[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dormant, non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain cultured in hypoxic conditions was used to infect THP-1 cells. CFUs counting, Kinyoun staining and electron microscopy showed that dormant bacilli infected THP-1 cells at a rate similar to replicating M. tuberculosis, but failed to grow during the first 6 days of infection. The absence of growth was specific to the intracellular compartment, as demonstrated by efficient growth in liquid medium. Quantification of β-actin mRNA recovered from infected cells showed that, in contrast with log-phase bacteria, infection with dormant bacilli determined a reduced THP-1 cell death. Gene expression of intracellular non-replicating bacteria showed a pattern typical of a dormant state. Intracellular dormant bacteria induced the activation of genes associated to a proinflammatory response in THP-1 cells. Though, higher levels of TNFα, IL-1β and IL-8 mRNAs compared to aerobic H37Rv infected cells were not paralleled by increased cytokine accumulation in the supernatants. Moreover, dormant bacilli induced a higher expression of inducible cox-2 gene, accompanied by increased PGE2 secretion. Overall, our data describe a new model of in vitro infection using dormant M. tuberculosis that could provide the basis for understanding how non-replicating bacilli survive intracellularly and influence the maintenance of the hypoxic granuloma.
Microbes and Infection 04/2012; 14(11):959-67. · 2.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is concern about the rise of antifungal drug resistance, but little is known about comparative biological properties and pathogenicity of drug-resistant strains. We generated fluconazole (FLC; CO23 RFLC)- or micafungin (FK; CO23 RFK)-resistant strains of Candida albicans by treating a FLC- and FK-susceptible strain of this fungus (CO23 S) with stepwise-increasing concentrations of either drug. Molecular analyses showed that CO23 RFLC had acquired markedly increased expression of the drug-resistance efflux pump encoded by the MDR1 gene, whereas CO23 RFK had a homozygous mutation in the FSK1 gene. These genetic modifications did not alter to any extent the growth capacity of the drug-resistant strains in vitro, either at 28 degrees C or at 37 degrees C, but markedly increased their experimental pathogenicity in a systemic mouse infection model, as assessed by the overall mortality and target organ invasion. Interestingly, no apparent increase in the vaginopathic potential of the strains was observed with an estrogen-dependent rat vaginal infection. The increased pathogenicity of drug-resistant strains for systemic infection was associated with a number of biochemical and physiological changes, including (i) marked cellular alterations associated with a different expression and content of major cell wall polysaccharides, (ii) more rapid and extensive hypha formation in both liquid and solid media, and (iii) increased adherence to plastic and a propensity for biofilm formation. Overall, our data demonstrate that experimentally induced resistance to antifungal drugs, irrespective of drug family, can substantially divert C. albicans biology, affecting in particular biological properties of potential relevance for deep-seated candidiasis.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2008; 52(3):927-36. · 4.57 Impact Factor