[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer patient navigation (PN) programs have been shown to increase access to and utilization of cancer care for poor and underserved individuals. Despite mounting evidence of its value, cancer patient navigation is not universally understood or provided. We describe five PN programs and the range of tasks their navigators provide across the cancer care continuum (education and outreach, screening, diagnosis and staging, treatment, survivorship, and end-of-life). Tasks are organized by their potential to make cancer services understandable, available, accessible, affordable, appropriate, and accountable. Although navigators perform similar tasks across the five programs, their specific approaches reflect differences in community culture, context, program setting, and funding. Task lists can inform the development of programs, job descriptions, training, and evaluation. They also may be useful in the move to certify navigators and establish mechanisms for reimbursement for navigation services.
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 02/2012; 23(1):398-413. · 1.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We identified key elements required for a training curriculum for Southeast Asian community-based health navigators (CBHNs), who help low-income, immigrant Cambodian, Laotian, Thai, and Vietnamese women negotiate cultural and systemic barriers to breast cancer screening and care in the United States.
We gathered the perspectives of 3 groups: CBHNs, community members, and their providers. We conducted 16 focus groups with 110 women representing different stages of the cancer care continuum and in-depth interviews with 15 providers and 10 navigators to identify the essential roles, skills, and interpersonal qualities that characterize successful CBHNs.
The most important areas identified for training CBHNs were information (e.g., knowing pertinent medical information and how to navigate resources), logistics (transportation, interpretation), and affective interpersonal skills (understanding the language and cultural beliefs of patients, communicating with providers, establishing trust).
CBHNs serve a crucial role in building trust and making screening practices culturally meaningful, accessible, usable, and acceptable. Future research should focus on developing training curricula, policies, resources, and funding to better maximize the expertise and services that CBHNs provide and to expand our findings to other underserved communities.
American Journal of Public Health 11/2010; 101(1):87-93. · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast and cervical cancers are the second and fourth leading causes of cancer death among Asian and Pacific Islander women. Despite screening exams that can detect these cancers early and increase survival, racial and ethnic populations continue to be disproportionately affected. This study examined the sources of information and their impacts on cancer screening compliance among native Hawaiians in Orange County, California. A community-based participatory research approach was used to conceive, design, implement, and analyze data. A relatively small proportion of the study's native Hawaiian women were compliant with recommended breast and cervical cancer screenings, and their screening rates were below the national Healthy People 2010 standards. Knowledge of screening procedures, seeking advice from a doctor, and obtaining information from internet medical sites were associated with higher rates of compliance with cancer-screening procedures.
Journal of Cancer Education 03/2010; 25(4):588-94. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined whether the impact of medical interpretation services was associated with the receipt of a mammogram, clinical breast exam, and Pap smear. We conducted a large cross-sectional study involving four Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities with high proportions of individuals with limited English proficiency (LEP). Participants were recruited from community clinics, churches and temples, supermarkets, and other community gathering sites in Northern and Southern California. Among those that responded, 98% completed the survey rendering a total of 1,708 AAPI women. In a series of multivariate logistic regression models, it was found that women who typically used a medical interpreter had a greater odds of having received a mammogram (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21, 2.83), clinical breast exam (OR = 3.03; 95% CI = 1.82, 5.03), and a Pap smear (OR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.38, 3.97) than those who did not usually use an interpreter. The study provides support for increasing language access in healthcare settings. In particular, medical interpreters may help increase the utilization of breast and cervical cancer screening among LEP AAPI women.
Journal of Cancer Education 03/2010; 25(2):253-62. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) groups have low rates of breast and cervical cancer screening. This study examined knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KABs) regarding breast and cervical cancer on AAPI women. A cross-sectional survey of 1,808 AAPI women was included. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were provided and 55.3%, 68.6%, and 71.9% had received mammograms, clinical breast exam, and Pap smears, respectively. KABs on breast and cervical cancer varied between the four ethnic groups. Understanding the KABs toward cancer screening among AAPI women holds promise for identifying barriers to early detection and could aid in the creation of interventions.
Journal of Cancer Education 03/2010; 25(4):595-601. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined trends in smoking prevalence from 2002 through 2006 in 4 Asian communities served by the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) intervention.
Annual survey data from 2002 through 2006 were gathered in 4 REACH Asian communities. Trends in the age-standardized prevalence of current smoking for men in 2 Vietnamese communities, 1 Cambodian community, and 1 Asian American/Pacific Islander (API) community were examined and compared with nationwide US and state-specific data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
Prevalence of current smoking decreased dramatically among men in REACH communities. The reduction rate was significantly greater than that observed in the general US or API male population, and it was greater than reduction rates observed in the states in which REACH communities were located. There was little change in the quit ratio of men at the state and national levels, but there was a significant increase in quit ratios in the REACH communities, indicating increases in the proportions of smokers who had quit smoking.
Smoking prevalence decreased in Asian communities served by the REACH project, and these decreases were larger than nationwide decreases in smoking prevalence observed for the same period. However, disparities in smoking prevalence remain a concern among Cambodian men and non-English-speaking Vietnamese men; these subgroups continue to smoke at a higher rate than do men nationwide.
American Journal of Public Health 03/2010; 100(5):853-60. · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Pacific Islander (PI) community suffers disproportionately from illnesses and diseases, including diabetes, heart disease and cancer. While there are tremendous health needs within the PI community, there are few health care providers from the community that exist to help address these particular needs. Many efforts have focused on health care workforce diversity to reduce and eliminate health disparities, but few have examined the issues faced in the health care work force pipeline. Understanding educational attainment among PI young adults is pivotal in speaking to a diverse health care workforce where health disparities among Pacific Islanders (PIs) may be addressed. This paper provides an in-depth, qualitative assessment of the various environmental, structural, socio-economic, and social challenges that prevent PIs from attaining higher education; it also discusses the various needs of PI young adults as they relate to psychosocial support, retention and recruitment, and health career knowledge and access. This paper represents a local, Southern California, assessment of PI young adults regarding educational access barriers. We examine how these barriers impact efforts to address health disparities and look at opportunities for health and health-related professionals to reduce and care for the high burden of illnesses and diseases in PI communities.
Californian Journal of Health PromotionCancer Control). 01/2010;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: We describe the development of a community and academic research partnership, share reflections on processes for collaborations, and identify key factors for establishing strong and effective relationships to foster high-quality research. Background: A community-based participatory research (CBPR) effort evaluating a community-based patient navigation program assisting Chamorro women to access breast cancer services in Southern California served as the foundation for the development of the community-academic partnership. Methods: Using a CBPR approach focusing on active involvement of community members, organizational representatives, and academic researchers in all aspects of research process, faculty from a research university and a local community-based organization were brought together to build a partnership. Community and academic partners engaged in a series of meetings where dialogue focused on developing and nurturing trust and shared values, respect for community knowledge, and establishing community-defined and prioritized needs and goals. Partners have also focused on defining and developing explicit structures and policies to implement an equal partnership. Results: Experiences and lessons learned are shared, reflecting the processes of relationship building, and planning and implementing preliminary research steps. Lessons Learned: Adequate time for relationship-building, open and honest communication, flexibility, and ongoing examination of assumptions are keys to developing successful CBPR partnerships.
J. / Californian Journal of Health PromotionCancer Control). 01/2010;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing and vaccination levels and factors associated with testing and vaccination among Vietnamese- and Cambodian-Americans. We also examined factors associated with healthcare professional (HCP)-patient discussions about HBV. We analyzed 2006 Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 Risk Factor Survey data from four US communities. We used logistic regression to identify variables associated with HBV vaccination, testing, and HCP-patient discussions about HBV. Of the 2,049 Vietnamese- and Cambodian-American respondents, 60% reported being tested for HBV, 35% reported being vaccinated against hepatitis B, and 36% indicated that they had discussed HBV with a HCP. Cambodian-Americans were less likely than Vietnamese-Americans to have been tested for HBV, while respondents with at least a high school diploma were more likely to have been tested for HBV. Respondents born in the US, younger individuals, and respondents with at least some college education were more likely to have been vaccinated against hepatitis B. HBV testing and vaccination remain suboptimal among members of these populations. Culturally sensitive efforts that target Vietnamese- and Cambodian-Americans for HBV testing and vaccination are needed to identify chronic carriers of HBV, prevent new infections, and provide appropriate medical management. HCPs that serve these populations should be encouraged to discuss HBV with their patients.
Journal of Community Health 03/2009; 34(3):173-80. · 1.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Addressing cancer health disparities constitutes a national priority in this country, with funding for Pacific Islander efforts initiated 7 years ago by the National Cancer Institute. In 2005, the Weaving an Islander Network for Cancer Awareness, Research and Training (WINCART) was launched in Southern California by a collaboration of community and university organizations to build upon past efforts to decrease cancer health disparities for Chamorros, Native Hawaiians, Marshallese, Samoans and Tongans.
To assess community organizational capacity to participate in collaborative cancer control for Pacific Islanders, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis was undertaken. Two staff members per community organization (CBO) performed the SWOT analyses, with grids analyzed for commonalities and differences between all organizations.
Staff informants provided many examples of what they perceived as organizational strengths and weaknesses with regards to promoting cancer control for their respective Pacific Islander populations. CBO strengths included strong leadership and extensive community experience. Challenges included limited resources, lack of staff skills in some areas, and difficulty in recruiting volunteers. In addition, many external opportunities and threats to cancer control promotion were identified.
Results from the SWOT analyses have been used to identify topics for community organizational trainings and supports within WINCART, with the goals of increasing their participation in the development and implementation of collaborative, community-university driven efforts to decrease cancer disparities for Pacific Islanders in Southern California.
Cancer Detection and Prevention 02/2008; 32 Suppl 1:S37-40. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Community-based participatory research (CPBR) represents a growing research approach for addressing health disparities disfavoring members of racial/ethnic minorities and other underserved populations in the U.S. While such endeavors are often guided by explicit principles regarding the relationships between communities and universities, few studies have reported on the development or strength of such relationships. This paper describes the methods and preliminary results of a cross-sectional analysis of the ties between community and university organizations in a CBPR network to address cancer disparities between Pacific Islanders in Southern California and the general population. These analyses afford a means of representing the collaborative relationships and may enhance tracking improvements in CBPR links for cancer education, research, and training. Such tracking will help concerned parties understand how academic and community groups collaborate and coordinate their efforts to reach shared and overlapping goals.
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 12/2007; 18(4 Suppl):184-96. · 1.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer is a leading cause of death for Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States, but education and research efforts addressing the needs ofPacific Islanders in the continental U.S. is sparse. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a community-based participatory research network dedicated to addressing cancer health disparities among Chamorros, Marshallese, Native Hawaiians, Samoans and Tongans in Southern California. Community-based organizations (CBO) comprise the focus of the network, and their efforts have included increasing cancer-related awareness in their communities, developing capacities regarding cancer control, and initiating collaborative research efforts with academic partners. First year processes and outcomes are described, and specific examples are given from two CBO partners.
Pacific health dialog: a publication of the Pacific Basin Officers Training Program and the Fiji School of Medicine 03/2007; 14(1):119-27.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, there has been a growing number of programs employing health navigators to assist underserved individuals in overcoming barriers to obtaining regular and quality health care. This article describes the perspectives and experiences of community-based health navigators in the Cambodian and Laotian communities involved in a REACH 2010 project to reduce health disparities in breast and cervical cancer among Pacific Islander and Southeast Asian communities in California. These community health navigators, who have extensive training and knowledge about the cultural, historical, and structural needs and resources of their communities, are well equipped to build trusting relationships with community members traditionally ignored by the mainstream medical system. By comparing the different social support roles and intervention strategies employed by community health navigators in diverse communities, we can better understand how these valuable change agents of the health workforce are effective in improving health access and healthy behaviors for underserved communities.
Health Promotion Practice 01/2007; 9(4):356-67. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No data exists on the breast and cervical cancer screening practices among Cambodian, Laotian, Thai, and Tongan women. In this article, we describe the efforts required to conduct a baseline survey among these non-English-speaking women using the participatory action research (PAR) approach.
We tailored small population sampling techniques to each of the populations in partnership with Community Health Outreach workers.
A total of 1825 surveys were successfully conducted in 8 communities.
PAR and the culturally based techniques used to conduct the survey proved successful in maintaining scientific rigor, developing true community-researcher partnership, and achieving over 99% participation.
Journal of Cancer Education 02/2006; 21(1 Suppl):S53-60. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the last 25 years, numerous studies have been conducted to promote breast cancer and cervical cancer screening. Most of these studies focused on individual-level factors predicting screening, but we are unaware of any that directly examined community and ecological influences. The goal of this project, Promoting Access to Health for Pacific Islander and Southeast Asian Women (PATH for Women), was to increase community capacity for breast and cervical cancer screening and follow up in Los Angeles and Orange counties. We focused on Southeast Asian and Pacific Islander women because, although they have the lowest rates for cancer, compared to all other ethnic groups, relatively few programs have specifically targeted Asian-American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women to promote and sustain screening practices. The PATH for Women project involved a partnership between 5 community-based organizations and 2 universities, and included 7 Asian-American and Pacific Islander communities: Cambodians, Chamorros, Laotians, Thais, Tongans, Samoans, and Vietnamese. In this paper, we share our experiences in developing a Geographic Information System (GIS)-mapping evaluation component that was used to explore availability and accessibility to culturally responsive breast and cervical cancer screening services for Southeast Asian and Pacific Islander women in all 7 communities. We describe the methods used to develop the maps, and present the preliminary findings that demonstrate significant geographic and language barriers to accessing healthcare providers, services for breast and cervical cancer screening, and follow up, in each of the communities. Finally, we discuss implications for programs designed to promote breast and cervical screening and policy education.