[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Results from national cancer registries reveal an association of thyroid cancers with extra-thyroidal malignancies. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of breast cancer (BC) in women affected by both benign and malignant thyroid diseases (TD) in comparison to the general population. To this end, 3,921 female patients from central and southern regions of Italy were evaluated. Age-matched analysis of the prevalence of BC was carried out after dividing the patients into three diagnostic categories: (1) 1,149 patients with non-nodular TD; (2) 2350 patients with nodular TD; (3) 422 patients affected by differentiated thyroid cancers. Furthermore, the patients were grouped according to the absence (2,344 patients) or presence (1,453 patients) of anti-thyroglobulin (TgAb) and/or anti-thyroperoxidase (TPOAb) or anti-TSH receptor auto-antibodies (124 patients). BC prevalence in TD patients as a whole was significantly higher compared to the general population, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.33. Age-matched analysis showed that the risk of a BC in TD patients was higher in younger patients (age 0-44 years), with an OR of 15.24, which decreased with increasing age. Patients without thyroid auto-antibodies showed a higher OR for BC (p = 0.0005) than TD patients with TgAb and/or TPOAb. The results demonstrate that women affected by either benign or malignant thyroid disease have a significantly greater risk of BC, which is higher at a younger age. Furthermore, thyroid auto-antibodies appear to be protective against BC. These findings may contribute to the identification of common genetic and environmental factors underlying this disease association.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 03/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anatomy of the gonadal vein has been the subject of several studies relating particularly to the aetiology and therapy of varicocele and left ovarian vein syndrome. Venography shows the presence of valves, the collateral branches, the anastomoses between the left gonadal vein and the retroperitoneal venous networks and the effective pathways of venous reflux. The authors observed a particular congenital anomaly of the left gonadal vein in the dissection of a female cadaver, and studied the venographic pattern of a male patient with left idiopathic varicocele. The aim of this study was to investigate, with the aid of a review of the literature, the embryo-pathogenetic basis of congenital abnormalities of the left gonadic vein, stressing those factors most conducive to errors in the diagnosis and therapy of varicocele and left ovarian vein syndrome, particularly in the scleroembolisation therapy of idiopathic varicocele.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the dissection of a female human cadaver a case of a duplex ovarian vein was observed. It was unique in its upper course where it anastomosed with an inferior polar renal vein, which in turn was linked to an upper polar renal vein by means of a joining branch. It is hypothesised that this represent a persistent link between the left subcardinal vein and the left sacrocardinal vein, together with some branches of a venous net, which represent the embryological intersubcardinal anastomosis. The gonadal vein arises from the distal (or postrenal) left subcardinal vein portion; the left renal vein develops from the intersubcardinal anastomosis. The venous net derived from the intersubcardinal anastomosis may represent a bypass system in cases of left renal vein occlusion. Left gonadal vein duplicity may also play an important role in the anatomical basis of idiopathic left ovarian vein syndrome or left varicocele, and can lead to mistakes being made during venous sclerotherapy.
Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy 03/2002; 24(1):64-7. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. Graves' disease (GD) is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, and accounts worldwide for 60-80% of all cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings, and is confirmed by the presence of TRAB, suppression of TSH, and elevation of free thyroxin (free T4), and triiodinethyronin (free T3). GD can be treated by antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine, or surgery. The aim of this study was to review retrospectively the surgical management, in terms of safety and efficacy, in 50 patients operated in the Department of Surgical Sciences since 2005 through 2010 and followed up at the Endocrinology Unit A of the Experimental Medicine Department. We assessed postoperative complications, which included the presence, persistence and development of ophthalmopathy, transient hypocalcemia, permanent hypoparathyroidism and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. Materials and Methods. We analyzed data from 50 patients with GD who were eligible and underwent Total Thyroidectomy (TT). Thirty-nine patients underwent TT for recurrent hyperthyroidism after medical therapy and eleven patients for severe ophtalmopathy. The mean follow up was 41 months (range: 10-70). Results. Eleven patients had ophtalmopathy before surgery. Four patients developed an ophtalmopathy after surgery. Eleven patients presented hypocalcemia, transient in ten patients and permanent in one patient. Five patients developed a transient disphony. Conclusions. Total thyroidectomy is a safe and radical procedure in Graves' disease treatment. Complications of TT are not different than subtotal thyroidectomy if it's performed by expert surgeons. Clin Ter 2013; 164(3):193-196. doi: 10.7417/CT.2013.1548.
La Clinica terapeutica 164(3):193-6. · 0.33 Impact Factor