Ayse Metin

Ankara Children's Hematology Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Engüri, Ankara, Turkey

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Publications (47)236.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Antibody deficiency comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders characterised by the body's inability to mount an effective antibody response to pathogens. Although it has been reported that asthma and allergic disease are frequent in antibody deficiencies, there are no data that evaluate and compare bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in all groups of antibody deficiencies. In this study, we aimed to evaluate and compare the frequency of BHR in patients with different antibody deficiencies. The study was carried out on 113 patients between ages 5 and 18 diagnosed with antibody deficiencies. The patients and their families were questioned on their history of asthma and allergic diseases. Allergic skin prick tests and non-specific bronchial provocation test with methacholine was done for all patients. Complete blood count and serum total IgE levels were measured. The mean age of the patients was 10.8±3.8 years and 66.4% were male. Within the study group 41.6% of the patients had selective IgA deficiency, 24.8% had IgG subclass deficiency, 14.2% had partial IgA deficiency, 10.6% had common variable immunodeficiency, 6.2% had transient hypogammaglobulinaemia and 2.7% X-linked agammaglobulinaemia. In total group, 42.5% had bronchial hyperreactivity with methacholine challenge test. BHR was more significant in both patients with selective IgA deficiency and partial IgA deficiency compared to those with IgG subclass deficiency (P=0.041 and P=0.038, respectively). BHR was high in antibody deficiencies, especially selective IgA deficiency compared to IgG subclass deficiency.
    Allergologia et Immunopathologia 01/2014; · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Antibody deficiency comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders characterised by the body's inability to mount an effective antibody response to pathogens. Although it has been reported that asthma and allergic disease are frequent in antibody deficiencies, there are no data that evaluate and compare bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in all groups of antibody deficiencies. In this study, we aimed to evaluate and compare the frequency of BHR in patients with different antibody deficiencies. Methods The study was carried out on 113 patients between ages 5 and 18 diagnosed with antibody deficiencies. The patients and their families were questioned on their history of asthma and allergic diseases. Allergic skin prick tests and non-specific bronchial provocation test with methacholine was done for all patients. Complete blood count and serum total IgE levels were measured. Results The mean age of the patients was 10.8 ± 3.8 years and 66.4% were male. Within the study group 41.6% of the patients had selective IgA deficiency, 24.8% had IgG subclass deficiency, 14.2% had partial IgA deficiency, 10.6% had common variable immunodeficiency, 6.2% had transient hypogammaglobulinaemia and 2.7% X-linked agammaglobulinaemia. In total group, 42.5% had bronchial hyperreactivity with methacholine challenge test. BHR was more significant in both patients with selective IgA deficiency and partial IgA deficiency compared to those with IgG subclass deficiency (P = 0.041 and P = 0.038, respectively). Conclusion BHR was high in antibody deficiencies, especially selective IgA deficiency compared to IgG subclass deficiency.
    Allergologia et Immunopathologia 01/2014; · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder of phagocytes resulting in impaired killing of bacteria and fungi. A mutation in one of the 4 genes encoding the components p22(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox), and p40(phox) of the leukocyte nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH) oxidase leads to autosomal recessive (AR) CGD. A mutation in the CYBB gene encoding gp91(phox) leads to X-linked recessive CGD. The aim of this study is to show the correlation between clinical, functional, and genetic data of patients with CGD from Turkey. We report here the results of 89 patients with CGD from 73 Turkish families in a multicenter study. Most of the families (55%) have an AR genotype, and 38% have an X-linked genotype; patients from 5 families with a suspected AR genotype (7%) were not fully characterized. We compared patients with CGD according to the severity of NADPH oxidase deficiency of neutrophils. Patients with A22(0), A67(0) or X91(0) phenotypes with a stimulation index of 1.5 or less have early clinical presentation and younger age at diagnosis (mean, 3.2 years). However, in p47(phox)-deficient cases and in 5 other AR cases with high residual oxidase activity (stimulation index ≥ 3), later and less severe clinical presentation and older age at diagnosis (mean, 7.1 years) were found. Pulmonary involvement was the most common clinical feature, followed by lymphadenitis and abscesses. Later and less severe clinical presentation and older age at diagnosis are related to the residual NADPH oxidase activity of neutrophils and not to the mode of inheritance. CGD caused by A22(0) and A67(0) subtypes manifests as severe as the X91(0) subtype.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 07/2013; · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-12Rβ1 deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by predisposition to recurrent and/or severe infections caused by otherwise poorly pathogenic mycobacteria and salmonella. IL-12Rβ1 is a receptor chain of both the IL-12 and the IL-23 receptor and deficiency of IL-12Rβ1 thus abolishes both IL-12 and IL-23 signaling. IL-12Rβ1 deficiency is caused by bi-allelic mutations in the IL12RB1 gene. Mutations resulting in premature stop codons, such as nonsense, frame shift, and splice site mutations, represent the majority of IL-12Rβ1 deficiency causing mutations (66%; 46/70). Also every other morbid mutation completely inactivates the IL-12Rβ1 protein. In addition to disease-causing mutations, rare and common variations with unknown functional effect have been reported in IL12RB1. All these variants have been deposited in the online IL12RB1 variation database (www.LOVD.nl/IL12RB1). In this article, we review the function of IL-12Rβ1 and molecular genetics of human IL12RB1. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Human Mutation 07/2013; · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an inherited immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the gene encoding WASP, a protein regulating the cytoskeleton. Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) transplants can be curative but, when matched donors are unavailable, infusion of autologous HSPCs modified ex vivo by gene therapy is an alternative approach. We used a lentiviral vector encoding functional WASP to genetically correct HSPCs from three WAS patients and reinfused the cells after reduced-intensity conditioning regimen. All three patients showed stable engraftment of WASP-expressing cells and improvements in platelet counts, immune functions, and clinical score. Vector integration analyses revealed highly polyclonal and multilineage haematopoiesis resulting from the gene-corrected HSPCs. Lentiviral gene therapy did not induce selection of integrations near oncogenes, and no aberrant clonal expansion was observed after 20 to 32 months. Although extended clinical observation is required to establish long-term safety, lentiviral gene therapy represents a promising treatment for WAS.
    Science 07/2013; · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: WAS is a severe X-linked recessive disorder characterized by microthrombocytopenia, eczema, and immunodeficiency. A six-yr-old boy with WAS diagnosed as B-cell NHL (Stage III) localized in the liver who underwent successful HSCT from HLA-one antigen mismatch sibling donor has been presented here. His conditioning regimen included ATG, busulfan, and fludarabine. He received 2.3 × 10(6) /kg CD 34(+) stem cells and 11 × 10(8) /kg nucleated cells at day 0. Neutrophil engraftment was achieved at day +14 and platelet engraftment at day +20. He has been in CR for more than two yr after transplantation. Thus, HSCT is an effective treatment for children with WAS even after development of lymphoma.
    Pediatric Transplantation 06/2013; · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: An increased incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has been seen in various primary immune deficiency (PID) cases. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of five cases with NHL associated with primary immunodeficiency. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated five patients with primary immunodeficiency who developed NHL. Two patients had ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), one patient had common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), one patient had Bloom's Syndrome, and one patient had Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS). Results: All patients were male (median age, 8 years). Stage distribution was stage III in three patients and stage IV in two patients. Three patients had B-cell lymphoma and two had T-cell lymphoma. Reduced doses of Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) and French Society of Pediatric Oncology (SFOP) regimens were used in four patients according to histopathological subtype. The two patients with ataxia and one patient with Bloom's Syndrome died of progressive/relapsed disease at months 5, 19, and 6, respectively. The patient with CVID associated with T-cell lymphoma has been in remission for 7 years. A full-dosage regimen of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) was successfully used in the patient with WAS and B-cell lymphoma; he was still in remission after 3 years. Conclusion: Primary immunodeficiency diseases are one of the strongest known risk factors for the development of NHL. Management of these patients remains problematic. There is a great need to develop new therapeutic approaches in this group. The use of rituximab in combination with CHOP may provide a promising treatment option for B-cell lymphomas associated with immunodeficiency.
    Pediatric Hematology and Oncology 05/2013; · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) protein (WASp), a regulator of actin dynamics in hematopoietic cells, cause WAS, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections and a marked predisposition to develop autoimmune disorders. The mechanisms that link actin alterations to the autoimmune phenotype are still poorly understood. We show that chronic activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and elevated type-I interferon (IFN) levels play a role in WAS autoimmunity. WAS patients display increased expression of type-I IFN genes and their inducible targets, alteration in pDCs numbers, and hyperresponsiveness to TLR9. Importantly, ablating IFN-I signaling in WASp null mice rescued chronic activation of conventional DCs, splenomegaly, and colitis. Using WASp-deficient mice, we demonstrated that WASp null pDCs are intrinsically more responsive to multimeric agonist of TLR9 and constitutively secrete type-I IFN but become progressively tolerant to further stimulation. By acute silencing of WASp and actin inhibitors, we show that WASp-mediated actin polymerization controls intracellular trafficking and compartmentalization of TLR9 ligands in pDCs restraining exaggerated activation of the TLR9-IFN-α pathway. Together, these data highlight the role of actin dynamics in pDC innate functions and imply the pDC-IFN-α axis as a player in the onset of autoimmune phenomena in WAS disease.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 01/2013; · 13.21 Impact Factor
  • Journal of dermatological science 01/2013; · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Food allergy, which becomes an important public health problem, can lead to important morbidity and mortality. Patients with food allergies are more likely to first present to their primary care physicians. We aimed to determine the knowledge of primary care physicians with regard to management of food allergies and anaphylaxis. METHODS: Primary care physicians were surveyed via a questionnaire aimed to document their knowledge and attitudes about food allergy and anaphylaxis management. RESULTS: A total of 297 participants completed questionnaires, 55.6% of which were female. Participating physicians had a mean of 17.0±6.1 years of experience. Participants answered 47.2% of knowledge-based items correctly. Overall, participants fared poorly with regard to their knowledge on the treatment of food allergies and anaphylaxis. For example while 60.7% knew that a child can die from the milk allergy reaction, only 37.5% were aware that a child with IgE mediated milk allergies cannot eat yoghourts/cheese with milk. Besides, 53.1% of them chose epinephrine as their first treatment of choice in case of anaphylaxis, yet only 16.6% gave the correct answer about its dosage. Nearly a third of participants (36.7%) felt they were knowledgeable enough regarding the management of patients with food allergies, while 98.2% extended their request for future periodic educational meetings on allergic disorders. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of food allergy and anaphylaxis among primary care physicians was unsatisfactory. Provision or periodic educational programmes should be aimed at improving the standard of practice as acknowledged by the participants.
    Allergologia et Immunopathologia 09/2012; · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Griscelli syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by partial albinism. Three different types are caused by defects in three different genes. Patients with GS type 1 have primary central nervous system dysfunction, type 2 patients commonly develop hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and type 3 patients have only partial albinism. While hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is life saving in type 2, no specific therapy is required for types 1 and 3. Patients with GS types 1 and 3 are very rare. To date, only 2 patients with type 3 and about 20 GS type 1 patients, including the patients described as Elejalde syndrome, have been reported. The neurological deficits in Elejalde syndrome were reported as severe neurodevelopmental delay, seizures, hypotonia, and ophthalmological problems including nystagmus, diplopia, and retinal problems. However, none of these patients' clinical progresses were reported. We described here our two new type 1 and two type 3 patients along with the progresses of our previously diagnosed patients with GS types 1 and 3. Our previous patient with GS type I is alive at age 21 without any other problems except severe mental and motor retardation, patients with type 3 are healthy at ages 21 and 24 years having only pigmentary dilution; silvery gray hair, eye brows, and eyelashes. Since prognosis, treatment options, and genetic counseling markedly differ among different types, molecular characterization has utmost importance in GS.
    European Journal of Pediatrics 06/2012; 171(10):1527-31. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Homozygous loss of function mutations in interleukin-10 (IL10) and interleukin-10 receptors (IL10R) cause severe infantile (very early onset) inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was reported to induce sustained remission in 1 patient with IL-10R deficiency. We investigated heterogeneity among patients with very early onset IBD, its mechanisms, and the use of allogeneic HSCT to treat this disorder. We analyzed 66 patients with early onset IBD (younger than 5 years of age) for mutations in the genes encoding IL-10, IL-10R1, and IL-10R2. IL-10R deficiency was confirmed by functional assays on patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses). We assessed the therapeutic effects of standardized allogeneic HSCT. Using a candidate gene sequencing approach, we identified 16 patients with IL-10 or IL-10R deficiency: 3 patients had mutations in IL-10, 5 had mutations in IL-10R1, and 8 had mutations in IL-10R2. Refractory colitis became manifest in all patients within the first 3 months of life and was associated with perianal disease (16 of 16 patients). Extraintestinal symptoms included folliculitis (11 of 16) and arthritis (4 of 16). Allogeneic HSCT was performed in 5 patients and induced sustained clinical remission with a median follow-up time of 2 years. In vitro experiments confirmed reconstitution of IL-10R-mediated signaling in all patients who received the transplant. We identified loss of function mutations in IL-10 and IL-10R in patients with very early onset IBD. These findings indicate that infantile IBD patients with perianal disease should be screened for IL-10 and IL-10R deficiency and that allogeneic HSCT can induce remission in those with IL-10R deficiency.
    Gastroenterology 04/2012; 143(2):347-55. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    Pediatric Transplantation 01/2012; 16(4):398-9. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic granulomatous disease is a genetically determined immunodeficiency disorder affecting phagocytic cells rendering them unable to kill certain bacteria and fungi. The present study is a single-center retrospective study that aimed to document the clinical course of 26 children, with a median age of 2.5 years, from 21 families diagnosed as chronic granulomatous disease from 1989-2008. A median delay of 39 months was observed between the onset of infections and age at diagnosis. Pneumonia was the most common initial manifestation of the disease followed by lymphadenitis, skin abscess and diarrhea. An AR inheritance was predominant in the study group. All patients received antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis, resulting in a marked decrease in the incidence of infections. Overall mortality was 19.2%. These results showed that all features in our group (clinical, progression and outcome) were similar to the literature except for the predominance of autosomal recessive form.
    The Turkish journal of pediatrics 01/2010; 52(6):576-81. · 0.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in critically ill neurological patients. The major differential diagnoses in this situation are the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, marked by inappropriate retention of free water, and cerebral salt wasting, characterized by excessive urinary loss of sodium and resulting in polyuria and extracellular volume contraction. Cerebral salt wasting is a syndrome of hyponatremia due to increased urine output and excessive natriuresis described in patients with central nervous system disease. Although cerebral salt wasting has been well described in neurosurgical patients, data regarding pediatric patients is sparse. We present a 34-month-old boy with lissencephaly who developed cerebral salt wasting after brain biopsy. The patient was treated with hypertonic saline and multiple antiepileptic drugs. Fludrocortisone supplementation effectively treated cerebral salt wasting.
    Turkish neurosurgery 01/2010; 20(1):100-2. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic etiologies of the hyper-IgE syndromes are diverse. Approximately 60% to 70% of patients with hyper-IgE syndrome have dominant mutations in STAT3, and a single patient was reported to have a homozygous TYK2 mutation. In the remaining patients with hyper-IgE syndrome, the genetic etiology has not yet been identified. We aimed to identify a gene that is mutated or deleted in autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome. We performed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism analysis for 9 patients with autosomal-recessive hyper-IgE syndrome to locate copy number variations and homozygous haplotypes. Homozygosity mapping was performed with 12 patients from 7 additional families. The candidate gene was analyzed by genomic and cDNA sequencing to identify causative alleles in a total of 27 patients with autosomal-recessive hyper-IgE syndrome. Subtelomeric biallelic microdeletions were identified in 5 patients at the terminus of chromosome 9p. In all 5 patients, the deleted interval involved dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8), encoding a protein implicated in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Sequencing of patients without large deletions revealed 16 patients from 9 unrelated families with distinct homozygous mutations in DOCK8 causing premature termination, frameshift, splice site disruption, and single exon deletions and microdeletions. DOCK8 deficiency was associated with impaired activation of CD4+ and CD8+T cells. Autosomal-recessive mutations in DOCK8 are responsible for many, although not all, cases of autosomal-recessive hyper-IgE syndrome. DOCK8 disruption is associated with a phenotype of severe cellular immunodeficiency characterized by susceptibility to viral infections, atopic eczema, defective T-cell activation and T(h)17 cell differentiation, and impaired eosinophil homeostasis and dysregulation of IgE.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 12/2009; 124(6):1289-302.e4. · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the rarest forms of autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease (AR-CGD) is attributable to mutations in the NCF2 gene, which encodes the polypeptide p67(phox), a key cytoplasmic protein in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase system. NCF2 is localized on chromosome 1q25, encompasses 40 kb and contains 16 exons. We report here the clinical and molecular characterization of six patients with CGD from six consanguineous Turkish families. The ages of the five female patients were between 3 and 22 years and a male patient was 2 years old; all patients showed clear clinical symptoms of CGD. The mothers of the patients did not show a bimodal histogram pattern specific for X-CGD in the dihydrorhodamine-1,2,3 (DHR) assay. Moreover, p67(phox) protein expression was not detectable using flow cytometric analysis of the patients' neutrophils except in those from patient 6, which had a diminished expression. Mutation analysis of NCF2 revealed four different homozygous mutations: a novel nonsense mutation in exon 3 c.229C>T, p.Arg77X; a novel missense mutation in exon 4 c.279C>G, p.Asp93Glu; a nonsense mutation in exon 4 c.304C>T, p.Arg102X; and a novel missense mutation in exon 6 c.605C>T, p.Ala202Val. The parents were found to be heterozygotes for these mutations. The prevalence of NCF2 mutant families is approximately 15% in our series of 40 CGD families. This high incidence of A67 CGD in Turkey is undoubtedly caused by the high incidence of consanguineous marriages. We found three new mutations in NCF2 and one previously described. These are presented together with an overview of all NCF2 mutations now known.
    European Journal of Clinical Investigation 08/2009; 39(10):942-51. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the rarest forms of autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease (AR-CGD) is attributable to mutations in the CYBA gene, which encodes the alpha polypeptide of cytochrome b(558), (also known as p22-phox), a key transmembrane protein in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase system. This gene is localized on chromosome 16q24, encompasses 8.5 kb and contains six exons. We report here the clinical and molecular characterization of 12 AR-CGD patients from 10 consanguineous, unrelated Turkish families with clinical CGD and positive family history. The ages of the six male and six female patients were between 1and 18 years. Before mutation analysis, subgroup analysis of patients was made by flow cytometry with antibodies against NADPH-oxidase components and with the DHR assay (flow cytometric assay of NADPH oxidase activity in leucocytes). Mutation analysis of CYBA showed six different mutations: a frameshift insertion in exon 3 (C after C166); a missense mutation in exon 2 (p.Gly24Arg), a splice-site deletion in intron 1 (4-bp deletion +4_+7 AGTG), a novel nonsense mutation in exon 6 (p.Cys113X), a novel large deletion of exons 3-6 and a novel 1-bp deletion in exon 6 (c.408delC). All mutations were present in homozygous form and all parents investigated were found to be heterozygotes for these mutations. In our series of 40 CGD families, approximately 25% of the families have p22-phox defects, with six different mutations, including three novel mutations. The high rate of consanguineous marriages seems to be the underlying aetiology.
    European Journal of Clinical Investigation 05/2009; 39(4):311-9. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in any of four known NADPH-oxidase components lead to CGD. X-linked CGD (X-CGD) is caused by defects in CYBB, the gene that encodes gp91-phox. Autosomal recessive (AR) CGD is caused by defects in the genes for p47 phox, p22-phox or p67-phox. The aim of this study was to screen the molecular defect in the fetus of an X-CGD carrier mother and postnatal confirmation of the results. In a family whose first-born child died from X-CGD, fetal DNA was obtained from an ongoing pregnancy by chorionic villus sampling (CVS). Direct sequencing was used to detect the previously identified CYBB gene mutation. The NADPH oxidase activity in the neutrophils from the carrier mother and from the newborn was analyzed by the DHR assay. Our studies predicted that the fetus in question was not affected by chronic granulomatous disease, which was demonstrated to be correct at birth. For prenatal screening in a pregnant X-CGD carrier, direct sequencing is a good method for detecting the mutation in the fetal DNA. Postnatal confirmation of results with the DHR assay is more practical than mutation screening to show whether the newborn have normal NADPH oxidase activity or does not.
    Iranian journal of allergy, asthma, and immunology 04/2009; 8(1):57-61. · 0.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR) deficiencies are rare primary immunodeficiencies characterized by the lack of switched isotype (IgG/IgA/IgE) production. In some cases, CSR deficiencies can be associated with abnormal somatic hypermutation. Analysis of CSR deficiencies has helped reveal the key functions of CSR-triggering molecules, i.e., CD40L, CD40, and effector molecules such as activation-induced cytidine deaminase and uracil N-glycosylase. We report a new form of B cell-intrinsic CSR deficiency found in three patients with deleterious, homozygous mutations in the gene encoding the PMS2 component of the mismatch repair machinery. CSR was found partially defective in vivo and markedly impaired in vitro. It is characterized by the defective occurrence of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) in switch regions and abnormal formation of switch junctions. This observation strongly suggests a role for PMS2 in CSR-induced DSB generation.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/2008; 205(11):2465-72. · 13.21 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
236.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2013
    • Ankara Children's Hematology Oncology Training and Research Hospital
      Engüri, Ankara, Turkey
    • Hannover Medical School
      • Institute of Virology
      Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2009
    • Zeynep Kamil Women's and Children's Disease Training and Research Hospital
      İstanbul, Istanbul, Turkey
  • 1999–2009
    • Hacettepe University
      • • Department of Pediatric Immunology
      • • Department of Immunology
      • • Department of Pediatric Oncology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Engüri, Ankara, Turkey
  • 2008
    • University of Rome Tor Vergata
      Roma, Latium, Italy