[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the effect of the ruthenium complex [Ru(terpy)(bdq)NO] (TERPY) on the arterial pressure from renal hypertensive 2 kidney-1 clip (2K-1C) rats, which was compared with sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The most interesting finding was that the intravenous bolus injection of TERPY (2.5, 5.0, 7 mg/kg) had a dose-dependent hypotensive effect only in 2K-1C rats. On the other hand, SNP (35 and 70 μg/kg) presented a similar hypotensive effect in both normotensive (2K) and 2K-1C although the effect of 70 μg/kg was >35 μg/kg. The injection of the nonselective NO-synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) increased the arterial pressure in 2K and 2K-1C rats with a similar magnitude. After infusion of L-NAME, the hypotensive effect induced by TERPY and SNP was potentiated in both 2K and in 2K-1C rats. The administration of the superoxide scavenger 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl increased the hypotensive effect induced by TERPY or SNP in both 2K and 2K-1C rats. The hypotensive effect induced by TERPY was longer than that produced by SNP. Taken together, our results show that the TERPY has a long-lasting hypotensive effect, which has a dose dependence and higher magnitude in 2K-1C compared with in 2K rats. In comparison with SNP, TERPY is less potent in inducing arterial pressure fall, but it presents a much longer hypotensive effect.
Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 05/2012; 60(2):193-8. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) has been pointed out as being the main mediator involved in the hypotension and tissue injury taking place during sepsis. This study aimed to investigate the cellular mechanisms implicated in the acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation detected in aortic rings isolated from rats submitted to cecal ligation and perforation (CLP group), 6h post-CLP. The mean arterial pressure was recorded, and the concentration-effect curves for ACh were constructed for endothelium-intact aortic rings in the absence (control) or after incubation with one of the following NO synthase inhibitors: L-NAME (non-selective), L-NNA (more selective for eNOS), 7-nitroindazole (more selective for nNOS), or 1400W (selective for iNOS). The NO concentration was determined by using confocal microscopy. The protein expression of the NOS isoforms was quantified by Western blot analysis. The prostacyclin concentration was indirectly analyzed on the basis of 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1α) (6-keto-PGF(1α)) levels measured by enzyme immunoassay. There were no differences between Sham- and CLP-operated rats in terms of the relaxation induced by acetylcholine. However, the NOS inhibitors reduced this relaxation in both groups, but this effect remained more pronounced in the CLP group as compared to the Sham group. The acetylcholine-induced NO production was higher in the rat aortic endothelial cells of the CLP group than in those of the Sham group. eNOS protein expression was larger in the CLP group, but the iNOS protein was not verified in any of the groups. The basal 6-keto-PGF(1α) levels were higher in the CLP group, but the acetylcholine-stimulated levels did not increase in CLP as much as they did in the Sham group. Taken together, our results show that the augmented NO production in sepsis syndrome elicited by cecal ligation and perforation is due to eNOS up-regulation and not to iNOS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocardium damage during Chagas' disease results from the immunological imbalance between pro- and production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and has been explained based on the Th1-Th2 dichotomy and regulatory T cell activity. Recently, we demonstrated that IL-17 produced during experimental T. cruzi infection regulates Th1 cells differentiation and parasite induced myocarditis. Here, we investigated the role of IL-17 and regulatory T cell during human Chagas' disease.
First, we observed CD4(+)IL-17(+) T cells in culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Chagas' disease patients and we evaluated Th1, Th2, Th17 cytokine profile production in the PBMC cells from Chagas' disease patients (cardiomyopathy-free, and with mild, moderate or severe cardiomyopathy) cultured with T. cruzi antigen. Cultures of PBMC from patients with moderate and severe cardiomyopathy produced high levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ and low levels of IL-10, when compared to mild cardiomyopathy or cardiomyopathy-free patients. Flow cytometry analysis showed higher CD4(+)IL-17(+) cells in PBMC cultured from patients without or with mild cardiomyopathy, in comparison to patients with moderate or severe cardiomyopathy. We then analyzed the presence and function of regulatory T cells in all patients. All groups of Chagas' disease patients presented the same frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells. However, CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from patients with mild cardiomyopathy or cardiomyopathy-free showed higher suppressive activity than those with moderate and severe cardiomyopathy. IFN-γ levels during chronic Chagas' disease are inversely correlated to the LVEF (P = 0.007, r = -0.614), while regulatory T cell activity is directly correlated with LVEF (P = 0.022, r = 0.500).
These results indicate that reduced production of the cytokines IL-10 and IL-17 in association with high levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α is correlated with the severity of the Chagas' disease cardiomyopathy, and the immunological imbalance observed may be causally related with deficient suppressor activity of regulatory T cells that controls myocardial inflammation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular dysfunction associated with two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) hypertension may result from both altered matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and higher concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Doxycycline is considering the most potent MMP inhibitor of tetracyclines and attenuates 2K-1C hypertension-induced high blood pressure and chronic vascular remodeling. Doxycycline might also act as a ROS scavenger and this may contribute to the amelioration of some cardiovascular diseases associated with increased concentrations of ROS. We hypothesized that in addition to its MMP inhibitory effect, doxycycline attenuates oxidative stress and improves nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in 2K-1C hypertension, thus improving hypertension-induced arterial endothelial dysfunction. Sham operated or 2K-1C hypertensive rats were treated with doxycycline 30 mg/kg/day (or vehicle). After 8 weeks of treatment, aortic rings were isolated to assess endothelium dependent vasorelaxation to A23187. Arterial and systemic levels of ROS were respectively measured using dihydroethidine (DHE) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Neutrophils-derived ROS were tested in vitro using the fluoroprobe Carboxy-H(2)DCFDA and human neutrophils stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). NO levels were assessed in rat aortic endothelial cells by confocal microscopy. Aortic MMP activity was determined by in situ zymography. Doxycycline attenuated 2K-1C hypertension (169 ± 17.3 versus 209 ± 10.9mm Hg in hypertensive controls, p<0.05) and protected against hypertension-induced reduction in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation to A23187 (p<0.05). Doxycycline also decreased hypertension-induced oxidative stress (p<0.05), higher MMP activity (p<0.01) and improved NO levels in aortic endothelial cells (p<0.01). Therefore, doxycycline ameliorates 2K-1C hypertension-induced endothelial dysfunction in aortas by inhibiting oxidative stress generation and improving NO bioavailability, in addition to its inhibitory effects on MMP activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO)-donors are pharmacologically active substances that in vivo or in vitro release NO. Their most common side effect is headache caused by cerebral vasodilatation. We previously demonstrated that the new NO-donor Ru(terpy)(bdq)NO](3+) (Terpy), synthesized in our laboratory, induces relaxation of rat aorta. This study aimed to verify the effect of Terpy and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in basilar artery. We conducted vascular reactivity experiments on endothelium-denuded basilar rings. The concentrations of iron (Fe) and ruthenium (Ru) complex were analyzed in basilar artery lysates after incubation with NO donors by mass spectrometry. We also evaluated the NO released from SNP and Terpy by using confocal microscopy. Interestingly, Terpy did not induce relaxation of the basilar artery. SNP induced relaxation in a concentration-dependent way. NO donors cross the membrane of vascular smooth muscle and entered the cell. In spite of its permeability, Terpy did not release NO in the basilar artery. Otherwise, SNP released NO in the basilar artery cells cytoplasm. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the new NO donor (Terpy) failed to release NO and to induce relaxation in the basilar artery. The NO donor SNP induces vascular relaxation due to NO release in the vascular smooth muscle cells.
European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 12/2011; 45(3):344-50. · 2.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During three decades, an enormous number of studies have demonstrated the critical role of nitric oxide (NO) as a second messenger engaged in the activation of many systems including vascular smooth muscle relaxation. The underlying cellular mechanisms involved in vasodilatation are essentially due to soluble guanylyl-cyclase (sGC) modulation in the cytoplasm of vascular smooth cells. sGC activation culminates in cyclic GMP (cGMP) production, which in turn leads to protein kinase G (PKG) activation. NO binds to the sGC heme moiety, thereby activating this enzyme. Activation of the NO-sGC-cGMP-PKG pathway entails Ca(2+) signaling reduction and vasodilatation. Endothelium dysfunction leads to decreased production or bioavailability of endogenous NO that could contribute to vascular diseases. Nitrosyl ruthenium complexes have been studied as a new class of NO donors with potential therapeutic use in order to supply the NO deficiency. In this context, this article shall provide a brief review of the effects exerted by the NO that is enzymatically produced via endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS) activation and by the NO released from NO donor compounds in the vascular smooth muscle cells on both conduit and resistance arteries, as well as veins. In addition, the involvement of the nitrite molecule as an endogenous NO reservoir engaged in vasodilatation will be described.
Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 07/2011; 44(9):947-57. · 1.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present work investigates the mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effect of ent-16α-methoxykauran-19-oic acid (KA-OCH3), a semi-synthetic derivative obtained from the kaurane-type diterpene ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (kaurenoic acid). Vascular reactivity experiments were performed in aortic rings isolated from male Wistar rats using standard muscle bath procedures. The cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c) was measured by confocal microscopy using the fluorescent probe Fluo-3 AM. Blood pressure measurements were performed in conscious rats. KA-OCH3 (10, 50 and 100 μmol/l) inhibited phenylephrine-induced contraction in either endothelium-intact or endothelium-denuded rat aortic rings. KA-OCH3 also reduced CaCl2-induced contraction in a Ca2+-free solution containing KCl (30 mmol/l) or phenylephrine (0.1 μmol/l). KA-OCH3 (0.1-300 μmol/l) concentration-dependently relaxed endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas pre-contracted with either phenylephrine or KCl, to a greater extent than kaurenoic acid. Moreover, a Ca2+ mobilisation study showed that KA-OCH3 (100 μmol/l) inhibited the increase in Ca2+ concentration in smooth muscle and endothelial cells induced by phenylephrine or KCl. Pre-incubation of intact or denuded aortic rings with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 μmol/l), 7-nitroindazole (100 μmol/l), wortmannin (0.5 μmol/l) and 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 1 μmol/l) produced a rightward displacement of the KA-OCH3 concentration-response curve. Intravenous administration of KA-OCH3 (1-10 mg/kg) reduced mean arterial blood pressure in normotensive rats. Collectively, our results show that KA-OCH3 induces vascular relaxation and hypotension. The mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular actions of KA-OCH3 involve blockade of Ca2+ influx and activation of the NO-cGMP pathway.
European journal of pharmacology 06/2011; 660(2-3):402-10. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator and it can be generated by the ruthenium complex cis-[Ru(H-dcbpy(-))(2)(Cl)(NO(2)(-))] (DCBPY). The present study aimed to investigate the NO specie generated and to characterize the cellular mechanisms involved on the vasodilatation induced by DCBPY. It was found that at pH 7.4 and 9.4, the NO(+) coordinated to ruthenium (Ru-NO(+)) is converted to NO(2)(-) (Ru-NO(2)(-)), which remains stable. However, the configuration Ru-NO(+) is stable at pH 5.4. It was also verified that the DCBPY complex (Ru-NO(2)(-) configuration) induces vascular relaxation of contracted rat aortic rings in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, the potency (pD(2) values) and the maximum relaxant effect (ME) were compared. It was observed that relaxation is more pronounced to Ru-NO(+) configuration, compared with Ru-NO(2)(-), with no difference in ME. On the other hand, the potency of DCBPY (Ru-NO(2)(-)) is lower than that of SNP and higher than that of NITRITE, with no difference in ME for all the compounds. Further experiments were conducted using DCBPY in the Ru-NO(2)(-) configuration. It was noted that the relaxation induced by DCBPY is completely blocked by the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) enzyme inhibitor. The non-selective K(+) channel blocker (TEA) diminishes the potency of DCBPY, but it does not change the ME. Incubation with selective radicalar NO (NO()) and extracellular NO scavengers almost abolishes the relaxation induced by DCBPY. The use of a selective nitroxyl (NO(-)) scavenger decreases the potency of DCBPY, but it does not alter the ME. By using confocal microsopy, it was found that DCBPY, SNP, and NITRITE raise the cytosolic NO concentration and reduce the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)]c in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. These effects are not different when DCBPY and SNP are compared, but they are lower for NITRITE. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the compound DCBPY (Ru-NO(2)(-)) is an NO generator that promotes relaxation of rat aortic rings due to a reduction in [Ca(2+)]c. The vascular smooth muscle relaxation is dependent on sGC activation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide has been pointed out as the main agent involved in the vasodilatation, which is the major symptom of septic shock. However, there must be another mediator contributing to the circulatory failure observed in sepsis. This study aimed to investigate the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine and the factors involved in this relaxation, using aortic rings isolated from rats submitted to cecal ligation and perforation (CLP), 2h after induction of sepsis, which characterizes the hyperdynamic phase of sepsis. Under inhibition of constitutive NO-synthases (cNOS), the relaxation induced by acetylcholine was greater in the aortic rings of rats submitted to CLP compared with sham-operated rat aortic rings. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin normalized this response, and the concentration of the stable metabolite of prostacyclin in the aorta of CLP rats increased in basal conditions and after stimulation with acetylcholine. Acetylcholine-induced NO production was lower in the endothelial cells from the aorta of CLP rats compared with sham rat aorta, but the protein expression of the cNOS was not altered. Moreover, iNOS protein expression could not be detected. Therefore, prostacyclin, and not only nitric oxide, is a mediator of the vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine in aortas from rats submitted to CLP.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benznidazole (Bz) is the therapy currently available for clinical treatment of Chagas' disease. However, many strains of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites are naturally resistant. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by activated macrophages is crucial to the intracellular killing of parasites. Here, we investigate the in vitro and in vivo activities against T. cruzi, of the NO donor, trans-[RuCl(aneN(4))NO](2+).
Trans-[RuCl(aneN(4))NO](2+)was incubated with a partially drug-resistant T. cruzi Y strain and the anti-proliferative (epimastigote form) and trypanocidal activities (trypomastigote and amastigote) evaluated. Mice were treated during the acute phase of Chagas' disease. The anti-T. cruzi activity was evaluated by parasitaemia, survival rate, cardiac parasitism, myocarditis and the curative rate.
Trans-[RuCl(aneN(4))NO](2+) was 10- and 100-fold more active than Bz against amastigotes and trypomastigotes respectively. Further, trans-[RuCl(aneN(4))NO](2+) (0.1 mM) induced 100% of trypanocidal activity (trypomastigotes forms) in vitro. Trans-[RuCl(aneN(4))NO](2+) induced permanent suppression of parasitaemia and 100% survival in a murine model of acute Chagas' disease. When the drugs were given alone, parasitological cures were confirmed in only 30 and 40% of the animals treated with the NO donor (3.33 micromol.kg(-1).day(-1)) and Bz (385 micromol.kg(-1).day(-1)), respectively, but when given together, 80% of the animals were parasitologically cured. The cured animals showed an absence of myocarditis and a normalisation of cytokine production in the sera. In addition, no in vitro toxicity was observed at the tested doses.
These findings indicate that trans-[RuCl(aneN(4))NO](2+)is a promising lead compound for the treatment of human Chagas' disease.
British Journal of Pharmacology 05/2010; 160(2):270-82. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to investigate the contribution of endothelial cell caveolae to vascular relaxation in aortas from a normotensive (2K) and renal hypertensive (2K-1C) rat. For that purpose, concentration-effect curves to acetylcholine were constructed in 2K and 2K-1C intact endothelium aortic rings, in the absence or in the presence of the caveolae disassembler methyl-beta-ciclodextrin. The potency (pD(2)) and the maximum relaxant effect to acetylcholine were greater in 2K than in 2K-1C aortas. Methyl-beta-ciclodextrin reduced the pD(2) in 2K and the maximum relaxant effect in both 2K and 2K-1C. The quantification of the caveolae number by electronic microscopy has shown a larger number of caveolae in 2K than in 2K-1C endothelial cells, which was reduced by methyl-beta-ciclodextrin in both 2K and 2K-1C. The production of NO stimulated with acetylcholine was greater in 2K than in 2K-1C endothelial cells, and this effect was impaired by methyl-beta-ciclodextrin in both 2K and 2K-1C. The cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) was simultaneously measured in endothelial and smooth muscle cells stimulated with acetylcholine by confocal image of aortic slices. Acetylcholine produced a greater [Ca(2+)]c increase in 2K than in 2K-1C endothelial cells, which response was inhibited by methyl-beta-ciclodextrin only in 2K cells. In smooth muscle cells the reduction of [Ca(2+)]c was higher in 2K than in 2K-1C. This effect was inhibited by methyl-beta-ciclodextrin only in 2K cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the decreased number of caveolae in the endothelial cells from 2K-1C rat aortas is involved in the impaired effect of acetylcholine on [Ca(2+)]c and NO.
European journal of pharmacology 11/2009; 627(1-3):251-7. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitrosyl ruthenium complexes have been characterized as nitric oxide (NO) donors that induce relaxation in the denuded rat aorta. There are some differences in their vascular relaxation mechanisms compared with sodium nitroprusside. This study investigates whether the endothelium could interfere with the [Ru(terpy)(bdq)NO](3+)-TERPY-induced vascular relaxation, by analyzing the maximal relaxation (Emax) and potency (pD(2)) of TERPY. Vascular reactivity experiments showed that the endothelium negatively modulates (pD(2): 6.17+/-0.07) the TERPY relaxation in intact rat aortic rings compared with the denuded rat aorta (pD(2): 6.65+/-0.07). This effect is abolished by a non-selective NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME (pD(2): 6.46+/-0.10), by the superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) scavenger TIRON (pD(2): 6.49+/-0.08), and by an NOS cofactor BH(4) (pD(2): 6.80+/-0.10). The selective dye for O(2)(-) (DHE) shows that TERPY enhances O(2)(-) concentration in isolated endothelial cells (intensity of fluorescence (IF):11258.00+/-317.75) compared with the basal concentration (IF: 7760.67+/-381.50), and this enhancement is blocked by L-NAME (IF: 8892.33+/-1074.41). Similar results were observed in vascular smooth muscle cells (concentration of superoxide after TERPY: 2.63+/-0.17% and after TERPY+L-NAME: -4.63+/-0.14%). Considering that TERPY could induce uncoupling NOS, thus producing O(2)(-), we have also investigated the involvement of prostanoids in the negative modulation of the endothelium. The non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin and the selective tromboxane (TXA(2)) receptor antagonist SQ29548 reduce the effect of the endothelium on TERPY relaxation (pD(2) INDO: 6.80+/-0.17 and SQ29548: 6.85+/-0.15, respectively). However, a selective prostaglandin F(2alpha) receptor antagonist (AH6809) does not change the endothelium effect. Moreover, TERPY enhances the concentration of TXA(2) stable metabolite (TXB(2)), but this effect is blocked by L-NAME and TIRON. The present findings indicate that TERPY induces uncoupling of eNOS, enhancing O(2)(-) concentration. This enhancement in O(2)(-) concentration induces COX activation, producing TXA(2), which negatively modulates the rat aorta relaxation induced by the NO donor TERPY.
Journal of inorganic biochemistry 08/2009; 103(10):1366-74. · 3.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pimarane-type diterpenes were described to exert antispasmodic and relaxant activities. Based on this observation we hypothesized that the diterpene ent-8(14),15-pimaradien-3beta-ol (PA-3beta-ol) induced vascular relaxation. With this purpose, the present work investigates the mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effect of the pimarane-type diterpene PA-3beta-ol. Vascular reactivity experiments, using standard muscle bath procedures, were performed in isolated aortic rings from male Wistar rats. Cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) was measured by confocal microscopy using the fluorescent probe Fluo-3AM. PA-3beta-ol (10, 50 and 100 micromol/l) inhibited phenylephrine and KCl-induced contraction in either endothelium-intact or denuded rat aortic rings. PA-3beta-ol also reduced CaCl(2)-induced contraction in Ca(2+)-free solution containing KCl (30 mmol/l) or phenylephrine (0.1 micromol/l). PA-3beta-ol (1-300 micromol/l) concentration dependently relaxed phenylephrine-pre-contracted rings with intact or denuded endothelium. The diterpene also relaxed KCl-pre-contracted rings with intact or denuded endothelium. Moreover, Ca(2+) mobilization study showed that PA-3beta-ol (100 micromol/l) and verapamil (1 micromol/l) inhibited the increase in Ca(2+)-concentration in smooth muscle and endothelial cells induced by phenylephrine (10 micromol/l) or KCl (60 mmol/l). Pre-incubation of intact or denuded aortic rings with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 micromol/l) and 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 1 micromol/l) produced a rightward displacement of the PA-3beta-ol concentration-response curves. On the other hand, 7-nitroindazole (100 micromol/l), 1400 W (1 micromol/l), indomethacin (10 micromol/l) and tetraethylammonium (1 mmol/l) did not affect PA-3beta-ol-induced relaxation. Collectively, our results provide evidence that the effects elicited by PA-3beta-ol involve extracellular Ca(2+) influx blockade. Its effects are also partly mediated by the activation of NO-cGMP pathway.
European journal of pharmacology 07/2009; 616(1-3):183-91. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) in NTS plays an important role in regulating autonomic function to the cardiovascular system. Using the fluorescent dye DAF-2 DA, we evaluated the NO concentration in NTS. Brainstem slices of rats were loaded with DAF-2 DA, washed, fixed in paraformaldehyde and examined under fluorescent light. In different experimental groups, NTS slices were pre-incubated with 1 mM L-NAME (a non-selective NOS inhibitor), 1 mM D-NAME (an inactive enantiomere of L-NAME), 1 mM kynurenic acid (a non-selective ionotropic receptors antagonist) or 20 muM bicuculline (a selective GABA(A) receptors antagonist) before and during DAF-2 DA loading. Images were acquired using a confocal microscope and the intensity of fluorescence was quantified in three antero-posterior NTS regions. In addition, slices previously loaded with DAF-2 DA were incubated with Neu-N or GFAP antibody. A semi-quantitative analysis of the fluorescence intensity showed that the basal NO concentration was similar in all antero-posterior aspects of the NTS (rostral intermediate = 15.5 +/- 0.8 AU; caudal intermediate = 13.2 +/- 1.4 AU; caudal commissural = 13.8 +/- 1.4 AU, n=10). In addition, the inhibition of NOS and the antagonism of glutamatergic receptors decreased the NO fluorescence in the NTS. On the other hand, D-NAME did not affect the NO fluorescence and the antagonism of GABA(A) receptors increased the NO fluorescence in the NTS. It is important to note that the fluorescence for NO was detected mainly in neurons. These data show that the fluorescence observed after NTS loading with DAF-2 DA is a result of NO present in the NTS and support the concept that NTS neurons have basal NO production which is modulated by L-glutamate and GABA.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mounting evidence indicates that structural and functional vascular changes associated with two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) hypertension result, at least in part, from altered activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Because MMPs are upregulated by increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we hypothesized that antioxidant approaches could attenuate the increases in MMP-2 expression/activity and the vascular dysfunction and remodeling associated with 2K-1C hypertension. Sham-operated or 2K-1C hypertensive rats were treated with tempol 18 mg/kg/day or apocyanin 25 mg/kg/day (or vehicle). Systolic blood pressure was monitored weekly. After 8 weeks of treatment, aortic rings were isolated to assess endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation. Quantitative morphometry of structural changes in the aortic wall was studied in hematoxylin/eosin sections. Aortic and systemic ROS levels were measured using dihydroethidine and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, respectively. Aortic MMP-2 levels and activity were determined by gelatin and in situ zymography, fluorimetry, and immunohistochemistry. Tempol and apocyanin attenuated 2K-1C hypertension (181 ± 20.8 and 192 ± 17.6 mm Hg, respectively, versus 213 ± 18 mm Hg in hypertensive controls; both p < 0.05) and prevented the reduction in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation found in 2K-1C rats. Tempol, but not apocyanin (p > 0.05), prevented the vascular remodeling found in 2K-1C rats (all p < 0.01). Tempol was more effective than apocyanin in attenuating hypertension-induced increases in oxidative stress (both p < 0.05), MMP-2 levels, and MMP-2 activity in hypertensive rats (all p < 0.05). Our results suggest that antioxidant approaches decrease MMP-2 upregulation and attenuate the vascular dysfunction and remodeling during 2K-1C hypertension.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelium generates nitric oxide (NO) in large vessels and induces relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of NO produced in the endothelial cells (EC) to the relaxation induced by the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 and whether this relaxation is impaired in renal hypertensive (2K-1C) rat arteries. Concentration-effect curves for A23187 were constructed in intact endothelium isolated carotid rings from 2K-1C and normotensive (2K) in the absence or in the presence of the extracellular NO scavenger haemoglobin or inhibitors of NO-synthase (NOS, L-NOARG), guanylyl-cyclase (GC, ODQ). In carotid rings loaded with Fluo-3AM, both EC and VSMC were simultaneously imaged by a confocal microscope and [Ca2+]c was derived from fluorescence intensities (IF). The maximal relaxation (ME) induced by A23187 was lower in 2K-1C than in 2K arteries. A23187-induced relaxation was abolished by haemoglobin and L-NOARG in both groups. ODQ reduced the ME to A23187 in 2K and abolished its relaxation in 2K-1C. A23187 increased [Ca2+]c in a similar way in 2K and 2K-1C EC, and decreased [Ca2+]c in VSMC, which effect was higher in 2K than in 2K-1C arteries. L-NOARG inhibited the effect of A23187 in VSMC from 2K and abolished it in 2K-1C rats. On the other hand, L-NOARG did not modify the effect of A23187 in EC from 2K and 2K-1C rats. The basal content of cGMP was higher in 2K than in 2K-1C arterial rings that was similarly increased by A23187. In conclusion, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 increases Ca2+, activates NOS and NO production in the EC activating GC in VSMC and [Ca2+]c decrease. All these effects are higher in 2K, which contribute to the impaired relaxation to A23187 in 2K-1C rat arteries.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is an endothelium-independent relaxant agent and its effect is attributed to its direct action on the vascular smooth muscle (VSM). Endothelium modulates the vascular tone through the release of vasoactive agents, such as NO. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the endothelium on SNP vasorelaxation, NO release and Ca2+ mobilization. Vascular reactivity experiments showed that endothelium potentiates the SNP-relaxation in rat aortic rings and this effect was abolished by l-NAME. SNP-relaxation in intact endothelium aorta was inhibited by NOS inhibitors for the constitutive isoforms (cNOS). Furthermore, endogenous NO is involved on the SNP-effect and this endogenous NO is released by cNOS. Moreover, Ca2+ mobilization study shows that l-NAME inhibited the reduction of Ca2+-concentration in VSM cells and reduced the increase in Ca2+-concentration in endothelial cells induced by SNP. This enhancement in Ca2+-concentration in the endothelial cells is due to a voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels activation. The present findings indicate that the relaxation and [Ca2+]i decrease induced by SNP in VSM cells is potentiated by endothelial production of NO by cNOS-activation in rat aorta.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impaired relaxation induced by the new nitric oxide (NO) donor [Ru(NH.NHq)(terpy)NO(+)](3+) (TERPY) has been observed in the aortic rings from renal hypertensive rats (2K-1C). An increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the aortas from 2K-1C rats are capable of reducing NO bioavailability. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the effects of an antioxidant (vitamin C) on the relaxant effect of NO released from TERPY on the 2K-1C rat aorta. As for vascular reactivity, the potency of TERPY is greater in the control rats (2K) than in 2K-1C whereas the maximum relaxation (ME) is not significantly different between the 2K and 2K-1C rat aortas. The relaxation of TERPY is potentiated only in the 2K-1C aortic ring treated with vitamin C. TERPY has a lower effect in decreasing cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from 2K-1C rats. This effect is also potentiated in 2K-1C aortic cells treated with vitamin C, but it is not altered in 2K cells. The basal cytosolic NO concentration ([NO]c) is lower in 2K-1C than in 2K cells, and the bioavailability of the NO released from TERPY is larger in 2K than in 2K-1C VSMCs. The superoxide radical concentration ([O(2)(*-)]) is higher in the 2K-1C aorta, and vitamin C reduces the [O(2)(*-)] in the 2K-1C aorta. Taken together, these results show that in the aortas of renal hypertensive 2K-1C rats, released NO from the new NO donor is not available to produce a similar effect in 2K aorta due to increased [O(2)(*-)].
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relaxation induced by nitric oxide (NO) donors is impaired in renal hypertensive two kidney-one clip (2K-1C) rat aortas. It has been proposed that caveolae are important in signal transduction and Ca2+ homeostasis. Therefore, in the present study we investigate the integrity of caveolae in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), as well as their influence on the effects produced by NO released from both the new NO donor [Ru(NH.NHq) (terpy)NO+]3+ (TERPY) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on 2K-1C rat aorta. The potency of both TERPY and SNP was lower in the 2K-1C aorta that in the normotensive aorta [two kidney (2K)], whereas the maximal relaxant effect (ME) was similar in both 2K-1C and 2K aortas. In the 2K aorta, methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CD) reduced both the potency of TERPY and SNP, and their ME compared with the control, but it had no effect on the potency and ME of these NO donors in 2K-1C aortas. The decrease in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) induced by TERPY was larger in 2K than in 2K-1C cells, and this effect was inhibited by CD in 2K cells only. Aortic VSMCs from 2K rats presented a larger number of caveolae than those from 2K-1C rats. Treatment with CD reduced the number of caveolae in both 2K and 2K-1C aortic VSMCs. Our results support the idea that caveolae play a critical role in the relaxant effect and in the decrease in [Ca2+]c induced by NO, and they could be responsible for impaired aorta relaxation by NO in renal hypertensive rats.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 01/2008; 323(3):831-7. · 3.89 Impact Factor