[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ATAD3 is a mitochondrial integral inner membrane ATPase with unknown function. ATAD3 is absent in yeast and protozoan and present in all pluricellular eucaryotes where its expression is essential for development. To date, bacterial-based expression of full-length ATAD3 has been unsuccessful because of very high levels of endogenous degradation. Based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a heterogeneous expression system, we engineered a high copy strain expressing human ATAD3A-Myc-HIS at a relative high level (2.5mg/l of yeast culture) without significantly affecting yeast growth. Most of the expressed human ATAD3A-Myc-HIS co-purified with the yeast mitochondrial fraction thus suggesting that targeting to this organelle is preserved in yeast. Like the endogenous protein in human cells, ATAD3A-Myc-HIS expressed in yeast is found resistant to extraction with salt and certain detergents, suggesting membrane insertion. Sarkosyl, C13-DAO, C12-DAO and ONMG efficiently solubilized ATAD3A-Myc-HIS from yeast extracts, but these soluble species did not bind to agarose-nickel matrix. By contrast, urea-denaturated ATAD3A-Myc-HIS bound to agarose-nickel beads and could be renatured and eluted to obtain highly pure ATAD3A-Myc-HIS. As the native protein in vivo, this recombinant, renatured species specifically bound in vitro to S100B and S100A1 in Far-Western assays.
Protein Expression and Purification 04/2012; 83(2):211-6. · 1.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Copper is an essential plant micronutrient playing key roles in cellular processes, among them photosynthesis. In Arabidopsis thaliana, copper delivery to chloroplasts, mainly studied by genetic approaches, is thought to involve two P(IB)-type ATPases: AtHMA1 and AtHMA6/PAA1. The lack of biochemical characterization of AtHMA1 and PAA1, and more generally of plant P(IB)-type ATPases, is due to the difficulty of getting high amounts of these membrane proteins in an active form, either from their native environment or after expression in heterologous systems. In this study, we report the first biochemical characterization of PAA1, a plant copper-transporting ATPase. PAA1 produced in Lactococcus lactis is active, forming an aspartyl phosphate intermediate in the presence of ATP and the adequate metal ion. PAA1 can also be phosphorylated using inorganic phosphate in the absence of transition metal. Both phosphorylation types allowed us to demonstrate that PAA1 is activated by monovalent copper ions (and to a lower extent by silver ions) with an apparent affinity in the micromolar range. In agreement with these biochemical data, we also demonstrate that when expressed in yeast, PAA1 induces increased sensitivities to copper and silver. These data provide the first enzymatic characterization of a P(IB-1)-type plant ATPase and clearly identify PAA1 as a high affinity Cu(I) transporter of the chloroplast envelope.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2011; 286(42):36188-97. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are now produced abundantly and widely used in a variety of consumer products. Due to the important increase in the production of TiO2-NPs, potential widespread exposure of humans and environment may occur during both the manufacturing process and final use. Therefore, the potential toxicity of TiO2-NPs on human health and environment has attracted particular attention. Unfortunately, the results of the large number of studies on the toxicity of TiO2-NPs differ significantly, mainly due to an incomplete characterization of the used nanomaterials in terms of size, shape and crystalline structure and to their unknown state of agglomeration/aggregation. The purpose of our project entitled NanoBioMet is to investigate if interferences between nanoparticles and metal homeostasis could be observed and to study the toxicity mechanisms of TiO2-NPs with well-characterized physicochemical parameters, using proteomic and molecular approaches. A perturbation of metal homeostasis will be evaluated upon TiO2-NPs exposure which could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, oxidative stress consequences such as DNA damage and lipid peroxidation will be studied. The toxicity of TiO2-NPs of different sizes and crystalline structures will be evaluated both in prokaryotic (E. coli) and eukaryotic cells (A549 human pneumocytes, macrophages, and hepatocytes). First results of the project will be presented concerning the dispersion of TiO2-NPs in bacterial medium, proteomic studies on total extracts of macrophages and genotoxicity on pneumocytes.
Journal of Physics Conference Series 07/2011; 304(1):012035.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is a very toxic metal that causes DNA damage, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Despite many studies, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its high toxicity are not clearly understood. We show here that very low doses of Cd(2+) cause ER stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as evidenced by the induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the splicing of HAC1 mRNA. Furthermore, mutant strains (Delta ire1 and Delta hac1) unable to induce the UPR are hypersensitive to Cd(2+), but not to arsenite and mercury. The full functionality of the pathways involved in ER stress response is required for Cd(2+) tolerance. The data also suggest that Cd(2+)-induced ER stress and Cd(2+) toxicity are a direct consequence of Cd(2+) accumulation in the ER. Cd(2+) does not inhibit disulfide bond formation but perturbs calcium metabolism. In particular, Cd(2+) activates the calcium channel Cch1/Mid1, which also contributes to Cd(2+) entry into the cell. The results reinforce the interest of using yeast as a cellular model to study toxicity mechanisms in eukaryotic cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CadA is a membrane protein of the P-type ATPase family which is the major determinant of the resistance to Cd2+ in Listeria monocytogenes. During its catalytic cycle, CadA undergoes auto-phosphorylation from ATP at Asp398, which allows Cd2+ translocation across the membrane. In the reverse mode, Asp398 is phosphorylated from Pi. From the data obtained so far, the CadA catalytic mechanism is similar to that proposed for the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, the model of the P-type ATPase family. We show here that CadA is sensitive to two different ranges of Cd2+ concentration. The 0.1-10 microM range of added CdCl2 corresponds to Cd2+ binding at the transport site of unphosphorylated CadA which induces the reaction of the enzyme with ATP and impairs its reaction with Pi. The 0.1-1 mM range of added CdCl2 could correspond to Cd2+ binding to the transport site accessible from the extracellular medium. In addition, although it is widely accepted that the actual substrate of P-type ATPases is the MgATP complex, we show here that CadA can also perform its cycle in the absence of Mg2+, using CdATP in the place of MgATP at the catalytic site.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CadA, the Cd(2+)-ATPase from Listeria monocytogenes, belongs to the Zn(2+)/Cd(2+)/Pb(2+)-ATPase bacterial subfamily of P(1B)-ATPases that ensure detoxification of the bacteria. Whereas it is the major determinant of Listeria resistance to Cd(2+), CadA expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae severely decreases yeast tolerance to Cd(2+) (Wu, C. C., Bal, N., Pérard, J., Lowe, J., Boscheron, C., Mintz, E., and Catty, P. (2004) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 324, 1034-1040). This phenotype, which reflects in vivo Cd(2+)-transport activity, was used to select from 33 point mutations, shared out among the eight transmembrane (TM) segments of CadA, those that affect the activity of the protein. Six mutations affecting CadA were found: M149A in TM3; E164A in TM4; C354A, P355A, and C356A in TM6; and D692A in TM8. Functional studies of the six mutants produced in Sf9 cells revealed that Cys(354) and Cys(356) in TM6 as well as Asp(692) in TM8 and Met(149) in TM3 could participate at the Cd(2+)-binding site(s). In the canonical Cys-Pro-Cys motif of P(1B)-ATPases, the two cysteines act at distinct steps in the transport mechanism, Cys(354) being directly involved in Cd(2+) binding, while Cys(356) seems to be required for Cd(2+) occlusion. This confirms an earlier observation that the two equivalent Cys of Ccc2, the yeast Cu(+)-ATPase, also act at different steps. In TM4, Glu(164), which is conserved among P(1B)-ATPases, may be required for Cd(2+) release. Finally, analysis of the role of Cd(2+) in the phosphorylation from ATP and from P(i) of the mutants suggests that two Cd(2+) ions are involved in the reaction cycle of CadA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2006; 281(40):29533-41. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In bacteria, P1-type ATPases are responsible for resistance to di- and monovalent toxic heavy metals by taking them out of the cell. These ATPases have a cytoplasmic N terminus comprising metal binding domains defined by a betaalphabetabetaalphabeta fold and a CXXC metal binding motif. To check how the structural properties of the metal binding site in the N terminus can influence the metal specificity of the ATPase, the first structure of a Cd(II)-ATPase N terminus was determined by NMR and its coordination sphere was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A novel metal binding environment was found, comprising the two conserved Cys residues of the metal binding motif and a Glu in loop 5. A bioinformatic search identifies an ensemble of highly homologous sequences presumably with the same function. Another group of highly homologous sequences is found which can be referred to as zinc-detoxifying P1-type ATPases with the metal binding pattern DCXXC in the N terminus. Because no carboxylate groups participate in Cu(I) or Ag(I) binding sites, we suggest that the acidic residue plays a key role in the coordination properties of divalent cations, hence conferring a function to the N terminus in the metal specificity of the ATPase.
Journal of Molecular Biology 03/2006; 356(3):638-50. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CadA, the P1-type ATPase involved in Listeria monocytogenes resistance to Cd(2+), was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and did just the opposite to what was expected, as it strikingly decreased the Cd(2+) tolerance of these cells. Yeast cells expressing the non-functional mutant Asp(398)Ala could grow on selective medium containing up to 100 microM Cd(2+), whereas those expressing the functional protein could not grow in the presence of 1 microM Cd(2+). The CadA-GFP fusion protein was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, suggesting that yeast hyper-sensitivity was due to Cd(2+) accumulation in the reticulum lumen. CadA is also known to transport Zn(2+), but Zn(2+) did not protect the cells against Cd(2+) poisoning. In the presence of 10 microM Cd(2+), transformed yeasts survived by rapid loss of their expression vector.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2004; 324(3):1034-40. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ccc2p is homologous to the human Menkes and Wilson copper ATPases and is herein studied as a model for human copper transport. Most studies to date have sought to understand how mutations in the human Menkes or Wilson genes impair copper homeostasis and induce disease. Here we analyze whether eight conserved amino acids of the transmembrane domain are important for copper transport. Wild-type Ccc2p and variants were expressed in a ccc2-Delta yeast strain to check whether they were able to restore copper transport by complementation. Wild-type Ccc2p and variants were also expressed in Sf9 cells using baculovirus to study their enzymatic properties on membrane preparations. The latter system allowed us to measure a copper-activated ATPase activity of about 20 nmol/mg/min for the wild-type Ccc2p at 37 degrees C. None of the variants was as efficient as the wild type in restoring copper homeostasis. The mutation of each cysteine of the (583)CPC(585) motif into a serine resulted in nonfunctional proteins that could not restore copper homeostasis in yeast and had no ATPase activity. Phosphorylation by ATP was still possible with the C583S variant, although it was not possible with the C585S variant, suggesting that the cysteines of the CPC motif have a different role in copper transport. Cys(583) would be necessary for copper dissociation and/or enzyme dephosphorylation and Cys(585) would be necessary for ATP phosphorylation, suggesting a role in copper binding.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2004; 279(25):25986-94. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CadA, the Cd(2+)-ATPase of Listeria monocytogenes, contains four cysteine residues: two in the CTNC (Cys-Thr-Asn-Cys) sequence in the cytoplasmic metal-binding domain (MBD), and two in the CPC (Cys-Pro-Cys) sequence in the membrane domain. Taking advantage of DeltaMBD, a truncated version of CadA that lacks the MBD but which still acts as a functional Cd(2+)-ATPase [Bal, Mintz, Guillain and Catty (2001) FEBS Lett. 506, 249-252], we analysed the role of the membrane cysteine residues (studied using DeltaMBD) separately from that of the cysteine residues of the MBD, which were studied using full-length CadA. The role of the cysteines was assessed by reacting DeltaMBD and CadA with N -ethylmaleimide (NEM), an SH-specific reagent, in the presence or absence of Cd(2+). We show here that (i) in both DeltaMBD and CadA, the cysteine residues in the CPC motif are essential for phosphorylation; (ii) in both proteins, Cd(2+) protects against alkylation by NEM; and (iii) in the absence of Cd(2+), the MBD of CadA also protects against alkylation by NEM. Our results suggest that the CPC motif is present in the membrane Cd(2+) transport site(s) and that the MBD protects these site(s).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using the baculovirus/Sf9 expression system, we produced CadA and DeltaMBD, a metal-binding domain, truncated CadA. Both proteins had the expected properties of P-type ATPases: ATP-induced Cd2+ accumulation, Cd2+-sensitive ATP and Pi phosphorylation and ATPase activity. DeltaMBD displayed lower initial transport velocity as well as lower maximal ATPase activity than CadA. MBD truncation flattened the Cd2+ dependence of the ATPase activity and increased apparent Cd2+ affinity, suggesting a positive cooperativity between MBD and membranous transport sites. We propose that occupancy of MBD by Cd2+ modulates CadA activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe here a protocol to prepare milligrams of active and stable heterologous sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (Serca1a). Serca1a was tagged with 6 histidines at its C-terminal end and overexpressed using the baculovirus-Sf9 system. In a first trial, Serca1a accounted for 24% of membrane proteins, 95% of which were inactive. Glucose in the culture medium reduced the production of Serca1a to 3 to 5% of membrane proteins and all Serca1a was active. Seventy-five percent of active Serca1a was solubilized by C12E8 in the presence of phosphatidylcholine under conditions avoiding denaturation. Purification by Ni2+-nitrilo-triacetic acid affinity chromatography was tried, but only 3% of active Serca1a remained bound to the column, as if the His-tag were not accessible. Yields of 43% were reached by purification on reactive red 120 columns when eluting with 2 M NaCl. The purity was about 25% and Serca1a was stable for at least 1 week at 0°C. Typically, 500 ml of culture medium produced 3 mg of active Serca1a and 1 mg of purified active Serca1a allowing measurements of phosphoenzyme (2 nmol/mg) or Ca2+ affinity (2 μM at pH 7).
Protein Expression and Purification 08/2001; · 1.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SERCA1a, the fast-twitch skeletal muscle isoform of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, was expressed in yeast using the promoter of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Golgi PMR1 Ca(2+)-ATPase and the vacuole PMC1 Ca(2+)-ATPase function together in Ca2+ sequestration and Ca2+ tolerance. SERCA1a expression restored growth of pmc1 mutants in media containing high Ca2+ concentrations, consistent with increased Ca2+ uptake in an internal compartment. SERCA1a expression also prevented synthetic lethality of pmr1 pmc1 double mutants on standard media. Electron microscopy and subcellular fractionation analysis showed that SERCA1a was localized in intracellular membranes derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, we found that SERCA1a ATPase activity expressed in yeast was regulated by calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphoprotein phosphatase. This result indicates that calcineurin contributes to calcium homeostasis by modulating the ATPase activity of Ca2+ pumps localized in intra-cellular compartments.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The yeast Ca2+ adenosine triphosphatase Pmr1, located in medial-Golgi, has been implicated in intracellular transport of Ca2+ and Mn2+ ions. We show here that addition of Mn2+ greatly alleviates defects of pmr1 mutants in N-linked and O-linked protein glycosylation. In contrast, accurate sorting of carboxypeptidase Y (CpY) to the vacuole requires a sufficient supply of intralumenal Ca2+. Most remarkably, pmr1 mutants are also unable to degrade CpY*, a misfolded soluble endoplasmic reticulum protein, and display phenotypes similar to mutants defective in the stress response to malfolded endoplasmic reticulum proteins. Growth inhibition of pmr1 mutants on Ca2+-deficient media is overcome by expression of other Ca2+ pumps, including a SERCA-type Ca2+ adenosine triphosphatase from rabbit, or by Vps10, a sorting receptor guiding non-native luminal proteins to the vacuole. Our analysis corroborates the dual function of Pmr1 in Ca2+ and Mn2+ transport and establishes a novel role of this secretory pathway pump in endoplasmic reticulum-associated processes.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 06/1998; 9(5):1149-62. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of sixteen open reading frames encoding for P-type ATPases have been identified in the complete genome sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Phylogenetic analysis distinguishes 6 distinct families. Topology predictions, identification of aminoacid sequence motifs and phenotype analysis of the available mutants suggest that these families correspond to ATPases transporting either H+ (2 members), Ca2+ (2 members), Na+ (3 members), heavy metals (2 members), possibly aminophospholipids (5 members including 4 new ones) or unknown substrates (2 new members). It is proposed that the latter family which has homologs in Tetrahymena thermophila, Plasmodium falciparum and Caenorhabditis elegans constitutes a new group called P4-ATPases with characteristic topology and aminoacid signatures.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcium is an essential second messenger in yeast metabolism and physiology. So far, only four genes coding for calcium translocating ATPases had been discovered in yeast. The recent completion of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome allowed us to identify six new putative Ca(++)-ATPases encoding genes. Protein sequence homology analysis and phylogenetic classification of all putative Ca(++)-ATPase gene products from the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe reveal three clusters of homologous proteins. Two of them comprises seven proteins which might belong to a new class of P-type ATPases of unknown subcellular location and of unknown physiological function.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The SNQ2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which encodes an ATP binding cassette protein responsible for resistance to the mutagen 4-nitroquinoline oxide, is regulated by the DNA-binding proteins PDR1 and PDR3. In a plasma membrane-enriched fraction from a pdr1 mutant, the SNQ2 protein is found in the 160-kDa over-expressed band, together with PDR5. The SNQ2 protein was solubilized with n-dodecyl beta-D-maltoside from the plasma membranes of a PDR5-deleted strain and separated from the PMA1 H(+/-)ATPase by sucrose gradient centrifugation. The enzyme shows a nucleoside triphosphatase activity that differs biochemically from that of PDR5 (Decottignies, A., Kolaczkowski, M., Balzi, E., and Goffeau, A. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 12797-12803) and is sensitive to vanadate, erythrosine B, and Triton X-100 but not to oligomycin, which inhibits the PDR5 activity only. Disruption of both PDR5 and SNQ2 in a pdr1 mutant decreases the cell growth rate and reveals the presence of at least two other ATP binding cassette proteins in the 160-kDa overexpressed band that have been identified by amino-terminal microsequencing.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/1995; 270(30):18150-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A small proteolipid called PMP1 is associated with yeast plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (Navarre, C., Ghislain, M., Leterme, S., Ferroud, C., Dufour, J.-P., and Goffeau, A. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 6425-6428). We have identified a second Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membrane proteolipid gene by hybridization with a PMP1 probe. The sequence of the corresponding gene, called PMP2, is 92% identical to the PMP1 gene sequence. PMP2 encodes a 43-amino acid polypeptide that can be extracted from the membrane with chloroform/methanol. The two proteolipids differ at residue 21, which is an alanine in PMP1 and a serine in PMP2. The two PMP genes are similarly expressed in the wild-type strain, and no modification of the level of transcription of one PMP gene is detected in a strain deleted of the other. A regulatory function of the proteolipids is indicated by the observation that a strain lacking both PMP genes and no longer containing plasma membrane proteolipids displays a lower Vmax of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/1994; 269(33):21262-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor