsylvania (USA). There were a total of 127 reported health conditions, most commonly among dogs. When reports from all animals were considered, there were no significant associations between reported health condition and household proximity to natural gas wells. When dogs were analyzed separately, we found an elevated risk of 'any' reported health condition in households less than 1km from the nearest gas well (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.07-9.7), with dermal conditions being the most common of canine disorders. While these results should be considered hypothesis generating and preliminary, they suggest value in ongoing assessments of pet dogs as well as other animals to better elucidate the health impacts of natural gas extraction on nearby communities.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 04/2015; 50(5):473-81. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.992666 · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Repetitive behavior is a core feature of autism spectrum disorder. We used 8-week data from two federally funded, multi-site, randomized trials with risperidone conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network to evaluate the sensitivity of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for autism spectrum disorder to detect change with treatment. Study 1 included 52 subjects assigned to placebo and 49 subjects to risperidone under double-blind conditions. In Study 2, 49 subjects received risperidone only and 75 subjects received risperidone plus parent training. The combined sample consisted of 187 boys and 38 girls (aged 4-17 years). At the medication-free baseline, the internal consistency on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for autism spectrum disorder total score was excellent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84) and the mean scores were similar across the four groups. Compared to placebo in Study 1, all three active treatment groups showed significant improvement (effect sizes: 0.74-0.88). There were no differences between active treatment groups. These results indicate that the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for autism spectrum disorder has acceptable test-retest as evidenced by the medium to high correlations in the placebo group and demonstrated sensitivity to change with treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Autism 04/2015; DOI:10.1177/1362361315574889 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Fructose consumption has risen alongside obesity and diabetes. Gut hormones involved in hunger and satiety (ghrelin and PYY) may respond differently to fructose compared with glucose ingestion. This study evaluated the effects of glucose and fructose ingestion on ghrelin and PYY in lean and obese adolescents with differing insulin sensitivity.Methods Adolescents were divided into lean (n = 14), obese insulin sensitive (n = 12) (OIS), and obese insulin resistant (n = 15) (OIR). In a double-blind, cross-over design, subjects drank 75 g of glucose or fructose in random order, serum was obtained every 10 minutes for 60 minutes.ResultsBaseline acyl-ghrelin was highest in lean and lowest in OIR (P = 0.02). After glucose ingestion, acyl-ghrelin decreased similarly in lean and OIS but was lower in OIR (vs. lean, P = 0.03). Suppression differences were more pronounced after fructose (lean vs. OIS, P = 0.008, lean vs. OIR, P < 0.001). OIS became significantly hungrier after fructose (P = 0.015). PYY was not significantly different at baseline, varied minimally after glucose, and rose after fructose.Conclusions Compared with lean, OIS adolescents have impaired acyl-ghrelin responses to fructose but not glucose, whereas OIR adolescents have blunted responses to both. Diminished suppression of acyl-ghrelin in childhood obesity, particularly if accompanied by insulin resistance, may promote hunger and overeating.
    Obesity 02/2015; 23(3). DOI:10.1002/oby.21019 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Hospitalized patients with diabetes have experienced a disproportionate reduction in mortality over the past decade.OBJECTIVE To examine whether this differential decrease affected all patients with diabetes, and to identify explanatory factors.DESIGNSerial, cross-sectional observational study.SETTINGAcademic medical center.PATIENTSAll adult, nonobstetric patients with an inpatient discharge between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010.MEASUREMENTWe assessed in-hospital mortality; inpatient glycemic control (percentage of hospital days with glucose below 70, above 299, and between 70 and 179 mg/dL, and standard deviation of glucose measurements), and outpatient glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c).RESULTSWe analyzed 322,938 admissions, including 76,758 (23.8%) with diabetes. Among 54,645 intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, there was a 7.8% relative reduction in the odds of mortality in each successive year for patients with diabetes, adjusted for age, race, payer, length of stay, discharge diagnosis, comorbidities, and service (odds ratio [OR]: 0.923, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.906-0.940). This was significantly greater than the 2.6% yearly reduction for those without diabetes (OR: 0.974, 95% CI: 0.963-0.985; P < 0.001 for interaction). In contrast, the greater decrease in mortality among non-ICU patients with diabetes did not reach significance. Results were similar among medical and surgical patients. Among ICU patients with diabetes, the significant decline in mortality persisted after adjustment for inpatient and outpatient glucose control (OR: 0.953, 95% CI: 0.914-0.994).CONCLUSIONS Patients with diabetes in the ICU have experienced a disproportionate reduction in mortality that is not explained by glucose control. Potential explanations include improved cardiovascular risk management or advances in therapies for diseases commonly affecting patients with diabetes. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2015. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine
    Journal of Hospital Medicine 01/2015; 10(4). DOI:10.1002/jhm.2321 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine if third-year medical students participating in a mandatory 12-week simulation course perceived improvement in decision-making, communication, and teamwork skills. Students participated in or observed 24 acute emergency scenarios. At 4-week intervals, students completed 0-10 point Likert scale questionnaires evaluating the curriculum and role of team leader. Linear contrasts were used to examine changes in outcomes. P-values were Bonferroni-corrected for multiple pairwise comparisons. Student evaluations (n = 96) demonstrated increases from week 4 to 12 in educational value (p = 0.006), decision-making (p < 0.001), communication (p = 0.02), teamwork (p = 0.01), confidence in management (p < 0.001), and translation to clinical experience (p < 0.001). Regarding the team leader role, students reported a decrease in stress (p = 0.001) and increase in ability to facilitate team function (p < 0.001) and awareness of team building (p = <0.001). Ratings demonstrate a positive impact of simulation on both clinical management skills and team leadership skills. A simulation curriculum can enhance the ability to manage acute clinical problems and translates well to the clinical experience. These positive perceptions increase as the exposure to simulation increases.
    The Yale journal of biology and medicine 12/2014; 87(4):575-81.
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    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2014; 64(14):1533-4. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.07.959 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Initiative for Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) has reported diminished assay sensitivity in pain treatment trials and recommended investigation of the causes. Specific recommendations included examination of outcome measure reliability and lengthening the baseline measurement period to allow more measurements to be collected. This secondary data analysis evaluated the minimum number of daily pain intensity ratings required to obtain a reliability of at least 0.90 and whether a composite of this smaller number of ratings was interchangeable with the composite of all ratings. Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center patients made 14 daily calls to an automated telephone system to report their average daily pain intensity rating. A single daily rating produced less than adequate reliability (ICC=0.65), but a composite of the average of five ratings resulted in reliability above 0.90. A Bland-Altman analysis revealed that the differences between a five-day composite and the composite of all ratings were small (mean 0.09 points, SD = 0.45; 95% confidence interval = -0.05 to 0.23) and below the threshold for a clinically meaningful difference, indicating the two measurements are interchangeable. Our results support IMMPACT recommendations for improving assay sensitivity by collecting a multi-day baseline of pain intensity ratings.
    Journal of Pain 10/2014; 15(12). DOI:10.1016/j.jpain.2014.09.012 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Despite American Heart Association recommendations of diet/lifestyle modification and statin therapy to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) control, women are less likely than men to be screened and achieve treatment goals. This study determined whether the provider and patient response to electronic medical record (EMR) notification of an elevated LDL varied by patient sex in veterans. Methods Provider responses to EMR clinical reminders for an elevated LDL (≥100 mg/dL) were assessed in men (n = 40,738) and women (n = 1,025) veterans with ischemic heart disease or diabetes between October 2008 and September 2009. Responses were classified into four types: 1) Whether the patient refused medication, 2) the provider ordered or adjusted medication, 3) treatment was deferred/medications were not changed, or 4) medications were contraindicated. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to compare clinical reminder responses between men and women patients. Findings Providers were less likely to order or adjust medications for women (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63, 0.88) and women were more likely than men to refuse medication (adjusted OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.34, 2.17). These associations were not modified by degree of LDL elevation or use of lipid-lowering medications. Conclusion These results indicate that poorer cholesterol control in at risk women is likely a consequence of both provider and patient factors.
    Women s Health Issues 10/2014; 24(5):575–580. DOI:10.1016/j.whi.2014.06.004 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cardiopulmonary bypass subjects patients’ blood to hemodilution and nonphysiologic conditions, resulting in a systemic inflammatory response. Modified ultrafiltration (MUF) counteracts hemodilution and has also been postulated to improve outcomes by proinflammatory cytokine removal. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the benefits of MUF include the removal of proinflammatory mediators, such as angiopoietin-2 (angpt-2). We hypothesize that some of the clinical benefits of MUF are related to the preferential removal of angpt-2. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study in children 18 years old or younger undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Serum samples were obtained from each patient preoperatively, after cardiopulmonary bypass, and on intensive care unit admission. A fluid sample from the MUF effluent was also analyzed. Angpt-1, angpt-2, interleukin-8, and interleukin-10 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Thirty-one patients were enrolled. Angpt-1 levels significantly decreased across all time points (p < 0.01). Angpt-2 concentrations were significantly elevated at intensive care unit admission when compared with both preoperative and post–cardiopulmonary bypass levels (p < 0.01). The angpt-2:1 ratio significantly increased after cardiopulmonary bypass to intensive care unit admission (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the angpt-2 or angpt-1 percentage of extraction within MUF effluent. Interleukin-8 and interleukin-10 significantly increased from preoperative to intensive care unit admission (both p < 0.01). Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that MUF removes both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory mediators equally. This study suggests that the clinical benefits of MUF cannot be attributed to the removal of larger quantities of proinflammatory mediators such as angpt-2 and interleukin-8.
    The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 09/2014; 98(5). DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.06.053 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Little is known about the environmental and public health impact of unconventional natural gas extraction activities including hydraulic fracturing that occur near residential areas. Objectives: To assess the relationship between household proximity to natural gas wells and reported health symptoms. Methods: We conducted a hypothesis generating health symptom survey of 492 persons in 180 randomly selected households with ground-fed wells in an area of active natural gas drilling. Gas well proximity for each household was compared to the prevalence and frequency of reported dermal, respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological symptoms. Results: The number of reported health symptoms per person was higher among residents living <1 km (mean 3.27 ± 3.72) compared with >2 km from the nearest gas well (mean 1.60 ± 2.14, p=0.02). In a model that adjusted for age, gender, household education, smoking, awareness of environmental risk, work type, and animals in house, reported skin conditions were more common in households <1 km compared with >2 km from the nearest gas well (OR= 4.1; 95% CI: 1.4, 12.3; p=0.01). Upper respiratory symptoms were also more frequently reported in persons living in households less than 1 km from gas wells (39%) compared to households 1-2 km or >2 km from the nearest well (31 and 18%, respectively) (p=0.004). No equivalent correlation was found between well proximity and other reported groups of respiratory, neurological, cardiovascular, or gastrointestinal conditions. Conclusion: While these results should be viewed as hypothesis generating, and the population studied was limited to households with a ground fed water supply, proximity of natural gas wells may be associated with the prevalence of health symptoms including dermal and respiratory conditions in residents living near natural gas extraction activities. Further study of these associations, including the role of specific air and water exposures, is warranted.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 09/2014; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307732 · 7.03 Impact Factor
  • JAMA Internal Medicine 05/2014; 174(7). DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.1803 · 13.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The ethanol metabolites, ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS), are biomarkers of recent alcohol consumption that provide objective measures of abstinence. Our goals are to better understand the impact of cutoff concentration on test interpretation, the need for measuring both metabolites, and how best to integrate test results with self-reports in clinical trials.Methods Subjects (n = 18) were administered, 1 week apart, 3 alcohol doses calibrated to achieve blood concentrations of 20, 80, and 120 mg/dl, respectively. Urinary EtG/EtS was measured at timed intervals during a 24-hour hospitalization and twice daily thereafter. In addition, participants from 2 clinical trials provided samples for EtG/EtS and drinking histories. Cutoffs for EtG/EtS of 100/50, 200/100, and 500/250 ng/ml were evaluated.ResultsTwelve hours following each challenge, EtG was always positive at the 100 and 200 cutoffs, but at 24 hours sensitivity was poor at all cutoffs following the low dose, and poor after 48 hours regardless of dose or cutoff. Similarly, in the clinical trials EtG sensitivity was good for detecting any drinking during the last 24 hours at the 2 lowest cutoffs, but under 40% during the last 24 to 48 hours. Sensitivity was reduced at the 500 ng/ml cutoff. Discrepancies between EtG and EtS were few. Comparison of self-reports of abstinence and EtG-confirmed abstinence indicated underreporting of drinking.Conclusions Any drinking the night before should be detectable the following morning with EtG cutoffs of 100 or 200 ng/ml. Twenty-four hours after drinking, sensitivity is poor for light drinking, but good for heavier consumption. At 48 hours, sensitivity is low following 6 drinks or less. Increasing the cutoff to 500 ng/ml leads to substantially reduced sensitivity. Monitoring both EtG and EtS should usually be unnecessary. We recommend EtG-confirmed self-reports of abstinence for evaluation of outcomes in clinical trials.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 04/2014; DOI:10.1111/acer.12407 · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The objective of this study was to assess rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and BPD/death in infants first extubated between day of life (DOL) 1 to 3 versus 4 to 7, 8 + , and impact of reintubation. Study Design We included infants with gestational age ≤ 28 weeks, birth weight ≤ 1,000 g, and intubation on DOL 1. Proportional hazards regression modeled time to BPD and BPD/death, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Of 262 infants, 101 (38.55%), 41 (15.65%), and 120 (45.80%) were extubated between DOL 1 to 3, 4 to 7, and 8 + , respectively. Extubation between DOL 4 to 7 and DOL 1 to 3 was associated with an increased hazard of developing BPD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.8; p < 0.05). Extubation on DOL 8+ was associated with a significantly increased hazard compared with extubation between DOL 1 to 3 (HR, 16.9; 95% CI, 10.5-27.1; p < 0.0001) and DOL 4 to 7 (HR, 10.0; 95% CI, 6.1-16.3; p < 0.0001). Similar results were noted with BPD/death. Reintubation did not affect BPD and BPD/death. Conclusions Delaying extubation beyond the first 3 and 7 days was associated with an increased risk of BPD and BPD/death. Reintubation did not impact outcomes.
    American Journal of Perinatology 03/2014; 31(12). DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1371702 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prior studies indicate that an elevated creatinine kinase (CK)-MB imparts poor prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome despite a normal troponin. Its prognosis in the undifferentiated chest pain observation unit (CPU) population remains undefined. To compare rates and predictors of 30-day adverse cardiac events in 2 cohorts (CK±/MB+ vs. normal [CK±/MB-]) in low-moderate-risk CPU patients. Consecutive CPU patients were followed in a retrospective cohort study for primary outcome (acute coronary syndrome, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft, abnormal stress test, cardiac hospitalization, or death within 30 days) by using standardized chart reviews and national death registry. Exclusions were: those aged 30 years or younger, positive troponin, ischemic electrocardiogram, hemodynamic instability, heart failure, or dialysis. Between January 2006 and April 2009, 2979 patients were eligible, of which 350 excluded and 2629 analyzed. MB+ compared with normal patients were more likely to be: older (mean, 53.4 ± 14 vs. 51.5 ± 12 years; P = 0.04); male (71% vs. 40%; P = 0.01); renal insufficient (5% vs. 2%; P = 0.01); hypertensive (50% vs. 44%; P = 0.04); dyslipidemic (44% vs. 33%; P = 0.01) obese (55% vs. 43%; P = 0.01); and with known coronary artery disease (14% vs. 5%; P < 0.01). Composite adverse events were 213 (8%) and did not significantly differ for either initial MB+ vs. normal (9.1%, 8.0%; odds ratio, 1.1, 0.7-1.9) or serial MB+ vs. normal (7.5%, 7.4%; odds ratio, 1.0, 0.5-1.8). In a multiple logistic regression model, male sex, diabetes, and prior CAD predicted adverse events, whereas CK-MB along with race, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, family history, and obesity did not. Elevated CK-MB does not add value to serial troponin testing in low-moderate-risk CPU patients.
    Critical pathways in cardiology 03/2014; 13(1):14-9. DOI:10.1097/HPC.0000000000000001
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    ABSTRACT: Background The United Arab Emirates (UAE) was certified by the World Health Organization to be free of endemic malaria transmission in 2007. There continued to be, however, a substantial number of imported malaria cases.MethodsA retrospective laboratory and chart review was performed to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of imported malaria in Dubai, UAE. Laboratory records were reviewed at the largest public hospital in Dubai to identify cases of peripheral blood smear-positive malaria from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. Predefined demographic, clinical, and laboratory information was extracted from the electronic medical record system.ResultsA total of 629 cases of malaria were identified including 493, 122, and 14 cases of Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, and mixed P. vivax/P. falciparum infections, respectively. Of these, 567 (90.1%) cases were either from India or Pakistan and 7% from sub-Saharan Africa. There were no cases among the local Emirati population. There were 162 hospitalizations, including 8 requiring intensive care support and 1 death. More than 10% of P. vivax infections required hospitalization. The interval between arrival in the UAE and diagnosis was 3 months or longer for 25% of P. vivax cases.Conclusions Imported malaria remains an important cause of morbidity in the UAE. Clinicians need to be aware that P. vivax is not benign and can cause severe disease and that malaria cases may present to health facilities several months after arrival from malaria-endemic regions.
    Journal of Travel Medicine 03/2014; DOI:10.1111/jtm.12110 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: To perform a meta-analysis identifying studies instituting protocolized hemodynamic optimization in the emergency department (ED) for patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Methods: We modeled the structure of this analysis after the QUORUM and MOOSE published recommendations for scientific reviews. A computer search to identify articles was performed from 1980 to present. Studies included for analysis were adult controlled trials implementing protocolized hemodynamic optimization in the ED for patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Primary outcome data was extracted and analyzed by 2 reviewers with the primary endpoint being short-term mortality reported either as 28-day or in-hospital mortality. Results: We identified 1,323 articles with 65 retrieved for review. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria 25 studies (15 manuscripts, 10 abstracts) were included for analysis (n=9597). The mortality rate for patients receiving protocolized hemodynamic optimization (n=6031) was 25.8% contrasted to 41.6% in control groups (n=3566, p<0.0001). Conclusion: Protocolized hemodynamic optimization in the ED for patients with severe sepsis and septic shock appears to reduce mortality.
    The western journal of emergency medicine 02/2014; 15(1):51-9. DOI:10.5811/westjem.2013.7.6828
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the complex relationship between depression, anxiety, and seizure control and quality of life (QOL) outcomes after epilepsy surgery. Seven epilepsy centers enrolled 373 patients and completed a comprehensive diagnostic workup and psychiatric and follow-up QOL evaluation. Subjects were evaluated before surgery and then at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 60 months after surgery. Standardized assessments included the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-89, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis was used to analyze associations of depression, anxiety, seizure outcome, and seizure history with overall QOL score and QOL subscores (cognitive distress, physical health, mental health, epilepsy-targeted) prospectively. The groups with excellent and good seizure control showed a significant positive effect on the overall QOL compared to the groups with fair and poor seizure control. The BDI and BAI scores were both highly and negatively associated with overall QOL; increases in BDI and BAI scores were associated with decreased overall QOL score. Depression and anxiety are strongly and independently associated with worse QOL after epilepsy surgery. Interestingly, even partial seizure control, controlling for depression and anxiety levels, improved QOL. Management of mood and anxiety is a critical component to postsurgical care.
    Neurology 01/2014; 82(10). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000000183 · 8.30 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
933.60 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2015
    • Yale University
      • • Department of Emergency Medicine
      • • Department of Nursing
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2003–2015
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      • • Emergency Medicine Program
      • • Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science
      • • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2013
    • Emory University
      • Department of Family and Preventive Medicine
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2003–2013
    • University of New Haven
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2003–2007
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States