[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fast-acting insulin analogs have been available since 1996. The absorption rate of these insulins is still too slow to mimic the physiological insulin action in healthy subjects. This study investigates the clinical performance of InsuPatch™, a local skin-heating device, on postprandial glucose excursion.
Twenty-four type 1 diabetes mellitus subjects on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion were included in this crossover study [10 male, 14 female, age: 43.5 ± 11.3 years, diabetes duration: 18.3 ± 10.5 years, glycosylated hemoglobin: 7.4 ± 0.8%, body mass index: 25.0 ± 3.0 kg/m(2) (mean ± standard deviation)]. The impact of local skin heating was measured by dividing the two-hour area under the curve by integration time (AUC/t(120)) for blood glucose (BG) above baseline after two standardized breakfast and dinner meal pairs (with and without heating) per subject. For the first breakfast pair, venous insulin concentration was also measured.
A significant reduction was found for the AUC/t(120) after breakfast and after dinner meals (42 breakfast meal pairs, AUC/t(120) not heated 66.4 ± 32.8 mg/dl vs heated 56.8 ± 34.0 mg/dl, p = .017; 38 dinner meal pairs, AUC/t(120) not heated 30.8 ± 31.0 mg/dl vs heated 18.4 ± 23.9 mg/dl, p = .0028). The maximum venous insulin concentration with heating was 27% higher than without heating (n = 23). The number of hypoglycemic events on days with heating (n = 9) was similar to the number of days without heating (n = 13).
Local heating of the skin around the infusion site significantly reduced postprandial BG by enhancing insulin absorption. The heating device was well tolerated, and it could facilitate development of closed-loop systems.
Journal of diabetes science and technology 01/2012; 6(2):320-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion from an insulin pump depends on reliable transfer of the pumped insulin to the subcutaneous insulin depot by means of an insulin infusion set (IIS). Despite their widespread use, the published knowledge about IISs and related issues regarding the impact of placement and wear time on insulin absorption/insulin action is relatively small. We also have to acknowledge that our knowledge is limited with regard to how often patients encounter issues with IISs. Reading pump wearer blogs, for instance, suggests that these are a frequent source of trouble. There are no prospective clinical studies available on current IIS and insulin formulations that provide representative data on the type and frequency of issues with infusion sets. The introduction of new IISs and patch pumps may foster a reassessment of available products and of patient problems related to their use. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge and recommendations about IISs and to highlight potential directions of IIS development in order to make insulin absorption safer and more efficient.
Journal of diabetes science and technology 01/2012; 6(4):954-64.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Evaluation of the time required until a change in the basal insulin infusion rate with an insulin pump induces subsequent changes in the metabolic effect. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this euglycemic glucose clamp study, 10 male subjects with type 1 diabetes received three different subcutaneous insulin infusion rates (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 units/h; for 4 h each) of insulin lispro (IL) with insulin pumps. RESULTS An increase in insulinemia occurred within 15-30 min after changing the infusion rate. While the serum IL levels reached a steady state at the end of the infusion period, the glucose infusion rates did not always reach steady-state levels with the higher infusion rates. However, an increase in the glucose consumption occurred within 30-60 min after switching the infusion rate. CONCLUSIONS Several hours are required until a new steady state in the metabolic effect is achieved after a significant change in basal insulin infusion.
Diabetes care 07/2009; 32(8):1437-9. · 7.74 Impact Factor